Multiscale Syntheses of Knee Collateral Ligament Stresses: Aggregate Mechanics as a Function of Molecular Properties
Knee collateral ligaments play a significant role in restraining excessive frontal motion (varus/valgus rotations). In this investigation, a multiscale frame was developed based on structural hierarchies of the collateral ligaments starting from the bottom (tropocollagen molecule) to up where the fibred reinforced structure established. Experimental data of failure tensile test were considered as the principal driver of the developed model. This model was calibrated statistically using Bayesian calibration due to the high number of unknown parameters. Then the model is scaled up to fit the real structure of the collateral ligaments and simulated under realistic boundary conditions. Predications have been successful in describing the observed transient response of the collateral ligaments during tensile test under pre- and post-damage loading conditions. Collateral ligaments maximum stresses and strengths were observed near to the femoral insertions, a results that is in good agreement with experimental investigations. Also for the first time, damage initiation and propagation were documented with this model as a function of the cross-link density between tropocollagen molecules.
Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies
This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.
Comparing Test Equating by Item Response Theory and Raw Score Methods with Small Sample Sizes on a Study of the ARTé: Mecenas Learning Game
The purpose of the present research is to equate two
test forms as part of a study to evaluate the educational effectiveness
of the ARTé: Mecenas art history learning game. The researcher
applied Item Response Theory (IRT) procedures to calculate item,
test, and mean-sigma equating parameters. With the sample size
n=134, test parameters indicated “good” model fit but low Test
Information Functions and more acute than expected equating
parameters. Therefore, the researcher applied equipercentile equating
and linear equating to raw scores and compared the equated form
parameters and effect sizes from each method. Item scaling in IRT
enables the researcher to select a subset of well-discriminating items.
The mean-sigma step produces a mean-slope adjustment from the
anchor items, which was used to scale the score on the new form
(Form R) to the reference form (Form Q) scale. In equipercentile
equating, scores are adjusted to align the proportion of scores in each
quintile segment. Linear equating produces a mean-slope adjustment,
which was applied to all core items on the new form. The study
followed a quasi-experimental design with purposeful sampling of
students enrolled in a college level art history course (n=134) and
counterbalancing design to distribute both forms on the pre- and posttests.
The Experimental Group (n=82) was asked to play ARTé:
Mecenas online and complete Level 4 of the game within a two-week
period; 37 participants completed Level 4. Over the same period, the
Control Group (n=52) did not play the game. The researcher
examined between group differences from post-test scores on test
Form Q and Form R by full-factorial Two-Way ANOVA. The raw
score analysis indicated a 1.29% direct effect of form, which was
statistically non-significant but may be practically significant. The
researcher repeated the between group differences analysis with all
three equating methods. For the IRT mean-sigma adjusted scores,
form had a direct effect of 8.39%. Mean-sigma equating with a small
sample may have resulted in inaccurate equating parameters.
Equipercentile equating aligned test means and standard deviations,
but resultant skewness and kurtosis worsened compared to raw score
parameters. Form had a 3.18% direct effect. Linear equating
produced the lowest Form effect, approaching 0%. Using linearly
equated scores, the researcher conducted an ANCOVA to examine
the effect size in terms of prior knowledge. The between group effect
size for the Control Group versus Experimental Group participants
who completed the game was 14.39% with a 4.77% effect size
attributed to pre-test score. Playing and completing the game
increased art history knowledge, and individuals with low prior
knowledge tended to gain more from pre- to post test. Ultimately,
researchers should approach test equating based on their theoretical
stance on Classical Test Theory and IRT and the respective assumptions. Regardless of the approach or method, test equating
requires a representative sample of sufficient size. With small sample
sizes, the application of a range of equating approaches can expose
item and test features for review, inform interpretation, and identify
paths for improving instruments for future study.
