Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 93

A Neural Network Classifier for Estimation of the Degree of Infestation by Late Blight on Tomato Leaves

Foliage diseases in plants can cause a reduction in both quality and quantity of agricultural production. Intelligent detection of plant diseases is an essential research topic as it may help monitoring large fields of crops by automatically detecting the symptoms of foliage diseases. This work investigates ways to recognize the late blight disease from the analysis of tomato digital images, collected directly from the field. A pair of multilayer perceptron neural network analyzes the digital images, using data from both RGB and HSL color models, and classifies each image pixel. One neural network is responsible for the identification of healthy regions of the tomato leaf, while the other identifies the injured regions. The outputs of both networks are combined to generate the final classification of each pixel from the image and the pixel classes are used to repaint the original tomato images by using a color representation that highlights the injuries on the plant. The new images will have only green, red or black pixels, if they came from healthy or injured portions of the leaf, or from the background of the image, respectively. The system presented an accuracy of 97% in detection and estimation of the level of damage on the tomato leaves caused by late blight.

Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform
Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.
Detecting Tomato Flowers in Greenhouses Using Computer Vision
This paper presents an image analysis algorithm to detect and count yellow tomato flowers in a greenhouse with uneven illumination conditions, complex growth conditions and different flower sizes. The algorithm is designed to be employed on a drone that flies in greenhouses to accomplish several tasks such as pollination and yield estimation. Detecting the flowers can provide useful information for the farmer, such as the number of flowers in a row, and the number of flowers that were pollinated since the last visit to the row. The developed algorithm is designed to handle the real world difficulties in a greenhouse which include varying lighting conditions, shadowing, and occlusion, while considering the computational limitations of the simple processor in the drone. The algorithm identifies flowers using an adaptive global threshold, segmentation over the HSV color space, and morphological cues. The adaptive threshold divides the images into darker and lighter images. Then, segmentation on the hue, saturation and volume is performed accordingly, and classification is done according to size and location of the flowers. 1069 images of greenhouse tomato flowers were acquired in a commercial greenhouse in Israel, using two different RGB Cameras – an LG G4 smartphone and a Canon PowerShot A590. The images were acquired from multiple angles and distances and were sampled manually at various periods along the day to obtain varying lighting conditions. Ground truth was created by manually tagging approximately 25,000 individual flowers in the images. Sensitivity analyses on the acquisition angle of the images, periods throughout the day, different cameras and thresholding types were performed. Precision, recall and their derived F1 score were calculated. Results indicate better performance for the view angle facing the flowers than any other angle. Acquiring images in the afternoon resulted with the best precision and recall results. Applying a global adaptive threshold improved the median F1 score by 3%. Results showed no difference between the two cameras used. Using hue values of 0.12-0.18 in the segmentation process provided the best results in precision and recall, and the best F1 score. The precision and recall average for all the images when using these values was 74% and 75% respectively with an F1 score of 0.73. Further analysis showed a 5% increase in precision and recall when analyzing images acquired in the afternoon and from the front viewpoint.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercises of Upper Extremities Assessment Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor and Color Marker in a Virtual Reality Environment

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises are a series of stretching techniques that are commonly used in rehabilitation and exercise therapy. Assessment of these exercises for true maneuvering requires extensive experience in this field and could not be down with patients themselves. In this paper, we developed software that uses Microsoft Kinect sensor, a spherical color marker, and real-time image processing methods to evaluate patient’s performance in generating true patterns of movements. The software also provides the patient with a visual feedback by showing his/her avatar in a Virtual Reality environment along with the correct path of moving hand, wrist and marker. Primary results during PNF exercise therapy of a patient in a room environment shows the ability of the system to identify any deviation of maneuvering path and direction of the hand from the one that has been performed by an expert physician.

