The Effect of the Parameters of the Grinding on the Characteristics of the Deposit Phosphate Ore of Kef Es Sennoun, Djebel Onk-Tebessa, Algeria
The objective of this study was to provide answers for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved during grinding. To obtain a phosphate powder, we carry out sieving - grinding circuits for each parameter influencing the process. The analysis of the average particle size of the different tests carried out served in the first place as a basis for the determination of the granulometric curve area, the characteristics and the granular coefficients, then the exploitation of the different results for the calculation of the energies consumed for the fragmentation of different ore types, the energy coefficients as well as the ability to grind. Indeed, a time of 5 to 10 minutes can be chosen as the optimal grinding time in a disc mill for a % in weight of the highest pass. However, grinding time can influence the granular characteristics of ore.
The Grinding Influence on the Strength of Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packages
To build a thin fan-out wafer-level package, the package had to be ground to a thin level. In this work, the influence of the grinding processes on the strength of the fan-out wafer-level packages was investigated. After different grinding processes, all specimens were placed on a three-point-bending fixture installed on a universal tester for three-point-bending testing, and the strength of the fan-out wafer-level packages was measured. The experiments revealed that the average flexure strength increased with the decreasing surface roughness height of the fan-out wafer-level package tested. The grinding processes had a significant influence on the strength of the fan-out wafer-level packages investigated.
Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process
Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.
Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste
Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.
Spectral Coherence Analysis between Grinding Interaction Forces and the Relative Motion of the Workpiece and the Cutting Tool
Grinding operation is performed in order to obtain desired surfaces precisely in machining process. The needed relative motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece is generally created either by the movement of the cutting tool or by the movement of the workpiece or by the movement of both of them as in our case. For all these cases, the coherence level between the movements and the interaction forces is a key influential parameter for efficient grinding. Therefore, in this work, spectral coherence analysis has been performed to investigate the coherence level between grinding interaction forces and the movement of the workpiece on our robotic-grinding experimental setup in METU Mechatronics Laboratory.
Precision Grinding of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloy Using Nanolubrication
In this current era of competitive machinery productions, the industries are designed to place more emphasis on the product quality and reduction of cost whilst abiding by the pollution-preventing policy. In attempting to delve into the concerns, the industries are aware that the effectiveness of existing lubrication systems must be improved to achieve power-efficient and pollution-preventing machining processes. As such, this research is targeted to study on a plausible solution to the issue in grinding titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) by using nanolubrication, as an alternative to flood grinding. The aim of this research is to evaluate the optimum condition of grinding force and surface roughness using MQL lubricating system to deliver nano-oil at different level of weight concentration of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) mixed normal mineral oil. Taguchi Design of Experiment (DoE) method is carried out using a standard Taguchi orthogonal array of L16(43) to find the optimized combination of weight concentration mixture of SiO2, nozzle orientation and pressure of MQL. Surface roughness and grinding force are also analyzed using signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio to determine the best level of each factor that are tested. Consequently, the best combination of parameters is tested for a period of time and the results are compared with conventional grinding method of dry and flood condition. The results show a positive performance of MQL nanolubrication.
Error Correction of Radial Displacement in Grinding Machine Tool Spindle by Optimizing Shape and Bearing Tuning
In this article, the radial displacement error correction
capability of a high precision spindle grinding caused by unbalance
force was investigated. The spindle shaft is considered as a flexible
rotor mounted on two sets of angular contact ball bearing. Finite
element methods (FEM) have been adopted for obtaining the
equation of motion of the spindle. In this paper, firstly, natural
frequencies, critical frequencies, and amplitude of the unbalance
response caused by residual unbalance are determined in order to
investigate the spindle behaviors. Furthermore, an optimization
design algorithm is employed to minimize radial displacement of the
spindle which considers dimension of the spindle shaft, the dynamic
characteristics of the bearings, critical frequencies and amplitude of
the unbalance response, and computes optimum spindle diameters
and stiffness and damping of the bearings. Numerical simulation
results show that by optimizing the spindle diameters, and stiffness
and damping in the bearings, radial displacement of the spindle can
be reduced. A spindle about 4 μm radial displacement error can be
compensated with 2 μm accuracy. This certainly can improve the
accuracy of the product of machining.