Using Game Engines in Lightning Shielding: The Application of the Rolling Spheres Method on Virtual As-Built Power Substations
Lightning strikes can cause severe negative impacts to the electrical sector causing direct damage to equipment as well as shutdowns, especially when occurring in power substations. In order to mitigate this problem, a meticulous planning of the power substation protection system is of vital importance. A critical part of this is the distribution of shielding wires through the substation, which creates a 3D imaginary protection mesh similar to a circus tarpaulin. Equipment enclosed in the volume defined by that 3D mesh is considered protected against lightning strikes. The use of traditional methods of longitudinal cutting analysis based on 2D CAD tools makes the process laborious and the results obtained may not guarantee satisfactory protection of electrical equipment. This work describes the application of a Game Engine to the problem of lightning protection of power substations providing the visualization of the 3D protection mesh, the amount of protected components and the highlight of equipment which remain unprotected. In addition, aspects regarding the implementation and the advantages of approaching the problem using Unreal® Engine 4 are described. In order to validate results, a comparison with traditional 2D methods is applied to the same case study to which the proposed technique has been applied. Finally, a comparative study involving different levels of protection using the technique developed in this work is presented, showing that modern game engines can be a powerful accessory for simulations in several areas of engineering.
Porul: Option Generation and Selection and Scoring Algorithms for a Tamil Flash Card Game
Games can be the excellent tools for teaching a language. There are few e-learning games in Indian languages like word scrabble, cross word, quiz games etc., which were developed mainly for educational purposes. This paper proposes a Tamil word game called, “Porul”, which focuses on education as well as on players’ thinking and decision-making skills. Porul is a multiple choice based quiz game, in which the players attempt to answer questions correctly from the given multiple options that are generated using a unique algorithm called the Option Selection algorithm which explores the semantics of the question in various dimensions namely, synonym, rhyme and Universal Networking Language semantic category. This kind of semantic exploration of the question not only increases the complexity of the game but also makes it more interesting. The paper also proposes a Scoring Algorithm which allots a score based on the popularity score of the question word. The proposed game has been tested using 20,000 Tamil words.
Factors of Non-Conformity Behavior and the Emergence of a Ponzi Game in the Riba-Free (Interest-Free) Banking System of Iran
In the interest-free banking system of Iran, the savings of society are in the form of bank deposits, and banks using the Islamic contracts, allocate the resources to applicants for obtaining facilities and credit. In the meantime, the central bank, with the aim of introducing monetary policy, determines the maximum interest rate on bank deposits in terms of macroeconomic requirements. But in recent years, the country's economic constraints with the stagflation and the consequence of the institutional weaknesses of the financial market of Iran have resulted in massive disturbances in the balance sheet of the banking system, resulting in a period of mismatch maturity in the banks' assets and liabilities and the implementation of a Ponzi game. This issue caused determination of the interest rate in long-term bank deposit contracts to be associated with non-observance of the maximum rate set by the central bank. The result of this condition was in the allocation of new sources of equipment to meet past commitments towards the old depositors and, as a result, a significant part of the supply of equipment was leaked out of the facilitating cycle and credit crunch emerged. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important factors affecting the occurrence of non-confirmatory financial banking behavior using data from 19 public and private banks of Iran. For this purpose, the causes of this non-confirmatory behavior of banks have been investigated using the panel vector autoregression method (PVAR) for the period of 2007-2015. Granger's causality test results suggest that the return of parallel markets for bank deposits, non-performing loans and the high share of the ratio of facilities to banks' deposits are all a cause of the formation of non-confirmatory behavior. Also, according to the results of impulse response functions and variance decomposition, NPL and the ratio of facilities to deposits have the highest long-term effect and also have a high contribution to explaining the changes in banks' non-confirmatory behavior in determining the interest rate on deposits.
