Enhancing Seismic Performance of Ductile Moment Frames with Delayed Wire-Rope Bracing Using Middle Steel Plate
Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, if this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limit, it can impose unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame. Therefore, adding a bracing system with the capability of preserving the capacity of high energy absorption and controlling displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates the retrofitting of a single storey steel moment frame through a delayed wire-rope bracing system using a middle steel plate. In this model, the steel plate lies where the wire ropes meet, and the model geometry is such that the cables are continuously under tension so that they can take the most advantage of the inherent potential they have in tolerating tensile stress. Using the steel plate also reduces the system stiffness considerably compared to cross bracing systems and preserves the ductile frame’s energy absorption capacity. In this research, the software models of delayed wire-rope bracing system have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers’ laboratory test results.
Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic
This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of
local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes
that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to
relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and
hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the
adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance
improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching
logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.
Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies
Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important
parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored
at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it
is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is,
therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining
in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three
nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation.
One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one
state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF),
the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying
smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the
results are compared.
Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model
In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto-
Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic
behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing
tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The
parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously
decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the
dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear
elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The
mathematical model has been validated by comparing the
experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a
helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced
bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between
the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed
model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement
relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large
displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the
proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order
ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a
nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort,
and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from
experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic
tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the
initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.
Influence of Displacement Amplitude and Vertical Load on the Horizontal Dynamic and Static Behavior of Helical Wire Rope Isolators
In this paper, the results of experimental tests
performed on a Helical Wire Rope Isolator (HWRI) are presented in
order to describe the dynamic and static behavior of the selected
metal device in three different displacements ranges, namely small,
relatively large, and large displacements ranges, without and under
the effect of a vertical load. A testing machine, allowing to apply
horizontal displacement or load histories to the tested bearing with a
constant vertical load, has been adopted to perform the dynamic and
static tests. According to the experimental results, the dynamic
behavior of the tested device depends on the applied displacement
amplitude. Indeed, the HWRI displays a softening and a hardening
stiffness at small and relatively large displacements, respectively, and
a stronger nonlinear stiffening behavior at large displacements.
Furthermore, the experimental tests reveal that the application of a
vertical load allows to have a more flexible device with higher
damping properties and that the applied vertical load affects much
less the dynamic response of the metal device at large displacements.
Finally, a decrease in the static to dynamic effective stiffness ratio
with increasing displacement amplitude has been observed.
Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures
Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.
Effect of Subsequent Drying and Wetting on the Small Strain Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Soils
Evaluation of the seismic-induced settlement of an unsaturated soil layer depends on several variables, among which the small strain shear modulus, Gmax, and soil’s state of stress have been demonstrated to be of particular significance. Recent interpretation of trends in Gmax revealed considerable effects of the degree of saturation and hydraulic hysteresis on the shear stiffness of soils in unsaturated states. Accordingly, the soil layer is expected to experience different settlement behaviors depending on the soil saturation and seasonal weathering conditions. In this study, a semi-empirical formulation was adapted to extend an existing Gmax model to infer hysteretic effects along different paths of the SWRC including scanning curves. The suitability of the proposed approach is validated against experimental results from a suction-controlled resonant column test and from data reported in literature. The model was observed to follow the experimental data along different paths of the SWRC, and showed a slight hysteresis in shear modulus along the scanning curves.
Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load
Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan.
It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The
devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the
devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic
isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic
isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If
hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral
compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have
energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer
and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported
how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a
perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified
that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral
compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the
outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by
using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is
effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner
layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result,
the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness.
Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in
fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer
circular tube under the condition.
Modeling of Single Bay Precast Residential House Using Ruaumoko 2D Program
Precast residential houses are normally constructed in Malaysia using precast shear-key wall panel and this panel is designed using BS8110 where there is no provision for earthquake. However, the safety of this house under moderate and strong earthquake is still questionable. Consequently, the full-scale of residential house are designed, constructed, tested and analyzed under in-plane lateral quasi-static cyclic loading. Hysteresis loops are plotted based on the experimental work and compared with modeling of hysteresis loops using HYSTERES in RUAUMOKO 2D program. Modified Takeda hysteresis model is chosen to behave a similar pattern with experimental work. This program will display the earthquake excitations, spectral displacements, pseudo spectral acceleration, mode shape and deformation of the structure. It can be concluded that this building is suffering severe cracks and damage under moderate and severe earthquake.
Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper
There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.
Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System
Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field
of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace
conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen
energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel
cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs
proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates
with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power
at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel
cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for
fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control
Adaptive Hysteresis Based SHAF Using PI and FLC Controller for Current Harmonics Mitigation
Due to the increased use of the power electronic equipment, harmonics in the power system has increased to a greater extent. These harmonics results a poor power quality causing a major effect on the customers. Shunt active filters (SHAF) are used for the mitigations of the current harmonics and to maintain constant DC link voltage. PI and Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) were used to control the performance of the shunt active filter under both balance and unbalance source voltage condition. The results found were not satisfying the IEEE-519 standards of THD to be less than 5%. Hysteresis band current control was used to obtain the gating signals for SHAF, though it has some drawbacks and thus to obtain a better performance of the SHAF to mitigate the harmonics, adaptive hysteresis band current control scheme is implemented. Adaptive hysteresis based SHAF is used to obtain better compensation of current harmonics and to regulate the DC link voltage in a better way.
Model-Based Control for Piezoelectric-Actuated Systems Using Inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii Model and Particle Swarm Optimization
In this paper feedforward controller is designed to eliminate nonlinear hysteresis behaviors of a piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA) driven system. The control design is based on inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) hysteresis model identified using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. Based on the identified P-I model, both the inverse P-I hysteresis model and feedforward controller can be determined. Experimental results obtained using the inverse P-I feedforward control are compared with their counterparts using hysteresis estimates obtained from the identified Bouc-Wen model. Effectiveness of the proposed feedforward control scheme is demonstrated. To improve control performance feedback compensation using traditional PID scheme is adopted to integrate with the feedforward controller.
Fuzzy Logic Controller Based Shunt Active Filter with Different MFs for Current Harmonics Elimination
One of the major power quality concerns in modern times is the problem of current harmonics. The current harmonics is caused due to the increase in non-linear loads which is largely dominated by power electronics devices. The Shunt active filtering is one of the best solutions for mitigating current harmonics. This paper describes a fuzzy logic controller based (FLC) based three Phase Shunt active Filter to achieve low current harmonic distortion (THD) and Reactive power compensation. The performance of fuzzy logic controller is analysed under both balanced sinusoidal and unbalanced sinusoidal source condition. The above controller serves the purpose of maintaining DC Capacitor Voltage constant. The proposed shunt active filter uses hysteresis current controller for current control of IGBT based PWM inverter. The simulation results of model in Simulink MATLAB reveals satisfying results.
Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller with D-Q-O Reference Frame Technique Based Active Power Filter
Active power filter continues to be a powerful tool to control harmonics in power systems thereby enhancing the power quality. This paper presents a fuzzy tuned PID controller based shunt active filter to diminish the harmonics caused by non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifiers and imbalanced loads. Here Fuzzy controller provides the tuning of PID, based on firing of thyristor bridge rectifiers and variations in input rms current. The shunt APF system is implemented with three phase current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and is connected at the point of common coupling for compensating the current harmonics by injecting equal but opposite filter currents. These controllers are capable of controlling dc-side capacitor voltage and estimating reference currents. Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC) is used to generate switching signals for the voltage source inverter. Simulation studies are carried out with non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifier along with unbalanced loads and the results proved that the APF along with fuzzy tuned PID controller work flawlessly for different firing angles of non linear load.
Advances on LuGre Friction Model
LuGre friction model is an ordinary differential equation that is widely used in describing the friction phenomenon
for mechanical systems. The importance of this model comes from the fact that it captures most of the friction behavior that has been observed including hysteresis. In this paper, we study some aspects related to the hysteresis behavior induced by the LuGre friction model.
