Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 10

10
10009531
Delamination Fracture Toughness Benefits of Inter-Woven Plies in Composite Laminates Produced through Automated Fibre Placement
Abstract:
An automated fibre placement method has been developed to build through-thickness reinforcement into carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates during their production, with the goal of increasing delamination fracture toughness while circumventing the additional costs and defects imposed by post-layup stitching and z-pinning. Termed ‘inter-weaving’, the method uses custom placement sequences of thermoset prepreg tows to distribute regular fibre link regions in traditionally clean ply interfaces. Inter-weaving’s impact on mode I delamination fracture toughness was evaluated experimentally through double cantilever beam tests (ASTM standard D5528-13) on [±15°]9 laminates made from Park Electrochemical Corp. E-752-LT 1/4” carbon fibre prepreg tape. Unwoven and inter-woven automated fibre placement samples were compared to those of traditional laminates produced from standard uni-directional plies of the same material system. Unwoven automated fibre placement laminates were found to suffer a mostly constant 3.5% decrease in mode I delamination fracture toughness compared to flat uni-directional plies. Inter-weaving caused significant local fracture toughness increases (up to 50%), though these were offset by a matching overall reduction. These positive and negative behaviours of inter-woven laminates were respectively found to be caused by fibre breakage and matrix deformation at inter-weave sites, and the 3D layering of inter-woven ply interfaces providing numerous paths of least resistance for crack propagation.
9
10006652
Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method
Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.

8
10004481
Tensile and Fracture Properties of Cast and Forged Composite Synthesized by Addition of in-situ Generated Al3Ti-Al2O3 Particles to Magnesium
Abstract:

TiO2 particles have been added in molten aluminium to result in aluminium based cast Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite, which has been added then to molten magnesium to synthesize magnesium based cast Mg-Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite. The nominal compositions in terms of Mg, Al, and TiO2 contents in the magnesium based composites are Mg-9Al-0.6TiO2, Mg-9Al-0.8TiO2, Mg-9Al-1.0TiO2 and Mg-9Al-1.2TiO2 designated respectively as MA6T, MA8T, MA10T and MA12T. The microstructure of the cast magnesium based composite shows grayish rods of intermetallics Al3Ti, inherited from aluminium based composite but these rods, on hot forging, breaks into smaller lengths decreasing the average aspect ratio (length to diameter) from 7.5 to 3.0. There are also cavities in between the broken segments of rods. β-phase in cast microstructure, Mg17Al12, dissolves during heating prior to forging and re-precipitates as relatively finer particles on cooling. The amount of β-phase also decreases on forging as segregation is removed. In both the cast and forged composite, the Brinell hardness increases rapidly with increasing addition of TiO2 but the hardness is higher in forged composites by about 80 BHN. With addition of higher level of TiO2 in magnesium based cast composite, yield strength decreases progressively but there is marginal increase in yield strength over that of the cast Mg-9 wt. pct. Al, designated as MA alloy. But the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in the cast composites decreases with the increasing particle content indicating possibly an early initiation of crack in the brittle inter-dendritic region and their easy propagation through the interfaces of the particles. In forged composites, there is a significant improvement in both yield strength and UTS with increasing TiO2 addition and also, over those observed in their cast counterpart, but at higher addition it decreases. It may also be noted that as in forged MA alloy, incomplete recovery of forging strain increases the strength of the matrix in the composites and the ductility decreases both in the forged alloy and the composites. Initiation fracture toughness, JIC, decreases drastically in cast composites compared to that in MA alloy due to the presence of intermetallic Al3Ti and Al2O3 particles in the composite. There is drastic reduction of JIC on forging both in the alloy and the composites, possibly due to incomplete recovery of forging strain in both as well as breaking of Al3Ti rods and the voids between the broken segments of Al3Ti rods in composites. The ratio of tearing modulus to elastic modulus in cast composites show higher ratio, which increases with the increasing TiO2 addition. The ratio decreases comparatively more on forging of cast MA alloy than those in forged composites.

7
10004318
Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface
Abstract:

By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard. 

6
9999493
Carbide Structure and Fracture Toughness of High Speed Tool Steels
Abstract:

In the present study, M2 high speed steels were fabricated by using electro-slag rapid remelting process. Carbide structure was analysed and the fracture toughness and hardness were also measured after austenitization treatment at 1190 and 1210oC followed by tempering treatment at 535oC for billets with various diameters from 16 to 60 mm. Electro-slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process is an advanced ESR process combined by continuous casting and successfully employed in this study to fabricate a sound M2 high speed ingot. Three other kinds of commercial M2 high speed steels, produced by traditional method, were also analysed for comparison. Distribution and structure of eutectic carbides of the ESRR billet were found to be comparable to those of commercial alloy and so was the fracture toughness.