Tool Condition Monitoring of Ceramic Inserted Tools in High Speed Machining through Image Processing
Cutting tools with ceramic inserts are often used in the process of machining many types of superalloy, mainly due to their high strength and thermal resistance. Nevertheless, during the cutting process, the plastic flow wear generated in these inserts enhances and propagates cracks due to high temperature and high mechanical stress. This leads to a very variable failure of the cutting tool. This article explores the relationship between the continuous wear that ceramic SiAlON (solid solutions based on the Si3N4 structure) inserts experience during a high-speed machining process and the evolution of sparks created during the same process. These sparks were analysed through pictures of the cutting process recorded using an SLR camera. Features relating to the intensity and area of the cutting sparks were extracted from the individual pictures using image processing techniques. These features were then related to the ceramic insert’s crater wear area.
Comparison of Central Light Reflex Width-to-Retinal Vessel Diameter Ratio between Glaucoma and Normal Eyes by Using Edge Detection Technique

Glaucoma is a disease that causes visual loss in adults. Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve and its overall pathophysiology is still not fully understood. Vasculopathy may be one of the possible causes of nerve damage. Photographic imaging of retinal vessels by fundus camera during eye examination may complement clinical management. This paper presents an innovation for measuring central light reflex width-to-retinal vessel diameter ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Using our edge detection technique, CRRs from glaucoma and normal eyes were compared to examine differences and associations. CRRs were evaluated on fundus photographs of participants from Mettapracharak (Wat Raikhing) Hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Fifty-five photographs from normal eyes and twenty-one photographs from glaucoma eyes were included. Participants with hypertension were excluded. In each photograph, CRRs from four retinal vessels, including arteries and veins in the inferotemporal and superotemporal regions, were quantified using edge detection technique. From our finding, mean CRRs of all four retinal arteries and veins were significantly higher in persons with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (0.34 vs. 0.32, p < 0.05 for inferotemporal vein, 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.01 for inferotemporal artery, 0.34 vs. 0.31, p < 0.01 for superotemporal vein, and 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.05 for superotemporal artery). From these results, an increase in CRRs of retinal vessels, as quantitatively measured from fundus photographs, could be associated with glaucoma.

The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems
Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.
Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot
Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.
An Efficient Implementation of High Speed Vedic Multiplier Using Compressors for Image Processing Applications
Digital signal processor, image signal processor and FIR filters have multipliers as an important part of their design. On the basis of Vedic mathematics, Vedic multipliers have come out to be very fast multipliers. One of the image processing applications is edge detection. This research presents a small area and high speed 8 bit Vedic multiplier system comprising of compressor based adders. This results in faster edge detection. This architecture is tested on Xilinx vertex 4 FPGA board and simulations were carried out using the Xilinx synthesis tool. Comparisons are made and this system is found to be smaller in area with high speed (the lesser propagation delay). This compressor based Vedic multiplier is 1.1 times speedier than a typical Vedic multiplier. Also, this Vedic Multiplier is 2 times speedier than a ‘simple’ multiplier.
Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Detecting Circles in Image Using Statistical Image Analysis
The aim of this work is to detect geometrical shape objects in an image. In this paper, the object is considered to be as a circle shape. The identification requires find three characteristics, which are number, size, and location of the object. To achieve the goal of this work, this paper presents an algorithm that combines from some of statistical approaches and image analysis techniques. This algorithm has been implemented to arrive at the major objectives in this paper. The algorithm has been evaluated by using simulated data, and yields good results, and then it has been applied to real data.
A Real-Time Image Change Detection System
Detecting changes in multiple images of the same scene has recently seen increased interest due to the many contemporary applications including smart security systems, smart homes, remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis, weather forecasting, speed and distance measurement, post-disaster forensics and much more. These applications differ in the scale, nature, and speed of change. This paper presents an application of image processing techniques to implement a real-time change detection system. Change is identified by comparing the RGB representation of two consecutive frames captured in real-time. The detection threshold can be controlled to account for various luminance levels. The comparison result is passed through a filter before decision making to reduce false positives, especially at lower luminance conditions. The system is implemented with a MATLAB Graphical User interface with several controls to manage its operation and performance.
Identification of Healthy and BSR-Infected Oil Palm Trees Using Color Indices
Most of the oil palm plantations have been threatened by Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease which causes serious economic impact. This study was conducted to identify the healthy and BSRinfected oil palm tree using thirteen color indices. Multispectral and thermal camera was used to capture 216 images of the leaves taken from frond number 1, 9 and 17. Indices of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), red (R), green (G), blue (B), near infrared (NIR), green – blue (GB), green/blue (G/B), green – red (GR), green/red (G/R), hue (H), saturation (S), intensity (I) and thermal index (T) were used. From this study, it can be concluded that G index taken from frond number 9 is the best index to differentiate between the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm trees. It not only gave high value of correlation coefficient (R=-0.962), but also high value of separation between healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree. Furthermore, power and S model developed using G index gave the highest R2 value which is 0.985.
A Neural Approach for the Offline Recognition of the Arabic Handwritten Words of the Algerian Departments
In the context of the handwriting recognition, we propose an off line system for the recognition of the Arabic handwritten words of the Algerian departments. The study is based mainly on the evaluation of neural network performances, trained with the gradient back propagation algorithm. The used parameters to form the input vector of the neural network are extracted on the binary images of the handwritten word by several methods. The Distribution parameters, the centered moments of the different projections of the different segments, the centered moments of the word image coding according to the directions of Freeman, and the Barr features applied binary image of the word and on its different segments. The classification is achieved by a multi layers perceptron. A detailed experiment is carried and satisfactory recognition results are reported.
Automatic Music Score Recognition System Using Digital Image Processing