Effect of Modification and Expansion on Emergence of Cooperation in Demographic Multi-Level Donor-Recipient Game
It is known that the mean investment evolves from a very low initial value to some high level in the Continuous Prisoner's Dilemma. We examine how the cooperation level evolves from a low initial level to a high level in our Demographic Multi-level Donor-Recipient situation. In the Multi-level Donor-Recipient game, one player is selected as a Donor and the other as a Recipient randomly. The Donor has multiple cooperative moves and one defective move. A cooperative move means the Donor pays some cost for the Recipient to receive some benefit. The more cooperative move the Donor takes, the higher cost the Donor pays and the higher benefit the Recipient receives. The defective move has no effect on them. Two consecutive Multi-level Donor-Recipient games, one as a Donor and the other as a Recipient, can be viewed as a discrete version of the Continuous Prisoner's Dilemma. In the Demographic Multi-level Donor-Recipient game, players are initially distributed spatially. In each period, players play multiple Multi-level Donor-Recipient games against other players. He leaves offspring if possible and dies because of negative accumulated payoff of him or his lifespan. Cooperative moves are necessary for the survival of the whole population. There is only a low level of cooperative move besides the defective move initially available in strategies of players. A player may modify and expand his strategy by his recent experiences or practices. We distinguish several types of a player about modification and expansion. We show, by Agent-Based Simulation, that introducing only the modification increases the emergence rate of cooperation and introducing both the modification and the expansion further increases it and a high level of cooperation does emerge in our Demographic Multi-level Donor-Recipient Game.
An Immersive Serious Game for Firefighting and Evacuation Training in Healthcare Facilities
In healthcare facilities, training the staff for firefighting and evacuation in real buildings is very challenging due to the presence of a vulnerable population in such an environment. In a standard environment, traditional approaches, such as fire drills, are often used to train the occupants and provide them with information about fire safety procedures. However, those traditional approaches may be inappropriate for a vulnerable population and can be inefficient from an educational viewpoint as it is impossible to expose the occupants to scenarios similar to a real emergency. Immersive serious games could be used as an alternative to traditional approaches to overcome their limitations. Serious games are already being used in different safety domains such as fires, earthquakes and terror attacks for several building types (e.g., office buildings, train stations, tunnels, etc.). In this study, we developed an immersive serious game to improve the fire safety skills of staff in healthcare facilities. An accurate representation of the healthcare environment was built in Unity3D by including visual and audio stimuli inspired from those employed in commercial action games. The serious game is organised in three levels. In each of them, the trainee is presented with a specific fire emergency and s/he can perform protective actions (e.g., firefighting, helping non-ambulant occupants, etc.) or s/he can ignore the opportunity for action and continue the evacuation. In this paper, we describe all the steps required to develop such a prototype, as well as the key questions that need to be answered, to develop a serious game for firefighting and evacuation in healthcare facilities.
Distributed Coverage Control by Robot Networks in Unknown Environments Using a Modified EM Algorithm
In this paper, we study a distributed control algorithm
for the problem of unknown area coverage by a network of robots.
The coverage objective is to locate a set of targets in the area and
to minimize the robots’ energy consumption. The robots have no
prior knowledge about the location and also about the number of the
targets in the area. One efficient approach that can be used to relax
the robots’ lack of knowledge is to incorporate an auxiliary learning
algorithm into the control scheme. A learning algorithm actually
allows the robots to explore and study the unknown environment
and to eventually overcome their lack of knowledge. The control
algorithm itself is modeled based on game theory where the network
of the robots use their collective information to play a non-cooperative
potential game. The algorithm is tested via simulations to verify its
performance and adaptability.
A Study of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Equation Systems Arising in Differential Game Models of Changing Society
This paper is concerned with a system of
Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations coupled with an autonomous
dynamical system. The mathematical system arises in the differential
game formulation of political economy models as an infinite-horizon
continuous-time differential game with discounted instantaneous
payoff rates and continuously and discretely varying state variables.
The existence of a weak solution of the PDE system is proven and
a computational scheme of approximate solution is developed for a
class of such systems. A model of democratization is mathematically
analyzed as an illustration of application.
