A Study on the Effect of Mg and Ag Additions and Age Hardening Treatment on the Properties of As-Cast Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys
This study focuses on the effect of the addition of magnesium (Mg) and silver (Ag) on the mechanical properties of aluminum based alloys. The alloying elements will be added at different levels using the factorial design of experiments of 22; the two factors are Mg and Ag at two levels of concentration. The superior mechanical properties of the produced Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys after aging will be resulted from a unique type of precipitation named as Ω-phase. The formed precipitate enhanced the tensile strength and thermal stability. This paper further investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys after being complete homogenized treatment at 520 °C for 8 hours followed by isothermally age hardening process at 190 °C for different periods of time. The homogenization at 520 °C for 8 hours was selected based on homogenization study at various temperatures and times. The alloys’ microstructures were studied by using optical microscopy (OM). In addition to that, the fracture surface investigation was performed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Studying the microstructure of aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys reveal that the grains are equiaxed with an average grain size of about 50 µm. A detailed fractography study for fractured surface of the aged alloys exhibited a mixed fracture whereby the random fracture suggested crack propagation along the grain boundaries while the dimples indicated that the fracture was ductile. The present result has shown that alloy 5 has the highest hardness values and the best mechanical behaviors.
An Advanced Exponential Model for Seismic Isolators Having Hardening or Softening Behavior at Large Displacements
In this paper, an advanced Nonlinear Exponential
Model (NEM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of
seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness
with increasing displacement in the relatively large displacements
range and a hardening or softening behavior at large displacements, is
presented. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the
experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops obtained during
cyclic tests, conducted on a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled
rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted analytically.
Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results
shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to
predict the force-displacement relationship of seismic isolation
devices within the large displacements range. Compared to the
widely used Bouc-Wen model, unable to simulate the response of
seismic isolators at large displacements, the proposed one allows to
avoid the numerical solution of a first order nonlinear ordinary
differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history
analysis, thus reducing the computation effort. Furthermore, the
proposed model can simulate the smooth transition of the hysteresis
loops from small to large displacements by adopting only one set of
five parameters determined from the experimental hysteresis loops
having the largest amplitude.
Press Hardening of Tubes with Additional Interior Spray Cooling
Press-hardened profiles are used e.g. for automotive
applications in order to improve light weight construction due to the
high reachable strength. The application of interior water-air spray
cooling contributes to significantly reducing the cycle time in the
production of heat-treated tubes. This paper describes a new
manufacturing method for producing press-hardened hollow profiles
by means of an additional interior cooling based on a water-air spray.
Furthermore, this paper provides the results of thorough
investigations on the properties of press-hardened tubes in
dependence of varying spray parameters.
Enhancement of Hardness Related Properties of Grey Cast Iron Powder Reinforced AA7075 Metal Matrix Composites through T6 and T8 Heat Treatments
In present global scenario, aluminum alloys are
coining the attention of many innovators as competing structural
materials for automotive and space applications. Comparing to other
challenging alloys, especially, 7xxx series aluminum alloys have
been studied seriously because of benefits such as moderate strength;
better deforming characteristics and affordable cost. It is expected
that substitution of aluminum alloys for steels will result in great
improvements in energy economy, durability and recyclability.
However, it is necessary to improve the strength and the formability
levels at low temperatures in aluminum alloys for still better
applications. Aluminum–Zinc–Magnesium with or without other
wetting agent denoted as 7XXX series alloys are medium strength
heat treatable alloys. In addition to Zn, Mg as major alloying
additions, Cu, Mn and Si are the other solute elements which
contribute for the improvement in mechanical properties by suitable
heat treatment process. Subjecting to suitable treatments like age
hardening or cold deformation assisted heat treatments; known as low
temperature thermomechanical treatments (LTMT) the challenging
properties might be incorporated. T6 is the age hardening or
precipitation hardening process with artificial aging cycle whereas T8
comprises of LTMT treatment aged artificially with X% cold
deformation. When the cold deformation is provided after solution
treatment, there is increase in hardness related properties such as
wear resistance, yield and ultimate strength, toughness with the
expense of ductility. During precipitation hardening both hardness
and strength of the samples are increasing. The hardness value may
further improve when room temperature deformation is positively
supported with age hardening known as thermomechanical treatment.