GC and GCxGC-MS Composition of Volatile Compounds from Carum carvi by Using Techniques Assisted by Microwaves
The new methods as accelerated steam distillation
assisted by microwave (ASDAM) is a combination of microwave
heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure at
very short extraction time. Isolation and concentration of volatile
compounds are performed by a single stage. (ASDAM) has been
compared with (ASDAM) with cryogrinding of seeds (CG) and a
conventional technique, hydrodistillation assisted by microwave
(HDAM), hydro-distillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil
from aromatic herb as caraway and cumin seeds. The essential oils
extracted by (ASDAM) for 1 min were quantitatively (yield) and
qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar to those obtained by
ASDAM-CG (1 min) and HD (for 3 h). The accelerated microwave
extraction with cryogrinding inhibits numerous enzymatic reactions
as hydrolysis of oils.
Microwave radiations constitute the adequate mean for the
extraction operations from the yields and high content in major
component majority point view, and allow to minimise considerably
the energy consumption, but especially heating time too, which is one
of essential parameters of artifacts formation.
The ASDAM and ASDAM-CG are green techniques and yields an
essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated
compounds comparable to the biosynthesis compounds, and allows
substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant
Residual Stress in Ground WC-Co Coatings
High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray technique is one of the leading technologies that have been proposed as an alternative to the replacement of electrolytic hard chromium plating in a number of engineering applications. In this study, WC-Co powder was coated on AISI1045 steel using high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) method. The sin2ψ method was used to evaluate the through thickness residual stress by means of XRD after mechanical layer removal process (only grinding). The average of through thickness residual stress using X-Ray diffraction was -400 MPa.
The Effect Particle Velocity on the Thickness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings
In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle velocity in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.
Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining
This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials – cermets – is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.
Compatibility of Copolymer-Based Grinding Aids and Sulfonated Acetone-Formaldehyde Superplasticizer
Compatibility between sulfonated acetone- formalehyde superplasticizer (SAF) and copolymer-based grinding aids (GA) were studied by fluidity, Zeta potential, setting time of cement pasts, initial slump and slump flow of concrete and compressive strength of concrete. ESEM, MIP, and XRD were used to investigate the changing of microstructure of interior concrete. The results indicated that GA could noticeably enhance the dispersion ability of SAF. It was found that better fluidity and slump-keeping ability of cement paste were obtained in the case of GA. In addition, GA together with SAF had a certain retardation effect on hydration of cement paste. With increasing of the GA dosage, the dispersion ability and retardation effect of admixture increased. The compressive strength of the sample made with SAF and GA after 28 days was higher than that of the control sample made only with SAF. The initial slump and slump flow of concrete increased by 10.0% and 22.9%, respectively, while 0.09 wt.% GA was used. XRD examination indicated that new products were not found in the case of GA. In addition, more dense arrangement of hydrates and lower porosity of the specimen were observed by ESEM and MIP, which contributed to higher compressive strength.
Parametric Study on Grindability of GFRP Laminates Using Different Abrasives
A study on grindability of chopped strand mat glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates (CSM GFRP) have been carried out to evaluate the significant parameters on wheel performance. Performance of Aluminum oxide and c-BN wheels during grinding of CSM GFRP laminate was evaluated in terms of grinding force and surface roughness during grinding. The cubic Boron Nitride wheel experiences higher tangential grinding forces components and lower normal force component than Aluminum oxide grinding wheels. In case of surface finish, Aluminum oxide grinding wheels outdo the cubic Boron Nitride grinding wheels.
Surface Roughness Prediction Model for Grinding of Composite Laminate Using Factorial Design
Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates have been widely used because of their unique mechanical and physical properties such as high specific strength, stiffness and corrosive resistance. Accordingly, the demand for precise grinding of composites has been increasing enormously. Grinding is the one of the obligatory methods for fabricating products with composite materials and it is usually the final operation in the assembly of structural laminates. In this experimental study, an attempt has been made to develop an empirical model to predict the surface roughness of ground GFRP composite laminate with respect to the influencing grinding parameters by factorial design approach of design of experiments (DOE). The significance of grinding parameters and their three factor interaction effects on grinding of GFRP composite have been analyzed in detail. An empirical equation has been developed to attain minimum surface roughness in GFRP laminate grinding.