Stackelberg Security Game for Optimizing Security of Federated Internet of Things Platform Instances
This paper presents an approach for optimal cyber security decisions to protect instances of a federated Internet of Things (IoT) platform in the cloud. The presented solution implements the repeated Stackelberg Security Game (SSG) and a model called Stochastic Human behaviour model with AttRactiveness and Probability weighting (SHARP). SHARP employs the Subjective Utility Quantal Response (SUQR) for formulating a subjective utility function, which is based on the evaluations of alternative solutions during decision-making. We augment the repeated SSG (including SHARP and SUQR) with a reinforced learning algorithm called Naïve Q-Learning. Naïve Q-Learning belongs to the category of active and model-free Machine Learning (ML) techniques in which the agent (either the defender or the attacker) attempts to find an optimal security solution. In this way, we combine GT and ML algorithms for discovering optimal cyber security policies. The proposed security optimization components will be validated in a collaborative cloud platform that is based on the Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) and its recently published security model.
A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction
In this study, a new constitutive model is developed
to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a
parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons.
The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating
the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers,
proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical
contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix
is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change
of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to
describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the
constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity
which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This
study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix
contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model
may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms
of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.
Play in College: Shifting Perspectives and Creative Problem-Based Play
This study is a design narrative that discusses researchers’ new learning based on changes made in pedagogies and learning opportunities in the context of a Cognitive Psychology and an Art History undergraduate course. The purpose of this study was to investigate how to encourage creative problem-based play in tertiary education engaging instructors and student-teachers in designing educational games. Course instructors modified content to encourage flexible thinking during game design problem-solving. Qualitative analyses of data sources indicated that Thinking Birds’ questions could encourage flexible thinking as instructors engaged in creative problem-based play. However, student-teachers demonstrated weakness in adopting flexible thinking during game design problem solving. Further studies of student-teachers’ shifting perspectives during different instructional design tasks would provide insights for developing the Thinking Birds’ questions as tools for creative problem solving.
The Modulation of Self-interest Instruction on the Fair-Proposing Behavior in Ultimatum Game
Ultimatum game is an experimental paradigm to study human decision making. There are two players, a proposer and a responder, to split a fixed amount of money. According to the traditional economic theory on ultimatum game, proposer should propose the selfish offers to responder as much as possible to maximize proposer’s own outcomes. However, most evidences had showed that people chose more fair offers, hence two hypotheses – fairness favoring and strategic concern were proposed. In current study, we induced the motivation in participants to be either selfish or altruistic, and manipulated the task variables, the stake sizes (NT$100, 1000, 10000) and the share sizes (the 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% of the sum as selfish offers, and the 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% of the sum as altruistic offers), to examine the two hypotheses. The results showed that most proposers chose more fair offers with longer reaction times (RTs) no matter in choosing between the fair and selfish offers, or between the fair and altruistic offers. However, the proposers received explicit self-interest instruction chose more selfish offers accompanied with longer RTs in choosing between the fair and selfish offers. Therefore, the results supported the strategic concern hypothesis that previous proposers choosing the fair offers might be resulted from the fear of rejection by responders. Proposers would become more self-interest if the fear of being rejected is eliminated.
The Need for a More Robust Legal Framework to Curb the Rise in Violence against Game Officials
The dramatic rise in violence against game officials has affected all levels of sports including recreational, amateur, and professional sports. One way to combat this rise in violence is through the creation of laws specifically aimed at preventing and punishing this kind of violence. This paper will use related legal cases as a starting point to explore possible ways of better protecting the safety of game officials. It will do this by looking at relevant cases, related legal issues, and two specific ways of reducing violence against game officials. In closing, it will be argued that there needs to be a more robust legal approach with emphasis on criminal and civil penalties for assault and battery, and a more comprehensive social approach with emphasis on raising social awareness on the need to protect game officials from violence.