Low Value Capacitance Measurement System with Adjustable Lead Capacitance Compensation
The present paper describes the development of a low cost, highly accurate low capacitance measurement system that can be used over a range of 0 – 400 pF with a resolution of 1 pF. The range of capacitance may be easily altered by a simple resistance or capacitance variation of the measurement circuit. This capacitance measurement system uses quad two-input NAND Schmitt trigger circuit CD4093B with hysteresis for the measurement and this system is integrated with PIC 18F2550 microcontroller for data acquisition purpose. The microcontroller interacts with software developed in the PC end through USB architecture and an attractive graphical user interface (GUI) based system is developed in the PC end to provide the user with real time, online display of capacitance under measurement. The system uses a differential mode of capacitance measurement, with reference to a trimmer capacitance, that effectively compensates lead capacitances, a notorious error encountered in usual low capacitance measurements. The hysteresis provided in the Schmitt-trigger circuits enable reliable operation of the system by greatly minimizing the possibility of false triggering because of stray interferences, usually regarded as another source of significant error. The real life testing of the proposed system showed that our measurements could produce highly accurate capacitance measurements, when compared to cutting edge, high end digital capacitance meters.
Effect of Electric Field Amplitude on Electrical Fatigue Behavior of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramic
Fatigue behaviors of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)
ceramics under different amplitude of bipolar electrical loads have
been investigated. Fatigue behavior is represented by the change of
hysteresis loops and remnant polarization. Three levels of electrical
load amplitudes (1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kV /mm) were applied in this
experimental. It was found that the remnant polarization decreased
significantly with the number of loading cycles. The degree of fatigue
degradation depends on the amplitude of electric field. The higher
amplitude exhibits the greater fatigue degradation.
Visualized Characterization of Molecular Mobility for Water Species in Foods
Six parameters, the effective diffusivity (De),
activation energy of De, pre-exponential factor of De, amount
(ASOW) of self-organized water species, and amplitude (α) of the
forced oscillation of the molecular mobility (1/tC) derived from the
forced cyclic temperature change operation, were characterized by
using six typical foods, squid, sardines, scallops, salmon, beef, and
pork, as a function of the correlation time (tC) of the water molecule-s
proton retained in the foods. Each of the six parameters was clearly
divided into the water species A1 and A2 at a specified value of tC
=10-8s (=CtC), indicating an anomalous change in the physicochemical
nature of the water species at the CtC. The forced oscillation of 1/tC
clearly demonstrated a characteristic mode depending on the food
shown as a three dimensional map associated with 1/tC, the amount of
self-organized water, and tC.
Integral Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator System
We propose an integral tracking control method for a piezoelectric actuator system. The proposed method achieves the output tracking without requiring any hysteresis observer or schemes to compensate the hysteresis effect. With the proposed control law, the system is converted into the standard singularly perturbed model. Using Tikhonov-s theorem, we guarantee that the tracking error can be reduced to arbitrarily small bound. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
The Comparison Study of Current Control Techniques for Active Power Filters
This paper presents the comparison study of current control techniques for shunt active power filter. The hysteresis current control, the delta modulation control and the carrier-based PWM control are considered in the paper. The synchronous detection method is used to calculate the reference currents for shunt active power filter. The simulation results show that the carrier-based PWM control technique provides the minimum %THD value of the source currents compared with other comparable techniques after compensation. However, the %THD values of all three techniques can follow the IEEE std.519-1992.
Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of Al/BaxSr1-xTiO3/Pt/SiO2/Si Configuration for FeFET Applications
The ferroelectric behavior of barium strontium
titanate (BST) in thin film form has been investigated in order to
study the possibility of using BST for ferroelectric gate-field effect
transistor (FeFET) for memory devices application. BST thin films
have been fabricated as Al/BST/Pt/SiO2/Si-gate configuration. The
variation of the dielectric constant (ε) and tan δ with frequency have
been studied to ensure the dielectric quality of the material. The
results show that at low frequencies, ε increases as the Ba content
increases, whereas at high frequencies, it shows the opposite
variation, which is attributed to the dipole dynamics. tan δ shows low
values with a peak at the mid-frequency range. The ferroelectric
behavior of the Al/BST/Pt/SiO2/Si has been investigated using C-V
characteristics. The results show that the strength of the ferroelectric
hysteresis loop increases as the Ba content increases; this is attributed
to the grain size and dipole dynamics effect.
Experimental Study on the Hysteresis Properties in Operation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Hysteresis phenomenon has been observed in the
operations of both horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines
(HAWTs and VAWTs). In this study, wind tunnel experiments were
applied to investigate the characters of hysteresis phenomena between
the angular speed and the external resistance of electrical loading
during the operation of a Darrieus type VAWT. Data of output voltage,
output current, angular speed of wind turbine under different wind
speeds are measured and analyzed. Results show that the range of
external resistance changes with the wind speed. The range decreases
as the wind speed increases following an exponential decay form.
