Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 13

13
10008298
Object Detection in Digital Images under Non-Standardized Conditions Using Illumination and Shadow Filtering
Abstract:
In recent years, object detection has gained much attention and very encouraging research area in the field of computer vision. The robust object boundaries detection in an image is demanded in numerous applications of human computer interaction and automated surveillance systems. Many methods and approaches have been developed for automatic object detection in various fields, such as automotive, quality control management and environmental services. Inappropriately, to the best of our knowledge, object detection under illumination with shadow consideration has not been well solved yet. Furthermore, this problem is also one of the major hurdles to keeping an object detection method from the practical applications. This paper presents an approach to automatic object detection in images under non-standardized environmental conditions. A key challenge is how to detect the object, particularly under uneven illumination conditions. Image capturing conditions the algorithms need to consider a variety of possible environmental factors as the colour information, lightening and shadows varies from image to image. Existing methods mostly failed to produce the appropriate result due to variation in colour information, lightening effects, threshold specifications, histogram dependencies and colour ranges. To overcome these limitations we propose an object detection algorithm, with pre-processing methods, to reduce the interference caused by shadow and illumination effects without fixed parameters. We use the Y CrCb colour model without any specific colour ranges and predefined threshold values. The segmented object regions are further classified using morphological operations (Erosion and Dilation) and contours. Proposed approach applied on a large image data set acquired under various environmental conditions for wood stack detection. Experiments show the promising result of the proposed approach in comparison with existing methods.
12
10003227
Multi-Layer Multi-Feature Background Subtraction Using Codebook Model Framework
Abstract:
Background modeling and subtraction in video analysis has been widely used as an effective method for moving objects detection in many computer vision applications. Recently, a large number of approaches have been developed to tackle different types of challenges in this field. However, the dynamic background and illumination variations are the most frequently occurred problems in the practical situation. This paper presents a favorable two-layer model based on codebook algorithm incorporated with local binary pattern (LBP) texture measure, targeted for handling dynamic background and illumination variation problems. More specifically, the first layer is designed by block-based codebook combining with LBP histogram and mean value of each RGB color channel. Because of the invariance of the LBP features with respect to monotonic gray-scale changes, this layer can produce block wise detection results with considerable tolerance of illumination variations. The pixel-based codebook is employed to reinforce the precision from the output of the first layer which is to eliminate false positives further. As a result, the proposed approach can greatly promote the accuracy under the circumstances of dynamic background and illumination changes. Experimental results on several popular background subtraction datasets demonstrate very competitive performance compared to previous models.
11
10002704
Physiological and Psychological Influence on Office Workers during Demand Response
Abstract:

In recent years, the power system has been changed and a flexible power pricing system such as demand response has been sought in Japan. The demand response system works simply in the household sector and the owner as the decision-maker, can benefit from power saving. On the other hand, the execution of demand response in the office building is more complex than in the household because various people such as owners, building administrators and occupants are involved in the decision-making process. While the owners benefit from demand saving, the occupants are exposed to restricted benefits of a demand-saved environment. One of the reasons is that building systems are usually under centralized management and each occupant cannot choose freely whether to participate in demand response or not. In addition, it is unclear whether incentives give occupants the motivation to participate. However, the recent development of IT and building systems enables the personalized control of the office environment where each occupant can control the lighting level or temperature individually. Therefore, it can be possible to have a system which each occupant can make a decision of whether or not to participate in demand response in the office building. This study investigates personal responses to demand response requests, under the condition where each occupant can adjust their brightness individually in their workspace. Once workers participate in the demand response, their desk-lights are automatically turned off. The participation rates in the demand response events are compared among four groups, which are divided by different motivation, the presence, or absence of incentives and the method of participation. The result shows that there are significant differences of participation rates in demand response event between four groups. The method of participation has a large effect on the participation rate. The “Opt-out” groups where the occupants are automatically enrolled in a demand response event if they do not express non-participation have the highest participation rate in the four groups. Incentives also have an effect on the participation rate. This study also reports on the impact of low illumination office environment on the occupants, such as stress or fatigue. The electrocardiogram and the questionnaire are used to investigate the autonomic nervous activity and subjective fatigue symptoms of the occupants. There is no big difference between dim workspace during demand response event and bright workspace in autonomic nervous activity and fatigue.