Music has always been an integral part of human’s daily lives. But, for the most people, reading musical score and turning it into melody is not easy. This study aims to develop an Automatic music score recognition system using digital image processing, which can be used to read and analyze musical score images automatically. The technical approaches included: (1) staff region segmentation; (2) image preprocessing; (3) note recognition; and (4) accidental and rest recognition. Digital image processing techniques (e.g., horizontal /vertical projections, connected component labeling, morphological processing, template matching, etc.) were applied according to musical notes, accidents, and rests in staff notations. Preliminary results showed that our system could achieve detection and recognition rates of 96.3% and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we presented an effective automated musical score recognition system that could be integrated in a system with a media player to play music/songs given input images of musical score. Ultimately, this system could also be incorporated in applications for mobile devices as a learning tool, such that a music player could learn to play music/songs.

Object Motion Tracking Based On Color Detection for Android Devices
This paper presents the development of a robot car that can track the motion of an object by detecting its color through an Android device. The employed computer vision algorithm uses the OpenCV library, which is embedded into an Android application of a smartphone, for manipulating the captured image of the object. The captured image of the object is subjected to color conversion and is transformed to a binary image for further processing after color filtering. The desired object is clearly determined after removing pixel noise by applying image morphology operations and contour definition. Finally, the area and the center of the object are determined so that object’s motion to be tracked. The smartphone application has been placed on a robot car and transmits by Bluetooth to an Arduino assembly the motion directives so that to follow objects of a specified color. The experimental evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows reliable color detection and smooth tracking characteristics.
Discrete and Stationary Adaptive Sub-Band Threshold Method for Improving Image Resolution
Image Processing is a structure of Signal Processing for which the input is the image and the output is also an image or parameter of the image. Image Resolution has been frequently referred as an important aspect of an image. In Image Resolution Enhancement, images are being processed in order to obtain more enhanced resolution. To generate highly resoluted image for a low resoluted input image with high PSNR value. Stationary Wavelet Transform is used for Edge Detection and minimize the loss occurs during Downsampling. Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform is to get highly resoluted image. Highly resoluted output is generated from the Low resolution input with high quality. Noisy input will generate output with low PSNR value. So Noisy resolution enhancement technique has been used for adaptive sub-band thresholding is used. Downsampling in each of the DWT subbands causes information loss in the respective subbands. SWT is employed to minimize this loss. Inverse Discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) is to convert the object which is downsampled using DWT into a highly resoluted object. Used Image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques will generate image with high PSNR value. Our Proposed method will improve Image Resolution and reached the optimized threshold.
Recognition of Grocery Products in Images Captured by Cellular Phones

In this paper, we present a robust algorithm to recognize extracted text from grocery product images captured by mobile phone cameras. Recognition of such text is challenging since text in grocery product images varies in its size, orientation, style, illumination, and can suffer from perspective distortion. Pre-processing is performed to make the characters scale and rotation invariant. Since text degradations can not be appropriately defined using well-known geometric transformations such as translation, rotation, affine transformation and shearing, we use the whole character black pixels as our feature vector. Classification is performed with minimum distance classifier using the maximum likelihood criterion, which delivers very promising Character Recognition Rate (CRR) of 89%. We achieve considerably higher Word Recognition Rate (WRR) of 99% when using lower level linguistic knowledge about product words during the recognition process.