5
9999514
Mechanical Properties of 3D Noninterlaced Cf/SiC Composites Prepared through Hybrid Process (CVI+PIP)
Abstract:

Three dimensional non-Interlaced carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide (3-D-Cf/SiC) composites with pyrocarbon interphase were fabricated using isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI) combined with polymer impregnation pyrolysis (PIP) process. Polysilazane (PSZ) is used as a preceramic polymer to obtain silicon carbide matrix. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Infrared spectroscopic analysis (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out on PSZ pyrolysed at different temperatures to understand the pyrolysis and obtaining the optimum pyrolysing condition to yield β-SiC phase. The density of the composites was 1.94 g cm-3 after the 3-D carbon preform was SiC infiltrated for 280 h with one intermediate polysilazane pre-ceramic PIP process. Mechanical properties of the composite materials were investigated under tensile, flexural, shear and impact loading. The values of tensile strength were 200 MPa at room temperature (RT) and 195 MPa at 500°C in air. The average RT flexural strength was 243 MPa. The lower flexural strength of these composites is because of the porosity. The fracture toughness obtained from single edge notched beam (SENB) technique was 39 MPa.m1/2. The work of fracture obtained from the load-displacement curve of SENB test was 22.8 kJ.m-2. The composites exhibited excellent impact resistance and the dynamic fracture toughness of 44.8 kJ.m-2 is achieved as determined from instrumented Charpy impact test. The shear strength of the composite was 93 MPa, which is significantly higher compared 2-D Cf/SiC composites. Microstructure evaluation of fracture surfaces revealed the signatures of fracture processes and showed good support for the higher toughness obtained.

4
10644
Ductile Crack Growth in Surface Cracked Pressure Vessels
Abstract:
Pressure vessels are usually operating at temperatures where the conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics are no longer met because massive plasticity precedes crack propagation. In this work the development of a surface crack in a pressure vessel subject to bending and tension under elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions was investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the hydrostatic stress, the J-integral and crack growth for semi-elliptical surface-breaking cracks. The results showed non-uniform stress triaxiality and crack driving force around the crack front at large deformation levels. Different ductile crack extensions were observed which emphasis the dependent of ductile tearing on crack geometry and type of loading. In bending the crack grew only beneath the surface, and growth was suppressed at the deepest segment. This contrasts to tension where the crack breaks through the thickness with uniform growth along the entire crack front except at the free surface. Current investigations showed that the crack growth developed under linear elastic fracture mechanics conditions will no longer be applicable under ductile tearing scenarios.
3
1996
The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development
Abstract:
The development of shape and size of a crack in a pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.
2
14546
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Dissimilar Metal Weldment of Stainless Steel and Carbon Steel
Abstract:
Constant amplitude fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests were performed on dissimilar metal welded plates of Type 316L Stainless Steel (SS) and IS 2062 Grade A Carbon steel (CS). The plates were welded by TIG welding using SS E309 as electrode. FCG tests were carried on the Side Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimens of 5 mm thickness, with crack initiator (notch) at base metal region (BM), weld metal region (WM) and heat affected zones (HAZ). The tests were performed at a test frequency of 10 Hz and at load ratios (R) of 0.1 & 0.6. FCG rate was found to increase with stress ratio for weld metals and base metals, where as in case of HAZ, FCG rates were almost equal at high ΔK. FCG rate of HAZ of stainless steel was found to be lowest at low and high ΔK. At intermediate ΔK, WM showed the lowest FCG rate. CS showed higher crack growth rate at all ΔK. However, the scatter band of data was found to be narrow. Fracture toughness (Kc) was found to vary in different locations of weldments. Kc was found lowest for the weldment and highest for HAZ of stainless steel. A novel method of characterizing the FCG behavior using an Infrared thermography (IRT) camera was attempted. By monitoring the temperature rise at the fast moving crack tip region, the amount of plastic deformation was estimated.
1
4472
Experimental Estimation of Mixed-Mode Fracture Properties of Steel Weld
Abstract:
The modified Arcan fixture was used in order to investigate the mixed mode fracture properties of high strength steel butt weld through experimental and numerical analysis. The fixture consisted of a central section with "butterfly-shaped" specimen that had central crack. The specimens were under pure mode I (opening), pure mode II (shearing) and all in plane mixed mode loading angles starting from 0 to 90 degrees. The geometric calibration factors were calculated with the aid of finite element analysis for various loading mode and different crack length (0.45≤ a/w ≤0.55) and the critical fracture loads obtained experimentally. The critical fracture toughness (KIC & KIIC) estimated with experimental and numerical analysis under mixed mode loading conditions.
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