A Recommendation to Oncologists for Cancer Treatment by Immunotherapy: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis
Today, the treatment of cancer, in a relatively short
period, with minimum adverse effects is a great concern for
oncologists. In this paper, based on a recently used mathematical
model for cancer, a guideline has been proposed for the amount
and duration of drug doses for cancer treatment by immunotherapy.
Dynamically speaking, the mathematical ordinary differential
equation (ODE) model of cancer has different equilibrium points;
one of them is unstable, which is called the no tumor equilibrium
point. In this paper, based on the number of tumor cells an
intelligent soft computing controller (a combination of fuzzy logic
controller and genetic algorithm), decides regarding the amount
and duration of drug doses, to eliminate the tumor cells and
stabilize the unstable point in a relatively short time. Two different
immunotherapy approaches; active and adoptive, have been studied
and presented. It is shown that the rate of decay of tumor cells is
faster and the doses of drug are lower in comparison with the result
of some other literatures. It is also shown that the period of
treatment and the doses of drug in adoptive immunotherapy are
significantly less than the active method. A recommendation to
oncologists has also been presented.
Fuzzy Control of Thermally Isolated Greenhouse Building by Utilizing Underground Heat Exchanger and Outside Weather Conditions
A traditional greenhouse is a metal frame agricultural building used for cultivation plants in a controlled environment isolated from external climatic changes. Using greenhouses in agriculture is an efficient way to reduce the water consumption, where agriculture field is considered the biggest water consumer world widely. Controlling greenhouse environment yields better productivity of plants but demands an increase of electric power. Although various control approaches have been used towards greenhouse automation, most of them are applied to traditional greenhouses with ventilation fans and/or evaporation cooling system. Such approaches are still demanding high energy and water consumption. The aim of this research is to develop a fuzzy control system that minimizes water and energy consumption by utilizing outside weather conditions and underground heat exchanger to maintain the optimum climate of the greenhouse. The proposed control system is implemented on an experimental model of thermally isolated greenhouse structure with dimensions of 6x5x2.8 meters. It uses fans for extracting heat from the ground heat exchanger system, motors for automatic open/close of the greenhouse windows and LED as lighting system. The controller is integrated also with environmental condition sensors. It was found that using the air-to-air horizontal ground heat exchanger with 90 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness placed 2.5 m below the ground surface results in decreasing the greenhouse temperature of 3.28 ˚C which saves around 3 kW of consumed energy. It also eliminated the water consumption needed in evaporation cooling systems which are traditionally used for cooling the greenhouse environment.
A Fuzzy Control System for Reducing Urban Stormwater Runoff by a Stormwater Storage Tank
Stormwater storage tank (SST) is a popular low impact development technology for reducing stormwater runoff in the construction of sponge city. At present, it is difficult to perform the automatic control of SST for reducing peak flow. In this paper, fuzzy control was introduced into the peak control of SST to improve the efficiency of reducing stormwater runoff. Firstly, the design of SST was investigated. A catchment area and a return period were assumed, a SST model was manufactured, and then the storage capacity of the SST was verified. Secondly, the control parameters of the SST based on reducing stormwater runoff were analyzed, and a schematic diagram of real-time control (RTC) system based on peak control SST was established. Finally, fuzzy control system of a double input (flow and water level) and double output (inlet and outlet valve) was designed. The results showed that 1) under the different return periods (one year, three years, five years), the SST had the effect of delayed peak control and storage by increasing the detention time, 2) rainfall, pipeline flow, the influent time and the water level in the SST could be used as RTC parameters, and 3) the response curves of flow velocity and water level fluctuated very little and reached equilibrium in a short time. The combination of online monitoring and fuzzy control was feasible to control the SST automatically. This paper provides a theoretical reference for reducing stormwater runoff and improving the operation efficiency of SST.
Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking
On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be used for constructing the 2D vehicle environmental map and available parking type judgment. Finally, the auto-parking controller executes the on-line optimal parking trajectory planning based on this 2D environmental map, and monitors the real-time vehicle parking trajectory tracking control. This low cost auto-parking system was tested on a model car.