10
10000943
Toward Indoor and Outdoor Surveillance Using an Improved Fast Background Subtraction Algorithm
Abstract:

The detection of moving objects from a video image sequences is very important for object tracking, activity recognition, and behavior understanding in video surveillance. The most used approach for moving objects detection / tracking is background subtraction algorithms. Many approaches have been suggested for background subtraction. But, these are illumination change sensitive and the solutions proposed to bypass this problem are time consuming. In this paper, we propose a robust yet computationally efficient background subtraction approach and, mainly, focus on the ability to detect moving objects on dynamic scenes, for possible applications in complex and restricted access areas monitoring, where moving and motionless persons must be reliably detected. It consists of three main phases, establishing illumination changes invariance, background/foreground modeling and morphological analysis for noise removing. We handle illumination changes using Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), which limits the intensity of each pixel to user determined maximum. Thus, it mitigates the degradation due to scene illumination changes and improves the visibility of the video signal. Initially, the background and foreground images are extracted from the video sequence. Then, the background and foreground images are separately enhanced by applying CLAHE. In order to form multi-modal backgrounds we model each channel of a pixel as a mixture of K Gaussians (K=5) using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Finally, we post process the resulting binary foreground mask using morphological erosion and dilation transformations to remove possible noise. For experimental test, we used a standard dataset to challenge the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method on a diverse set of dynamic scenes.

9
9999381
Potential of Energy Conservation of Daylight Linked Lighting System in India
Abstract:

Demand of energy is increasing faster than the generation. It leads shortage of power in all sectors of society. At peak hours this shortage is higher. Unless we utilize energy efficient technology, it is very difficult to minimize the shortage of energy. So energy efficiency program and energy conservation has an important role. Energy efficient technologies are cost intensive hence it is always not possible to implement in country like India. In the recent study, an educational building with operating hours from 10:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. has been selected to quantify the possibility of lighting energy conservation. As the operating hour is in daytime, integration of daylight with artificial lighting system will definitely reduce the lighting energy consumption. Moreover the initial investment has been given priority and hence the existing lighting installation was unaltered. An automatic controller has been designed which will be operated as a function of daylight through windows and the lighting system of the room will function accordingly. The result of the study of integrating daylight gave quite satisfactory for visual comfort as well as energy conservation.

8
16298
Cartoon Effect and Ambient Illumination Based Depth Perception Assessment of 3D Video
Authors:
Abstract:

Monitored 3-Dimensional (3D) video experience can be utilized as “feedback information” to fine tune the service parameters for providing a better service to the demanding 3D service customers. The 3D video experience which includes both video quality and depth perception is influenced by several contextual and content related factors (e.g., ambient illumination condition, content characteristics, etc) due to the complex nature of the 3D video. Therefore, effective factors on this experience should be utilized while assessing it. In this paper, structural information of the depth map sequences of the 3D video is considered as content related factor effective on the depth perception assessment. Cartoon-like filter is utilized to abstract the significant depth levels in the depth map sequences to determine the structural information. Moreover, subjective experiments are conducted using 3D videos associated with cartoon-like depth map sequences to investigate the effectiveness of ambient illumination condition, which is a contextual factor, on depth perception. Using the knowledge gained through this study, 3D video experience metrics can be developed to deliver better service to the 3D video service users. 