A Multi-Agent Simulation of Serious Games to Predict Their Impact on E-Learning Processes
Serious games constitute actually a recent and attractive
way supposed to replace the classical boring courses. However,
the choice of the adapted serious game to a specific learning
environment remains a challenging task that makes teachers unwilling
to adopt this concept. To fill this gap, we present, in this paper,
a multi-agent-based simulator allowing to predict the impact of a
serious game integration in a learning environment given several
game and players characteristics. As results, the presented tool
gives intensities of several emotional aspects characterizing learners
reactions to the serious game adoption. The presented simulator
is tested to predict the effect of basing a coding course on the
serious game ”CodeCombat”. The obtained results are compared with
feedbacks of using the same serious game in a real learning process.
Enhancement of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Teacher Trainers by Fun Game Learning Approach
The purpose of the study is to explore how the fun game-learning approach enhances teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills. Two-day fun filled fun game learning-approach was introduced to teacher trainers as a Continuous Professional Development Program (CPD). 26 teacher trainers participated in this Transformation of Teaching and Learning Fun Way Program, organized by Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia. Qualitative research technique was adopted as the researchers observed the participants’ higher order thinking skills developed during the program. Data were collected from observational checklist; interview transcriptions of four participants and participants’ reflection notes. All the data were later analyzed with NVivo data analysis process. The finding of this study presented five main themes, which are critical thinking, hands on activities, creating, application and use of technology. The studies showed that the teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills were enhanced after the two-day CPD program. Therefore, Institute of Teacher Education will have more success using the fun way game-learning approach to develop higher order thinking skills among its teacher trainers who can implement these skills to their trainee teachers in future. This study also added knowledge to Constructivism learning theory, which will further highlight the prominence of the fun way learning approach to enhance higher order thinking skills.
The Effects of a Digital Dialogue Game on Higher Education Students’ Argumentation-Based Learning
Digital dialogue games have opened up opportunities for learning skills by engaging students in complex problem solving that mimic real world situations, without importing unwanted constraints and risks of the real world. Digital dialogue games can be motivating and engaging to students for fun, creative thinking, and learning. This study explored how undergraduate students engage with argumentative discourse activities which have been designed to intensify debate. A pre-test, post-test design was used with students who were assigned to groups of four and asked to debate a controversial topic with the aim of exploring various 'pros and cons' on the 'Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)'. Findings reveal that the Digital dialogue game can facilitate argumentation-based learning. The digital Dialogue game was also evaluated positively in terms of students’ satisfaction and learning experiences.
Using Multi-Arm Bandits to Optimize Game Play Metrics and Effective Game Design
Game designers have the challenging task of building games that engage players to spend their time and money on the game. There are an infinite number of game variations and design choices, and it is hard to systematically determine game design choices that will have positive experiences for players. In this work, we demonstrate how multi-arm bandits can be used to automatically explore game design variations to achieve improved player metrics. The advantage of multi-arm bandits is that they allow for continuous experimentation and variation, intrinsically converge to the best solution, and require no special infrastructure to use beyond allowing minor game variations to be deployed to users for evaluation. A user study confirms that applying multi-arm bandits was successful in determining the preferred game variation with highest play time metrics and can be a useful technique in a game designer's toolkit.
Innovation in Traditional Game: A Case Study of Trainee Teachers' Learning Experiences
The purpose of this study is to explore a case study of trainee teachers’ learning experience on innovating traditional games during the traditional game carnival. It explores issues arising from multiple case studies of trainee teachers learning experiences in innovating traditional games. A qualitative methodology was adopted through observations, semi-structured interviews and reflective journals’ content analysis of trainee teachers’ learning experiences creating and implementing innovative traditional games. Twelve groups of 36 trainee teachers who registered for Sports and Physical Education Management Course were the participants for this research during the traditional game carnival. Semi structured interviews were administrated after the trainee teachers learning experiences in creating innovative traditional games. Reflective journals were collected after carnival day and the content analyzed. Inductive data analysis was used to evaluate various data sources. All the collected data were then evaluated through the Nvivo data analysis process. Inductive reasoning was interpreted based on the Self Determination Theory (SDT). The findings showed that the trainee teachers had positive game participation experiences, game knowledge about traditional games and positive motivation to innovate the game. The data also revealed the influence of themes like cultural significance and creativity. It can be concluded from the findings that the organized game carnival, as a requirement of course work by the Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia, was able to enhance teacher trainers’ innovative thinking skills. The SDT, as a multidimensional approach to motivation, was utilized. Therefore, teacher trainers may have more learning experiences using the SDT.