Control of Underactuated Biped Robots Using Event Based Fuzzy Partial Feedback Linearization
Underactuated biped robots control is one of the interesting topics in robotics. The main difficulties are its highly nonlinear dynamics, open-loop instability, and discrete event at the end of the gait. One of the methods to control underactuated systems is the partial feedback linearization, but it is not robust against uncertainties and disturbances that restrict its performance to control biped walking and running. In this paper, fuzzy partial feedback linearization is presented to overcome its drawback. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate stable and robust biped walking and running gaits.
Performences of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control and Neuro-Fuzzy Control Based on DPC for Grid Connected DFIG with Fixed Switching Frequency
In this paper, type-2 fuzzy logic control (T2FLC) and neuro-fuzzy control (NFC) for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based on direct power control (DPC) with a fixed switching frequency is proposed for wind generation application. First, a mathematical model of the doubly-fed induction generator implemented in d-q reference frame is achieved. Then, a DPC algorithm approach for controlling active and reactive power of DFIG via fixed switching frequency is incorporated using PID. The performance of T2FLC and NFC, which is based on the DPC algorithm, are investigated and compared to those obtained from the PID controller. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the NFC is more robust, superior dynamic performance for wind power generation system applications.
Design and Implementation of a Fan Coil Unit Controller Based on the Duty Ratio Fuzzy Method
A microcontroller-based fan coil unit (FCU) fuzzy controller is designed and implemented in this paper. The controller employs the concept of duty ratio on the electric valve control, which could make full use of the cooling and dehumidifying capacity of the FCU when the valve is off. The traditional control method and its limitations are analyzed. The hardware and software design processes are introduced in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more energy efficient compared to the traditional controlling strategy. Furthermore, a more comfortable room condition could be achieved by the proposed method. The proposed low-cost FCU fuzzy controller deserves to be widely used in engineering applications.
Enhancement of MIMO H2S Gas Sweetening Separator Tower Using Fuzzy Logic Controller Array
Natural gas sweetening process is a controlled process that must be done at maximum efficiency and with the highest quality. In this work, due to complexity and non-linearity of the process, the H2S gas separation and the intelligent fuzzy controller, which is used to enhance the process, are simulated in MATLAB – Simulink. New design of fuzzy control for Gas Separator is discussed in this paper. The design is based on the utilization of linear state-estimation to generate the internal knowledge-base that stores input-output pairs. The obtained input/output pairs are then used to design a feedback fuzzy controller. The proposed closed-loop fuzzy control system maintains the system asymptotically-stability while it enhances the system time response to achieve better control of the concentration of the output gas from the tower. Simulation studies are carried out to illustrate the Gas Separator system performance.
H∞ Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy State-Derivative Feedback Control Design for Nonlinear Dynamic Systems
This paper considers an H∞ TS fuzzy state-derivative feedback controller for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. A Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model is used to approximate a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. Then, based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we design an H∞ TS fuzzy state-derivative feedback control law which guarantees L2-gain of the mapping from the exogenous input noise to the regulated output to be less or equal to a prescribed value. We derive a sufficient condition such that the system with the fuzzy controller is asymptotically stable and H∞ performance is satisfied. Finally, we provide and simulate a numerical example is provided to illustrate the stability and the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller
Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and
improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine
(ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an
electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate
independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can
operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel
consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in
input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed
gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because
it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This
research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the
two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an
internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines
(EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These
control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE
efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy
storage system in an efficient range.
Intelligent Path Tracking Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for a Unicycle-Type Differential Drive Robot
In this paper, we discuss the performance of applying
hybrid spiral dynamic bacterial chemotaxis (HSDBC) optimisation
algorithm on an intelligent controller for a differential drive robot. A
unicycle class of differential drive robot is utilised to serve as a basis
application to evaluate the performance of the HSDBC algorithm. A
hybrid fuzzy logic controller is developed and implemented for the
unicycle robot to follow a predefined trajectory. Trajectories of
various frictional profiles and levels were simulated to evaluate the
performance of the robot at different operating conditions. Controller
gains and scaling factors were optimised using HSDBC and the
performance is evaluated in comparison to previously adopted
optimisation algorithms. The HSDBC has proven its feasibility in
achieving a faster convergence toward the optimal gains and resulted
in a superior performance.