Experiments also indicate that the maximum output power of wind
turbines is always inside the range where hysteresis happened. These
results provide an important reference to the design of output control
system of wind turbines.
Influence of Hydraulic Hysteresis on Effective Stress in Unsaturated Clay
A comprehensive program of laboratory testing on a
compacted kaolin in a modified triaxial cell was perform to
investigate the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on effective stress in
unsaturated soils. The test data are presented on a range of constant
suction shear tests along wetting and drying paths. The values of
effective stress parameter χ at different matric suction were
determined using the test results. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis
phenomenon on the effective stress was observed. The values of
effective stress parameter χ obtained from the experiments were
compared with those obtained from the expressions proposed in
Mobile Velocity Based Bidirectional Call Overflow Scheme in Hierarchical Cellular System
In the age of global communications, heterogeneous
networks are seen to be the best choice of strategy to ensure continuous and uninterruptible services. This will allow mobile
terminal to stay in connection even they are migrating into different segment coverage through the handoff process. With the increase of
teletraffic demands in mobile cellular system, hierarchical cellular systems have been adopted extensively for more efficient channel
utilization and better QoS (Quality of Service). This paper presents a
bidirectional call overflow scheme between two layers of microcells and macrocells, where handoffs are decided by the velocity of mobile
making the call. To ensure that handoff calls are given higher priorities, it is assumed that guard channels are assigned in both
macrocells and microcells. A hysteresis value introduced in mobile velocity is used to allow mobile roam in the same cell if its velocity
changes back within the set threshold values. By doing this the number of handoffs is reduced thereby reducing the processing overhead and enhancing the quality of service to the end user.
Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller
This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic
behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of
the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a
dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in
detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers.
This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing
the validity of the theoretical study.
Hysteresis Modulation Based Sliding Mode Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter
The Object of this paper is to design and analyze a
Hysteresis modulation based sliding mode control (HMSMC) for
positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC),
which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output
elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage
conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage.
This paper proposes a HMSMC capable of providing the good
steady state and dynamic performance compared to conventional
controllers. Dynamic equations describing the positive output
elementary super lift luo converter are derived by using state space
average method. The simulation model of the positive output
elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is
implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The HMSMC for positive
output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for line
changes, load changes and also for components variations.
Comparison of Field-Oriented Control and Direct Torque Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
This paper presents a comparative study on two most
popular control strategies for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
(PMSM) drives: field-oriented control (FOC) and direct torque
control (DTC). The comparison is based on various criteria including
basic control characteristics, dynamic performance, and
implementation complexity. The study is done by simulation using
the Simulink Power System Blockset that allows a complete
representation of the power section (inverter and PMSM) and the
control system. The simulation and evaluation of both control
strategies are performed using actual parameters of Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor fed by an IGBT PWM inverter.
A Fixed Band Hysteresis Current Controller for Voltage Source AC Chopper
Most high-performance ac drives utilize a current
controller. The controller switches a voltage source inverter (VSI)
such that the motor current follows a set of reference current
waveforms. Fixed-band hysteresis (FBH) current control has been
widely used for the PWM inverter. We want to apply the same
controller for the PWM AC chopper. The aims of the controller is to
optimize the harmonic content at both input and output sides, while
maintaining acceptable losses in the ac chopper and to control in
wide range the fundamental output voltage. Fixed band controller has
been simulated and analyzed for a single-phase AC chopper and are
easily extended to three-phase systems. Simulation confirmed the
advantages and the excellent performance of the modulation method
applied for the AC chopper.
Qualitative Modelling for Ferromagnetic Hysteresis Cycle
In determining the electromagnetic properties of
magnetic materials, hysteresis modeling is of high importance. Many
models are available to investigate those characteristics but they tend
to be complex and difficult to implement. In this paper a new
qualitative hysteresis model for ferromagnetic core is presented,
based on the function approximation capabilities of adaptive neuro
fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The proposed ANFIS model
combined the neural network adaptive capabilities and the fuzzy
logic qualitative approach can restored the hysteresis curve with a
little RMS error. The model accuracy is good and can be easily
adapted to the requirements of the application by extending or
reducing the network training set and thus the required amount of