BECOME: Body Experience-Based Co-Operation between Juveniles through Mutually Excited Team Gameplay
We aim to develop a full-body interaction game that could let children cooperate and interact with other children in small groups. As the first step for our aim, the objective of the full-body interaction game developed in this study is to make interaction between children. The game requires two children to jump together with the same timing. We let children experience the game and answer the questionnaires. The children using several strategies to coordinate the timing of their jumps were observed. These included shouting time, watching each other, and jumping in a constant rhythm as if they were skipping rope. In this manner, we observed the children playing the game while cooperating with each other. The results of a questionnaire to evaluate the proposed interactive game indicate that the jumping game was a very enjoyable experience in which the participants could immerse themselves. Therefore, the game enabled children to experience cooperation with others by using body movements.
Violent Videogame Playing and Its Relations to Antisocial Behaviors
The presented study focuses on relations between violent videogames playing and various types of antisocial behavior, namely bullying (verbal, indirect, and physical), physical aggression and delinquency. Relevant relationships were also examined with respect to gender. Violent videogames exposure (VGV) was measured by respondents’ most favored games and self-evaluation of its level of violence and frequency of playing. Antisocial behaviors were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) primary and secondary school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). It was found that violent videogames playing is associated with physical aggression (rho=0.288, 95% CI [0.169;0.400]) and bullying (rho=0.369, 95% CI [0.254;0.476]). By means of gender, these relations were slightly weaker in males (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.104, 95% CI [-0.061;0.264], VGV – bullying: rho=.200, 95% CI [0.032;0.356]) than in females (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.257, 95% CI [0.089;0.411], VGV – bullying: rho=0.279, 95% CI [0.110;0.432]).
Parenting Styles and Their Relation to Videogame Addiction
We try to identify the role of various aspects of parenting style in the phenomenon of videogame playing addiction. Relevant self-report questionnaires were part of a wider set of methods focused on the constructs related to videogame playing. The battery of methods was administered in school settings in paper and pencil form. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) elementary and high school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). Using stepwise regression analysis, we assessed the influence of demographic variables (gender and age) and parenting styles. Age and gender together explained 26.3% of game addiction variance (F(2,330)=58.81, p<.01). By adding four aspect of parenting styles (inconsistency, involvement, control, and warmth) another 10.2% of variance was explained (∆F(4,326)=13.09, p<.01). The significant predictor was gender of the respondent, where males scored higher on game addiction scale (B=0.70, p<.01), age (β=-0.18, p<.01), where younger children showed higher level of addiction, and parental inconsistency (β=0.30, p<.01), where the higher the inconsistency in upbringing, the more developed game playing addiction.
The Effectiveness of Implementing Interactive Training for Teaching Kazakh Language
Today, a new system of education is being created in Kazakhstan in order to develop the system of education and to satisfy the world class standards. For this purpose, there have been established new requirements and responsibilities to the instructors. Students should not be limited with providing only theoretical knowledge. Also, they should be encouraged to be competitive, to think creatively and critically. Moreover, students should be able to implement these skills into practice. These issues could be resolved through the permanent improvement of teaching methods. Therefore, a specialist who teaches the languages should use up-to-date methods and introduce new technologies. The result of the investigation suggests that an interactive teaching method is one of the new technologies in this field. This paper aims to provide information about implementing new technologies in the process of teaching language. The paper will discuss about necessity of introducing innovative technologies and the techniques of organizing interactive lessons. At the same time, the structure of the interactive lesson, conditions, principles, discussions, small group works and role-playing games will be considered. Interactive methods are carried out with the help of several types of activities, such as working in a team (with two or more group of people), playing situational or role-playing games, working with different sources of information, discussions, presentations, creative works and learning through solving situational tasks and etc.