Enhance the Modeling of BLDC Motor Based on Fuzzy Logic
This paper describes a simple way to control the speed
of PMBLDC motor using Fuzzy logic control method. In the
conventional PI controller the performance of the motor system is
simulated and the speed is regulated by using PI controller. These
methods used to improve the performance of PMSM drives, but in
some cases at different operating conditions when the dynamics of
the system also vary over time and it can change the reference speed,
parameter variations and the load disturbance. The simulation is
powered with the MATLAB program to get a reliable and flexible
simulation. In order to highlight the effectiveness of the speed control
method the FLC method is used. The proposed method targeted in
achieving the improved dynamic performance and avoids the
variations of the motor drive. This drive has high accuracy, robust
operation from near zero to high speed. The effectiveness and
flexibility of the individual techniques of the speed control method
will be thoroughly discussed for merits and demerits and finally
verified through simulation and experimental results for comparative
Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure
The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.
Passenger Seat Vibration Control of Quarter Car System with MR Shock Absorber
Semi-active Fuzzy control of quarter car system having three degrees of freedom and assembled with magneto-rheological (MR) shock absorber is studied in present paper. First, experimental work was performed on an MR shock absorber under different excitation conditions to obtain force-displacement and force-velocity curves. Then, for the application of experimental data in semi-active quarter car system, a polynomial model was selected. Finally, Fuzzy logic controller was designed having the combination of Forward fuzzy controller and Inverse fuzzy controller for integration in secondary suspension system of concerned model. The proposed controlled quarter car model was compared with uncontrolled system using simulation work under bump type of road excitation. Results obtained by simulation work shows the effectiveness of fuzzy controlled suspension system in improving the ride comfort and safety of travelling passengers compared to uncontrolled suspension system.
Design of Orientation-Free Handler and Fuzzy Controller for Wire-Driven Heavy Object Lifting System
This paper presents an intention interface and controller for a wire-driven heavy object lifting system that assists the operator with moving a heavy object. The handler is designed to allow a comfortable working posture for the operator. Plus, as a human assistive system, the operator is involved in the control loop, where a fuzzy control system is used to consider the human control characteristics. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed system are proved by experiments.
Fuzzy Logic Based Active Vibration Control of Piezoelectric Stewart Platform
This paper demonstrates the potential of applying PD-like fuzzy logic controller for active vibration control of piezoelectric Stewart platforms. Through simulation, the control authority of the piezo stack actuators for effectively damping the Stewart platform vibration can be evaluated for further implementation of the system. Each leg of the piezoelectric Stewart platform consists of a linear piezo stack actuator, a collocated velocity sensor, a collocated displacement sensor and flexible tips for the connections with the two end plates. The piezoelectric stack is modeled as a bar element and the electro-mechanical coupling property is simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. Then, the open loop and closed loop dynamic responses are performed for the system to characterize the effect of the control on the vibration of the piezoelectric Stewart platform. A significant improvement in the damping of the structure can be observed by using the PD-like fuzzy controller.
Vibration Control of a Cantilever Beam Using a Tunable Vibration Absorber Embedded with ER Fluids
This paper investigates experimental studies on
vibration suppression for a cantilever beam using an
Electro-Rheological (ER) sandwich shock absorber. ER fluid (ERF) is a
class of smart materials that can undergo significant reversible changes
immediately in its rheological and mechanical properties under the
influence of an applied electric field. Firstly, an ER sandwich beam is
fabricated by inserting a starch-based ERF into a hollow composite
beam. At the same time, experimental investigations are focused on the
frequency response of the ERF sandwich beam. Second, the ERF
sandwich beam is attached to a cantilever beam to become as a shock
absorber. Finally, a fuzzy semi-active vibration control is designed to
suppress the vibration of the cantilever beam via the ERF sandwich
shock absorber. To check the consistency of the proposed fuzzy
controller, the real-time implementation validated the performance of
A New Load Frequency Controller based on Parallel Fuzzy PI with Conventional PD (FPI-PD)
The artificial intelligent controller in power system
plays as most important rule for many applications such as system
operation and its control specially Load Frequency Controller (LFC).
The main objective of LFC is to keep the frequency and tie-line power
close to their decidable bounds in case of disturbance. In this paper,
parallel fuzzy PI adaptive with conventional PD technique for Load
Frequency Control system was proposed. PSO optimization method
used to optimize both of scale fuzzy PI and tuning of PD. Two equal
interconnected power system areas were used as a test system.
Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller
compared with different PID and classical fuzzy PI controllers in terms
of speed response and damping frequency.
Improved Fuzzy Neural Modeling for Underwater Vehicles
The dynamics of the Autonomous Underwater
Vehicles (AUVs) are highly nonlinear and time varying and the hydrodynamic coefficients of vehicles are difficult to estimate
accurately because of the variations of these coefficients with
different navigation conditions and external disturbances. This study presents the on-line system identification of AUV dynamics to obtain
the coupled nonlinear dynamic model of AUV as a black box. This black box has an input-output relationship based upon on-line
adaptive fuzzy model and adaptive neural fuzzy network (ANFN)
model techniques to overcome the uncertain external disturbance and
the difficulties of modelling the hydrodynamic forces of the AUVs instead of using the mathematical model with hydrodynamic parameters estimation. The models- parameters are adapted according
to the back propagation algorithm based upon the error between the
identified model and the actual output of the plant. The proposed
ANFN model adopts a functional link neural network (FLNN) as the
consequent part of the fuzzy rules. Thus, the consequent part of the
ANFN model is a nonlinear combination of input variables. Fuzzy
control system is applied to guide and control the AUV using both
adaptive models and mathematical model. Simulation results show
the superiority of the proposed adaptive neural fuzzy network
(ANFN) model in tracking of the behavior of the AUV accurately
even in the presence of noise and disturbance.
Fuzzy Control of the Air Conditioning System at Different Operating Pressures
The present work demonstrates the design and simulation of a fuzzy control of an air conditioning system at different pressures. The first order Sugeno fuzzy inference system is utilized to model the system and create the controller. In addition, an estimation of the heat transfer rate and water mass flow rate injection into or withdraw from the air conditioning system is determined by the fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The approach starts by generating the input/output data. Then, the subtractive clustering algorithm along with least square estimation (LSE) generates the fuzzy rules that describe the relationship between input/output data. The fuzzy rules are tuned by Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The results show that when the pressure increases the amount of water flow rate and heat transfer rate decrease within the lower ranges of inlet dry bulb temperatures. On the other hand, and as pressure increases the amount of water flow rate and heat transfer rate increases within the higher ranges of inlet dry bulb temperatures. The inflection in the pressure effect trend occurs at lower temperatures as the inlet air humidity increases.
An LMI Approach of Robust H∞ Fuzzy State-Feedback Controller Design for HIV/AIDS Infection System with Dual Drug Dosages
This paper examines the problem of designing robust H controllers for for HIV/AIDS infection system with dual drug dosages described by a Takagi-Sugeno (S) fuzzy model. Based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we develop an H controller which guarantees the L2-gain of the mapping from the exogenous input noise to the regulated output to be less than some prescribed value for the system. A sufficient condition of the controller for this system is given in term of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness of the proposed controller design methodology is finally demonstrated through simulation results. It has been shown that the anti-HIV vaccines are critically important in reducing the infected cells.
Auto-Parking System via Intelligent Computation Intelligence
In this paper, an intelligent automatic parking control method is proposed. First, the dynamical equation of the rear parking control is derived. Then a fuzzy logic control is proposed to perform the parking planning process. Further, a rear neural network is proposed for the steering control. Through the simulations and experiments, the intelligent auto-parking mode controllers have been shown to achieve the demanded goals with satisfactory control performance and to guarantee the system robustness under parametric variations and external disturbances. To improve some shortcomings and limitations in conventional parking mode control and further to reduce consumption time and prime cost.
Control and Navigation with Knowledge Bases
In this paper, we focus on the use of knowledge bases
in two different application areas – control of systems with unknown
or strongly nonlinear models (i.e. hardly controllable by the classical
methods), and robot motion planning in eight directions. The first
one deals with fuzzy logic and the paper presents approaches for
setting and aggregating the rules of a knowledge base. Te second one
is concentrated on a case-based reasoning strategy for finding the
path in a planar scene with obstacles.
Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Controller for a 3-DOF Stabilized Platform with Adaptive Decoupling Scheme
This paper presents a fuzzy control system for a three degree of freedom (3-DOF) stabilized platform with explicit decoupling scheme. The system under consideration is a system with strong interactions between three channels. By using the concept of decentralized control, a control structure is developed that is composed of three control loops, each of which is associated with a single-variable fuzzy controller and a decoupling unit. Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy control algorithm is used to implement the fuzzy controller. The decoupling units design is based on the adaptive theory reasoning. Simulation tests were established using Simulink of Matlab. The obtained results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Simulation results are represented in this paper.