Elaboration and Optimization of Pellets Used for Precise Glass Grinding
In this work, grinding or microcutting tools in the form of pellets were manufactured using a bounded alumina abrasive grains. The bound used is a vitreous material containing quartz feldspars, kaolinite and a quantity of hematite. The pellets were used in glass grinding process to replace the free abrasive grains lapping process. The study of the elaborated pellets were done to define their effectiveness in the grinding process and to optimize the influence of the pellets elaboration parameters. The obtained results show the existence of an optimal combination of the pellets elaboration parameters for each glass grinding phase (coarse to fine grinding). The final roughness (rms) reached by the elaborated pellets on a BK7 glass surface was about 0.392 μm.
The Effect of Multipass Cutting in Grinding Operation
Grinding requires high specific energy and the consequent development of high temperature at tool-workpiece contact zone impairs workpiece quality by inducing thermal damage to the surface. Finishing grinding process requires component to be cut more than one pass. This paper deals with an investigation on the effect of multipass cutting on grinding performance in term of surface roughness and surface defect. An experimental set-up has been developed for this and a detailed comparison has been done with a single pass and various numbers of cutting pass. Results showed that surface roughness increase with the increase in a number of cutting pass. Good surface finish of 0.26μm was obtained for single pass cutting and 0.73μm for twenty pass cutting. It was also observed that the thickness of the white layer increased with the increased in a number of cutting pass.
A Fuzzy Logic Based Model to Predict Surface Roughness of A Machined Surface in Glass Milling Operation Using CBN Grinding Tool
Nowadays, the demand for high product quality
focuses extensive attention to the quality of machined surface. The
(CNC) milling machine facilities provides a wide variety of
parameters set-up, making the machining process on the glass
excellent in manufacturing complicated special products compared to
other machining processes. However, the application of grinding
process on the CNC milling machine could be an ideal solution to
improve the product quality, but adopting the right machining
parameters is required. In glass milling operation, several machining
parameters are considered to be significant in affecting surface
roughness. These parameters include the lubrication pressure, spindle
speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this research work, a fuzzy logic
model is offered to predict the surface roughness of a machined
surface in glass milling operation using CBN grinding tool. Four
membership functions are allocated to be connected with each input
of the model. The predicted results achieved via fuzzy logic model
are compared to the experimental result. The result demonstrated
settlement between the fuzzy model and experimental results with the
Effect of Coolant on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness in Grinding of CSM GFRP
This paper presents a comparative study on dry and wet grinding through experimental investigation in the grinding of CSM glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates using a pink aluminium oxide wheel. Different sets of experiments were performed to study the effects of the independent grinding parameters such as grinding wheel speed, feed and depth of cut on dependent performance criteria such as cutting forces and surface finish. Experimental conditions were laid out using design of experiment central composite design. An effective coolant was sought in this study to minimise cutting forces and surface roughness for GFRP laminates grinding. Test results showed that the use of coolants reduces surface roughness, although not necessarily the cutting forces. These research findings provide useful economic machining solution in terms of optimized grinding conditions for grinding CSM GFRP.
Utilization of Glycerol Derived from Jatropha-s Biodiesel Production as a Cement Grinding Aid
Biodiesel production results in glycerol production as
the main by-product in biodiesel industry.One of the utilizations of
glycerol obtained from biodiesel production is as a cement grinding
aid (CGA). Results showed that crude glycerol content was 40.19%
whereas pure glycerol content was 82.15%. BSS value of the cement
with CGA supplementation was higher than that of nonsupplemented
cement (blank) indicating that CGA-supplemented
cement had higher fineness than the non-supplemented one. It was
also found that pure glycerol 95% and TEA 5% at 80ºC was the
optimum CGA used to result in finest cement with BSS value of
4.836 cm2/g. Residue test showed that the smallest percent residue
value (0.11%) was obtained in cement with supplementation of pure
glycerol 95% and TEA 5%. Results of residue test confirmed those of
BSS test showing that cement with supplementation of pure glycerol
95% and TEA 5% had the finest particle size.
Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness in Surface Grinding Operation
A mathematical model of the surface roughness
has been developed by using response surface methodology
(RSM) in grinding of AISI D2 cold work tool steels. Analysis
of variance (ANOVA) was used to check the validity of the
model. Low and high value for work speed and feed rate are
decided from design of experiment. The influences of all
machining parameters on surface roughness have been
analyzed based on the developed mathematical model. The
developed prediction equation shows that both the feed rate
and work speed are the most important factor that influences
the surface roughness. The surface roughness was found to be
the lowers with the used of low feed rate and low work speed.
Accuracy of the best model was proved with the testing data.
ANFIS Modeling of the Surface Roughness in Grinding Process
The objective of this study is to design an adaptive
neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of surface
roughness in grinding process. The Used data have been generated
from experimental observations when the wheel has been dressed
using a rotary diamond disc dresser. The input parameters of model
are dressing speed ratio, dressing depth and dresser cross-feed rate
and output parameter is surface roughness. In the experimental
procedure the grinding conditions are constant and only the dressing
conditions are varied. The comparison of the predicted values and the
experimental data indicates that the ANFIS model has a better
performance with respect to back-propagation neural network
(BPNN) model which has been presented by the authors in previous
work for estimation of the surface roughness.
Utilization of EAF Reducing Slag from Stainless Steelmaking Process as a Sorbent for CO2
In this study, an experimental investigation was carried
out to fix CO2 into the electronic arc furnace (EAF) reducing slag from
stainless steelmaking process under wet grinding. The slag was ground
by the vibrating ball mill with the CO2 and pure water. The reaction
behavior was monitored with constant pressure method, and the
change of CO2 volume in the experimental system with grinding time
was measured. It was found that the CO2 absorption occurred as soon
as the grinding started. The CO2 absorption under wet grinding was
significantly larger than that under dry grinding. Generally, the
amount of CO2 absorption increased as the amount of water, the
amount of slag, the diameter of alumina ball and the initial pressure of
CO2 increased. However, the initial absorption rate was scarcely
influenced by the experimental conditions except for the initial CO2
pressure. According to this research, the CO2 reacted with the CaO
inside the slag to form CaCO3.
Absorption of CO2 in EAF Reducing Slag from Stainless Steel Making Process by Wet Grinding
In the current study, we have conducted an experimental investigation on the utilization of electronic arc furnace (EAF) reducing slag for the absorption of CO2 via wet grinding method. It was carried out by various grinding conditions. The slag was ground in the vibrating ball mill in the presence of CO2 and pure water under ambient temperature. The reaction behavior was monitored with constant pressure method, and the changes of experimental systems volume as a function of grinding time were measured. It was found that the CO2 absorption occurred as soon as the grinding started. The CO2 absorption was significantly increased in the case of wet grinding compare to the dry grinding. Generally, the amount of CO2 absorption increased as the amount of water, weight of slag and initial pressure increased. However, it was decreased when the amount of water exceeds 200ml and when smaller balls were used. The absorption of CO2 occurred simultaneously with the start of the grinding and it stopped when the grinding was stopped. According to this research, the CO2 reacted with the CaO inside the slag, forming CaCO3.
Study on Ultrasonic Vibration Effects on Grinding Process of Alumina Ceramic (Al2O3)
Nowadays, engineering ceramics have significant
applications in different industries such as; automotive, aerospace,
electrical, electronics and even martial industries due to their
attractive physical and mechanical properties like very high hardness
and strength at elevated temperatures, chemical stability, low friction
and high wear resistance. However, these interesting properties plus
low heat conductivity make their machining processes too hard,
costly and time consuming. Many attempts have been made in order
to make the grinding process of engineering ceramics easier and
many scientists have tried to find proper techniques to economize
ceramics' machining processes. This paper proposes a new diamond
plunge grinding technique using ultrasonic vibration for grinding
Alumina ceramic (Al2O3). For this purpose, a set of laboratory
equipments have been designed and simulated using Finite Element
Method (FEM) and constructed in order to be used in various
measurements. The results obtained have been compared with the
conventional plunge grinding process without ultrasonic vibration
and indicated that the surface roughness and fracture strength
improved and the grinding forces decreased.