Concealed Objects Detection in Visible, Infrared and Terahertz Ranges

Multispectral screening systems are becoming more popular because of their very interesting properties and applications. One of the most significant applications of multispectral screening systems is prevention of terrorist attacks. There are many kinds of threats and many methods of detection. Visual detection of objects hidden under clothing of a person is one of the most challenging problems of threats detection. There are various solutions of the problem; however, the most effective utilize multispectral surveillance imagers. The development of imaging devices and exploration of new spectral bands is a chance to introduce new equipment for assuring public safety. We investigate the possibility of long lasting detection of potentially dangerous objects covered with various types of clothing. In the article we present the results of comparative studies of passive imaging in three spectrums – visible, infrared and terahertz.

An Approximation of Daily Rainfall by Using a Pixel Value Data Approach

The research aims to approximate the amount of daily rainfall by using a pixel value data approach. The daily rainfall maps from the Thailand Meteorological Department in period of time from January to December 2013 were the data used in this study. The results showed that this approach can approximate the amount of daily rainfall with RMSE=3.343.

A Trends Analysis of Image Processing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

This paper describes an analysis of domestic and international trends of image processing for data in UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) and also explains about UAV and Quadcopter. Overseas examples of image processing using UAV include image processing for totaling the total numberof vehicles, edge/target detection, detection and evasion algorithm, image processing using SIFT(scale invariant features transform) matching, and application of median filter and thresholding. In Korea, many studies are underway including visualization of new urban buildings.

Rough Neural Networks in Adapting Cellular Automata Rule for Reducing Image Noise

The reduction or removal of noise in a color image is an essential part of image processing, whether the final information is used for human perception or for an automatic inspection and analysis. This paper describes the modeling system based on the rough neural network model to adaptive cellular automata for various image processing tasks and noise remover. In this paper, we consider the problem of object processing in colored image using rough neural networks to help deriving the rules which will be used in cellular automata for noise image. The proposed method is compared with some classical and recent methods. The results demonstrate that the new model is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is comparable or better than established specialized algorithms.

Design and Development of 5-DOF Color Sorting Manipulator for Industrial Applications

Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system applications which consists of two integrated stations of processing and handling with a new image processing feature. Existing color sorting techniques use a set of inductive, capacitive, and optical sensors to differentiate object color. This research presents a mechatronic color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. A 5-DOF robot arm is designed and developed with pick and place operation to act as the main part of the color sorting system. Image processing procedure senses the circular objects in an image captured in real time by a webcam fixed at the end-effector then extracts color and position information out of it. This information is passed as a sequence of sorting commands to the manipulator that has pick-and-place mechanism. Performance analysis proves that this color based object sorting system works accurately under ideal condition in term of adequate illumination, circular objects shape and color. The circular objects tested for sorting are red, green and blue. For non-ideal condition, such as unspecified color the accuracy reduces to 80%.

Target Tracking by Flying Drone with Fixed Camera

This paper presents the software conception of a quadrotor UAV, named SKYWATCHER, which is able to follow a target. This capacity can at a long turn time permit to follow another drone and combine their performance in order to military missions for example.

From a low-cost architecture constructed by five students we implemented a software and added a camera to create a visual servoing. This project demonstrates the possibility to associate the technology of stabilization and the technology of visual enslavement.