Fuzzy Controlled Hydraulic Excavator with Model Parameter Uncertainty
The hydraulic actuated excavator, being a non-linear
mobile machine, encounters many uncertainties. There are
uncertainties in the hydraulic system in addition to the uncertain
nature of the load. The simulation results obtained in this study show
that there is a need for intelligent control of such machines and in
particular interval type-2 fuzzy controller is most suitable for
minimizing the position error of a typical excavator-s bucket under
load variations. We consider the model parameter uncertainties such
as hydraulic fluid leakage and friction. These are uncertainties which
also depend up on the temperature and alter bulk modulus and
viscosity of the hydraulic fluid. Such uncertainties together with the
load variations cause chattering of the bucket position. The interval
type-2 fuzzy controller effectively eliminates the chattering and
manages to control the end-effecter (bucket) position with positional
error in the order of few millimeters.
Intelligent Automatic Generation Control of Two Area Interconnected Power System using Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy Controller
This paper presents the development and application of an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based intelligent hybrid neuro fuzzy controller for automatic generation control (AGC) of two-area interconnected thermal power system with reheat non linearity. The dynamic response of the system has been studied for 1% step load perturbation in area-1. The performance of the proposed neuro fuzzy controller is compared against conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller, state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller and fuzzy gain scheduled proportionalintegral (FGSPI) controller. Comparative analysis demonstrates that the proposed intelligent neuro fuzzy controller is the most effective of all in improving the transients of frequency and tie-line power deviations against small step load disturbances. Simulations have been performed using Matlab®.
Bioprocess Intelligent Control: A Case Study
Bioprocesses are appreciated as difficult to control because their dynamic behavior is highly nonlinear and time varying, in particular, when they are operating in fed batch mode. The research objective of this study was to develop an appropriate control method for a complex bioprocess and to implement it on a laboratory plant. Hence, an intelligent control structure has been designed in order to produce biomass and to maximize the specific growth rate.
Adaptive Fuzzy Control on EDF Scheduling
EDF (Early Deadline First) algorithm is a very important scheduling algorithm for real- time systems . The EDF algorithm assigns priorities to each job according to their absolute deadlines and has good performance when the real-time system is not overloaded. When the real-time system is overloaded, many misdeadlines will be produced. But these misdeadlines are not uniformly distributed, which usually focus on some tasks. In this paper, we present an adaptive fuzzy control scheduling based on EDF algorithm. The improved algorithm can have a rectangular distribution of misdeadline ratios among all real-time tasks when the system is overloaded. To evaluate the effectiveness of the improved algorithm, we have done extensive simulation studies. The simulation results show that the new algorithm is superior to the old algorithm.
Trajectory Control of a Robotic Manipulator Utilizing an Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode
In this paper, a novel adaptive fuzzy sliding mode
control method is proposed for the robust tracking control of robotic
manipulators. The proposed controller possesses the advantages of
adaptive control, fuzzy control, and sliding mode control. First, system
stability and robustness are guaranteed based on the sliding mode
control. Further, fuzzy rules are developed incorporating with
adaptation law to alleviate the input chattering effectively. Stability of
the control system is proven by using the Lyapunov method. An
application to a three-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator is
carried out. Accurate trajectory tracking as well as robustness is
achieved. Input chattering is greatly eliminated.
Fuzzy Controller Design for TCSC to Improve Power Oscillations Damping
Series compensators have been used for many years,
to increase the stability and load ability of transmission line. They
compensate retarded or advanced volt drop of transmission lines
by placing advanced or retarded voltage in series with them to
compensate the effective reactance, which cause to increase load
ability of transmission lines. In this paper, two method of fuzzy
controller, based on power reference tracking and impedance
reference tracking have been developed on TCSC controller in
order to increase load ability and improving power oscillation
damping of system. In these methods, fire angle of thyristors are
determined directly through the special Rule-bases with the error
and change of error as the inputs. The simulation results of two
area four- machines power system show the good performance of
power oscillation damping in system. Comparison of this method
with classical PI controller shows the increasing speed of system
response in power oscillation damping.