7
6318
2D Spherical Spaces for Face Relighting under Harsh Illumination
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a robust face relighting technique by using spherical space properties. The proposed method is done for reducing the illumination effects on face recognition. Given a single 2D face image, we relight the face object by extracting the nine spherical harmonic bases and the face spherical illumination coefficients. First, an internal training illumination database is generated by computing face albedo and face normal from 2D images under different lighting conditions. Based on the generated database, we analyze the target face pixels and compare them with the training bootstrap by using pre-generated tiles. In this work, practical real time processing speed and small image size were considered when designing the framework. In contrast to other works, our technique requires no 3D face models for the training process and takes a single 2D image as an input. Experimental results on publicly available databases show that the proposed technique works well under severe lighting conditions with significant improvements on the face recognition rates.
6
11739
Face Texture Reconstruction for Illumination Variant Face Recognition
Abstract:
In illumination variant face recognition, existing methods extracting face albedo as light normalized image may lead to loss of extensive facial details, with light template discarded. To improve that, a novel approach for realistic facial texture reconstruction by combining original image and albedo image is proposed. First, light subspaces of different identities are established from the given reference face images; then by projecting the original and albedo image into each light subspace respectively, texture reference images with corresponding lighting are reconstructed and two texture subspaces are formed. According to the projections in texture subspaces, facial texture with normal light can be synthesized. Due to the combination of original image, facial details can be preserved with face albedo. In addition, image partition is applied to improve the synthesization performance. Experiments on Yale B and CMUPIE databases demonstrate that this algorithm outperforms the others both in image representation and in face recognition.
5
13691
Adaptive Block State Update Method for Separating Background
Abstract:
In this paper, we proposed the robust mobile object detection method for light effect in the night street image block based updating reference background model using block state analysis. Experiment image is acquired sequence color video from steady camera. When suddenly appeared artificial illumination, reference background model update this information such as street light, sign light. Generally natural illumination is change by temporal, but artificial illumination is suddenly appearance. So in this paper for exactly detect artificial illumination have 2 state process. First process is compare difference between current image and reference background by block based, it can know changed blocks. Second process is difference between current image-s edge map and reference background image-s edge map, it possible to estimate illumination at any block. This information is possible to exactly detect object, artificial illumination and it was generating reference background more clearly. Block is classified by block-state analysis. Block-state has a 4 state (i.e. transient, stationary, background, artificial illumination). Fig. 1 is show characteristic of block-state respectively [1]. Experimental results show that the presented approach works well in the presence of illumination variance.
4
4885
A New Approach to Face Recognition Using Dual Dimension Reduction
Abstract:
In this paper a new approach to face recognition is presented that achieves double dimension reduction, making the system computationally efficient with better recognition results and out perform common DCT technique of face recognition. In pattern recognition techniques, discriminative information of image increases with increase in resolution to a certain extent, consequently face recognition results change with change in face image resolution and provide optimal results when arriving at a certain resolution level. In the proposed model of face recognition, initially image decimation algorithm is applied on face image for dimension reduction to a certain resolution level which provides best recognition results. Due to increased computational speed and feature extraction potential of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), it is applied on face image. A subset of coefficients of DCT from low to mid frequencies that represent the face adequately and provides best recognition results is retained. A tradeoff between decimation factor, number of DCT coefficients retained and recognition rate with minimum computation is obtained. Preprocessing of the image is carried out to increase its robustness against variations in poses and illumination level. This new model has been tested on different databases which include ORL , Yale and EME color database.
3
3973
An Improved Illumination Normalization based on Anisotropic Smoothing for Face Recognition
Abstract:
Robust face recognition under various illumination environments is very difficult and needs to be accomplished for successful commercialization. In this paper, we propose an improved illumination normalization method for face recognition. Illumination normalization algorithm based on anisotropic smoothing is well known to be effective among illumination normalization methods but deteriorates the intensity contrast of the original image, and incurs less sharp edges. The proposed method in this paper improves the previous anisotropic smoothing-based illumination normalization method so that it increases the intensity contrast and enhances the edges while diminishing the effect of illumination variations. Due to the result of these improvements, face images preprocessed by the proposed illumination normalization method becomes to have more distinctive feature vectors (Gabor feature vectors) for face recognition. Through experiments of face recognition based on Gabor feature vector similarity, the effectiveness of the proposed illumination normalization method is verified.
2
2516
Electromagnetic Imaging of Inhomogeneous Dielectric Cylinders Buried in a Slab Mediumby TE Wave Illumination
Abstract:
The electromagnetic imaging of inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders buried in a slab medium by transverse electric (TE) wave illumination is investigated. Dielectric cylinders of unknown permittivities are buried in second space and scattered a group of unrelated waves incident from first space where the scattered field is recorded. By proper arrangement of the various unrelated incident fields, the difficulties of ill-posedness and nonlinearity are circumvented, and the permittivity distribution can be reconstructed through simple matrix operations. The algorithm is based on the moment method and the unrelated illumination method. Numerical results are given to demonstrate the capability of the inverse algorithm. Good reconstruction is obtained even in the presence of additive Gaussian random noise in measured data. In addition, the effect of noise on the reconstruction result is also investigated.
1
981
Geometric Modeling of Illumination on the TFT-LCD Panel using Bezier Surface
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a geometric modeling of illumination on the patterned image containing etching transistor. This image is captured by a commercial camera during the inspection of a TFT-LCD panel. Inspection of defect is an important process in the production of LCD panel, but the regional difference in brightness, which has a negative effect on the inspection, is due to the uneven illumination environment. In order to solve this problem, we present a geometric modeling of illumination consisting of an interpolation using the least squares method and 3D modeling using bezier surface. Our computational time, by using the sampling method, is shorter than the previous methods. Moreover, it can be further used to correct brightness in every patterned image.

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