Manufacturing Process and Cost Estimation through Process Detection by Applying Image Processing Technique

In order to reduce the transportation time and cost for direct interface between customer and manufacturer, the image processing technique has been introduced in this research where designing part and defining manufacturing process can be performed quickly. A3D virtual model is directly generated from a series of multi-view images of an object, and it can be modified, analyzed, and improved the structure, or function for the further implementations, such as computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). To estimate and quote the production cost, the user-friendly platform has been developed in this research where the appropriate manufacturing parameters and process detections have been identified and planned by CAM simulation.

A Moving Human-Object Detection for Video Access Monitoring

In this paper, a simple moving human detection method is proposed for video surveillance system or access monitoring system. The frame difference and noise threshold are used for initial detection of a moving human-object, and simple labeling method is applied for final human-object segmentation. The simulated results show that the applied algorithm is fast to detect the moving human-objects by performing 95% of correct detection rate. The proposed algorithm has confirmed that can be used as an intelligent video access monitoring system.

Photogrammetric Survey on the Natural Gas Pipeline Projects of Iran-Turkey- Europe (ITE)

The ITE Project is a project that has 1800 km length and across the Turkey's land through east to west. The project of pipeline enters geographically from Iran to Doğubayazit (Turkey) in the east, exits to Greece from Ipsala province of Turkey in the west. This project is the one of the international projects in such scale that provides the natural gas of Iran and Caspian Sea through the European continent. In this investigation, some information will be given about the methods used to verify the direction of the pipeline and the technical properties of the results obtained. The cost of project itself entirely depends on the direction of the pipeline which would be as short as possible and the specifications of the land cover. Production standards of 1/2000 scaled digital orthophoto and vectoral maps as a results of the use of map production materials and methods (such as high resolution satellite images, and digital aerial images captured from digital aerial cameras), will also be given in this report. According to Turkish national map production standards, TM ((Transversal Mercator, 3 degree) projection is used for large scale map and UTM (Universal Transversal Mercator, 6 degree) is used for small scale map production standards. Some information is also given about the projection used in the ITE natural gas pipeline project.

Matching-Based Cercospora Leaf Spot Detection in Sugar Beet

In this paper, we propose a robust disease detection method, called adaptive orientation code matching (Adaptive OCM), which is developed from a robust image registration algorithm: orientation code matching (OCM), to achieve continuous and site-specific detection of changes in plant disease. We use two-stage framework for realizing our research purpose; in the first stage, adaptive OCM was employed which could not only realize the continuous and site-specific observation of disease development, but also shows its excellent robustness for non-rigid plant object searching in scene illumination, translation, small rotation and occlusion changes and then in the second stage, a machine learning method of support vector machine (SVM) based on a feature of two dimensional (2D) xy-color histogram is further utilized for pixel-wise disease classification and quantification. The indoor experiment results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of our proposed algorithm, which could be implemented in real field situation for better observation of plant disease development.

Pineapple Maturity Recognition Using RGB Extraction
Pineapples can be classified using an index with seven levels of maturity based on the green and yellow color of the skin. As the pineapple ripens, the skin will change from pale green to a golden or yellowish color. The issues that occur in agriculture nowadays are to do with farmers being unable to distinguish between the indexes of pineapple maturity correctly and effectively. There are several reasons for why farmers cannot properly follow the guideline provide by Federal Agriculture Marketing Authority (FAMA) and one of reason is that due to manual inspection done by experts, there are no specific and universal guidelines to be adopted by farmers due to the different points of view of the experts when sorting the pineapples based on their knowledge and experience. Therefore, an automatic system will help farmers to identify pineapple maturity effectively and will become a universal indicator to farmers.
Image Processing Using Color and Object Information for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Wireless capsule endoscopy provides real-time images in the digestive tract. Capsule images are usually low resolution and are diverse images due to travel through various regions of human body. Color information has been a primary reference in predicting abnormalities such as bleeding. Often color is not sufficient for this purpose. In this study, we took morphological shapes into account as additional, but important criterion. First, we processed gastric images in order to indentify various objects in the image. Then, we analyzed color information in the object. In this way, we could remove unnecessary information and increase the accuracy. Compared to our previous investigations, we could handle images of various degrees of brightness and improve our diagnostic algorithm.

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