It is intended to perform heat treatment and evaluate hardness, tensile
strength, wear resistance and distribution pattern of reinforcement in
the matrix. 2 to 2.5 and 3 to 3.5 times increase in hardness is reported
in age hardening and LTMT treatments respectively as compared to
as-cast composite. There was better distribution of reinforcements in
the matrix, nearly two fold increase in strength levels and up to 5
times increase in wear resistance are also observed in the present
A TFETI Domain Decompositon Solver for Von Mises Elastoplasticity Model with Combination of Linear Isotropic-Kinematic Hardening
In this paper we present the efficient parallel
implementation of elastoplastic problems based on the TFETI (Total
Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting) domain decomposition
method. This approach allow us to use parallel solution and compute
this nonlinear problem on the supercomputers and decrease the
solution time and compute problems with millions of DOFs. In
our approach we consider an associated elastoplastic model with
the von Mises plastic criterion and the combination of linear
isotropic-kinematic hardening law. This model is discretized by
the implicit Euler method in time and by the finite element
method in space. We consider the system of nonlinear equations
with a strongly semismooth and strongly monotone operator. The
semismooth Newton method is applied to solve this nonlinear
system. Corresponding linearized problems arising in the Newton
iterations are solved in parallel by the above mentioned TFETI. The
implementation of this problem is realized in our in-house MatSol
packages developed in MatLab.
Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy
In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is
prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and
1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum
atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are
reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for
measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and
load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the
comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.
Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening
This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051
micro-controller, able to assure reliable operation in the presence of
bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the
8051 micro-controller, Hamming code protection was used in its
SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code has been used for this
hamming code protection.
Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based On Kinematic Hardening Model
In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.
Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Respect to Objective Function
Constitutive modeling of material behavior is becoming increasingly important in prediction of possible failures in highly loaded engineering components, and consequently, optimization of their design. In order to account for large number of phenomena that occur in the material during operation, such as kinematic hardening effect in low cycle fatigue behavior of steels, complex nonlinear material models are used ever more frequently, despite of the complexity of determination of their parameters. As a method for the determination of these parameters, genetic algorithm is good choice because of its capability to provide very good approximation of the solution in systems with large number of unknown variables. For the application of genetic algorithm to parameter identification, inverse analysis must be primarily defined. It is used as a tool to fine-tune calculated stress-strain values with experimental ones. In order to choose proper objective function for inverse analysis among already existent and newly developed functions, the research is performed to investigate its influence on material behavior modeling.
Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy
2024 Aluminum alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175°C for 36h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the S’ phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.
Precipitation Hardening Behavior of Directly Cold Rolled Al-6Mg Alloy Containing Ternary Sc and Quaternary Zi/Ti
Ageing of 75% cold rolled Al-6Mg alloy with ternary 0.4 wt% scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium has been carried out. Alloy samples are naturally, isochronally and isothermally aged for different time and temperatures. Hardness values of the differently processed alloys have been measured to understand the ageing behavior of Al-6Mg alloy with scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium addition. Resistivity changes with annealing time and temperature were measured to understand the precipitation behavior and recovery of strain of the alloy. Attempts were also made to understand the grain refining effect of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides and the dendrites of the Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium.
Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization of Heat Treated Stir Cast Silica (Sea Sand) Reinforced 7XXX Al Alloy MMCs
Metal matrix composites consists of a metallic matrix combined with dispersed particulate phase as reinforcement. Aluminum alloys have been the primary material of choice for structural components of aircraft since about 1930. Well known performance characteristics, known fabrication costs, design experience, and established manufacturing methods and facilities, are just a few of the reasons for the continued confidence in 7XXX Al alloys that will ensure their use in significant quantities for the time to come. Particulate MMCs are of special interest owing to the low cost of their raw materials (primarily natural river sand here) and their ease of fabrication, making them suitable for applications requiring relatively high volume production. 7XXX Al alloys are precipitation hardenable and therefore amenable for thermomechanical treatment. Al–Zn alloys reinforced with particulate materials are used in aerospace industries in spite of the drawbacks of susceptibility to stress corrosion, poor wettability, poor weldability and poor fatigue resistance. The resistance offered by these particulates for the moving dislocations impart secondary hardening in turn contributes strain hardening. Cold deformation increases lattice defects, which in turn improves the properties of solution treated alloy. In view of this, six different Al–Zn–Mg alloy composites reinforced with silica (3 wt. % and 5 wt. %) are prepared by conventional semisolid synthesizing process. The cast alloys are solution treated and aged. The solution treated alloys are further severely cold rolled to enhance the properties. The hardness and strength values are analyzed and compared with silica free Al – Zn-Mg alloys. Precipitation hardening phenomena is accelerated due to the increased number of potential sites for precipitation. Higher peak hardness and lesser aging time are the characteristics of thermo mechanically treated samples. For obtaining maximum hardness, optimum number and volume of precipitate particles are required. The Al-5Zn-1Mg with 5% SiO2 alloy composite shows better result.