An Augmented-Reality Interactive Card Game for Teaching Elementary School Students
Game-based learning can enhance the learning
motivation of students and provide a means for them to learn through
playing games. This study used augmented reality technology to
develop an interactive card game as a game-based teaching aid for
delivering elementary school science course content with the aim of
enhancing student learning processes and outcomes. Through playing
the proposed card game, students can familiarize themselves with
appearance, features, and foraging behaviors of insects. The system
records the actions of students, enabling teachers to determine their
students’ learning progress. In this study, 37 students participated in an
assessment experiment and provided feedback through questionnaires.
Their responses indicated that they were significantly more motivated
to learn after playing the game, and their feedback was mostly
Evaluation of Cognitive Benefits among Differently Abled Subjects with Video Game as Intervention
In this study, the potential benefits of playing action
video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in
terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are
associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual
information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of
First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase
of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can
be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among
deaf and dumb subjects.
Enhancement of Capacity in a MC-CDMA based Cognitive Radio Network Using Non-Cooperative Game Model
This paper addresses the issue of resource allocation
in the emerging cognitive technology. Focusing the Quality of
Service (QoS) of Primary Users (PU), a novel method is proposed for
the resource allocation of Secondary Users (SU). In this paper, we
propose the unique Utility Function in the game theoretic model of
Cognitive Radio which can be maximized to increase the capacity of
the Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) and to minimize the
interference scenario. Utility function is formulated to cater the need
of PUs by observing Signal to Noise ratio. Existence of Nash
Equilibrium for the postulated game is established.
How Do You Blow off Steam - The Impact of Therapeutic Catharsis Seeking, Self-Construal, and Social Capital in Gaming Context
This study will examine how the therapeutic factors
(therapeutic catharsis-seeking and game-efficacy of the game player)
and self-construal factors (independent and interdependent
self-construal of the game player) as well as social capital factors
(bonding and bridging social capital of the game player) affect
aggression in the game. Results show that both therapeutic
catharsis-seeking and game self-efficacy are particularly important to
the players since they cause the game players’ aggressive tendencies to
be greatly diminished. Independent self-construal reduces the level of
the players’ aggression. Interestingly enough, the bonding social
capital enhances the level of the players’ aggression, while individuals
with bridging social capital did not show any significant effects. The
results and implications will be discussed herein.
The Effectiveness of Teaching Games for the Improvement of the Hockey Tactical Skills and the State of Self-Confidence among 16 Years Old Students
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Teaching Games For Understanding (TGFU) in improving the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. Two hundred fifty-nine (259) school students were selected for the study based on the intact sampling method. One class was used as the control group (Boys=60, Girls=70), while another as the treatment group (Boys=60, Girls=69) underwent intervention with TGFU in physical education class conducted twice a week for four weeks. The Games Performance Assessment Instrument was used to observe the hockey tactical skills and The State Self-Confidence Inventory was used to determine the state of self-confidence among the students. After four weeks, ANCOVA analysis indicated the treatment groups had significant improvement in hockey tactical skills with F (1, 118) =313.37, p<.05 for school boys, and F (1, 136) =92.62, p<.05 for school girls. The MannWhitney U test also showed the treatment groups had significant improvement in state self-confidence with U=428.50, z= -7.22, p < .05, r=.06 for school boys. ANCOVA analysis also showed the treatment group had significant improvement in state self-confidence with F (1, 136) =74.40, p<.05 for school girls. This indicates that TGFU in a 40-minute physical education class conducted twice a week for four weeks can significantly improve the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. The findings give new knowledge to PE teachers to implement the TGFU method as it enhances the hockey tactical skills and state selfconfidence among 16-year-old students. Some recommendation was suggested for future research.
The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games
This study compares the intensity of game load among
player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games.
Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball
players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its
development were monitored during two competitive games.
Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load
were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and
above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as
% of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%,
respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games
were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of
HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can
be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the