Strength Optimization of Induction Hardened Splined Shaft – Material and Geometric Aspects
the current study presents a modeling framework to determine the torsion strength of an induction hardened splined shaft by considering geometry and material aspects with the aim to optimize the static torsion strength by selection of spline geometry and hardness depth. Six different spline geometries and seven different hardness profiles including non-hardened and throughhardened shafts have been considered. The results reveal that the torque that causes initial yielding of the induction hardened splined shaft is strongly dependent on the hardness depth and the geometry of the spline teeth. Guidelines for selection of the appropriate hardness depth and spline geometry are given such that an optimum static torsion strength of the component can be achieved.
Security Analysis of Password Hardened Multimodal Biometric Fuzzy Vault
Biometric techniques are gaining importance for
personal authentication and identification as compared to the
traditional authentication methods. Biometric templates are
vulnerable to variety of attacks due to their inherent nature. When a
person-s biometric is compromised his identity is lost. In contrast to
password, biometric is not revocable. Therefore, providing security
to the stored biometric template is very crucial. Crypto biometric
systems are authentication systems, which blends the idea of
cryptography and biometrics. Fuzzy vault is a proven crypto
biometric construct which is used to secure the biometric templates.
However fuzzy vault suffer from certain limitations like nonrevocability,
cross matching. Security of the fuzzy vault is affected
by the non-uniform nature of the biometric data. Fuzzy vault when
hardened with password overcomes these limitations. Password
provides an additional layer of security and enhances user privacy.
Retina has certain advantages over other biometric traits. Retinal
scans are used in high-end security applications like access control to
areas or rooms in military installations, power plants, and other high
risk security areas. This work applies the idea of fuzzy vault for
retinal biometric template. Multimodal biometric system
performance is well compared to single modal biometric systems.
The proposed multi modal biometric fuzzy vault includes combined
feature points from retina and fingerprint. The combined vault is
hardened with user password for achieving high level of security.
The security of the combined vault is measured using min-entropy.
The proposed password hardened multi biometric fuzzy vault is
robust towards stored biometric template attacks.
Curing Time Effect on Behavior of Cement Treated Marine Clay
Cement stabilization has been widely used for
improving the strength and stiffness of soft clayey soils. Cement
treated soil specimens used to investigate the stress-strain behaviour in
the laboratory study are usually cured for 7 days. This paper examines
the effects of curing time on the strength and stress strain behaviour of
cement treated marine clay under triaxial loading condition.
Laboratory-prepared cement treated Singapore marine clay with
different mix proportion S-C-W (soil solid-cement solid-water) and
curing time (7 days to 180 days) was investigated through conducting
unconfined compressive strength test and triaxial test. The results
show that the curing time has a significant effect on the unconfined
compressive strength u q , isotropic compression behaviour and stress
strain behaviour. Although the primary yield loci of the cement treated
soil specimens with the same mix proportion expand with curing time,
they are very narrowly banded and have nearly the same shape after
being normalized by isotropic compression primary stress '
py p . The
isotropic compression primary yield stress '
py p was shown to be
linearly related to unconfined compressive strength u q for specimens
with different curing time and mix proportion. The effect of curing
time on the hardening behaviour will diminish with consolidation
stress higher than isotropic compression primary yield stress but its
damping rate is dependent on the cement content.
Laser Surface Hardening Considering Coupled Thermoelasticity using an Eulerian Formulations
Thermoelastic temperature, displacement, and
stress in heat transfer during laser surface hardening are solved
in Eulerian formulation. In Eulerian formulations the heat flux
is fixed in space and the workpiece is moved through a control
volume. In the case of uniform velocity and uniform heat flux
distribution, the Eulerian formulations leads to a steady-state
problem, while the Lagrangian formulations remains transient.
In Eulerian formulations the reduction to a steady-state
problem increases the computational efficiency. In this study
also an analytical solution is developed for an uncoupled
transient heat conduction equation in which a plane slab is
heated by a laser beam. The thermal result of the numerical
model is compared with the result of this analytical model.
Comparing the results shows numerical solution for uncoupled
equations are in good agreement with the analytical solution.
Design Calculation and Performance Testing of Heating Coil in Induction Surface Hardening Machine
The induction hardening machines are utilized in
the industries which modify machine parts and tools needed to
achieve high ware resistance. This paper describes the model of
induction heating process design of inverter circuit and the results
of induction surface hardening of heating coil. In the design of
heating coil, the shape and the turn numbers of the coil are very
important design factors because they decide the overall operating
performance of induction heater including resonant frequency, Q
factor, efficiency and power factor. The performance will be tested
by experiments in some cases high frequency induction hardening