Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 58

Analysis of Image Segmentation Techniques for Diagnosis of Dental Caries in X-ray Images

Early diagnosis of dental caries is essential for maintaining dental health. In this paper, method for diagnosis of dental caries is proposed using Laplacian filter, adaptive thresholding, texture analysis and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Analysis of the proposed method is compared with Otsu thresholding, watershed segmentation and active contouring method. Adaptive thresholding has comparatively better performance with 96.9% accuracy and 96.1% precision. The results are validated using statistical method, two-way ANOVA, at significant level of 5%, that shows the interaction of proposed method on performance parameter measures are significant. Hence the proposed technique could be used for detection of dental caries in automated computer assisted diagnosis system.

A Review on Image Segmentation Techniques and Performance Measures
Image segmentation is a method to extract regions of interest from an image. It remains a fundamental problem in computer vision. The increasing diversity and the complexity of segmentation algorithms have led us firstly, to make a review and classify segmentation techniques, secondly to identify the most used measures of segmentation performance and thirdly, discuss deeply on segmentation philosophy in order to help the choice of adequate segmentation techniques for some applications. To justify the relevance of our analysis, recent algorithms of segmentation are presented through the proposed classification.
An Improved C-Means Model for MRI Segmentation

Medical images are important to help identifying different diseases, for example, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to investigate the brain, spinal cord, bones, joints, breasts, blood vessels, and heart. Image segmentation, in medical image analysis, is usually the first step to find out some characteristics with similar color, intensity or texture so that the diagnosis could be further carried out based on these features. This paper introduces an improved C-means model to segment the MRI images. The model is based on information entropy to evaluate the segmentation results by achieving global optimization. Several contributions are significant. Firstly, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for achieving global optimization in this model where fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCMA) is not capable of doing that. Secondly, the information entropy after segmentation is used for measuring the effectiveness of MRI image processing. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed model by comparing with traditional approaches.

Object Detection in Digital Images under Non-Standardized Conditions Using Illumination and Shadow Filtering
In recent years, object detection has gained much attention and very encouraging research area in the field of computer vision. The robust object boundaries detection in an image is demanded in numerous applications of human computer interaction and automated surveillance systems. Many methods and approaches have been developed for automatic object detection in various fields, such as automotive, quality control management and environmental services. Inappropriately, to the best of our knowledge, object detection under illumination with shadow consideration has not been well solved yet. Furthermore, this problem is also one of the major hurdles to keeping an object detection method from the practical applications. This paper presents an approach to automatic object detection in images under non-standardized environmental conditions. A key challenge is how to detect the object, particularly under uneven illumination conditions. Image capturing conditions the algorithms need to consider a variety of possible environmental factors as the colour information, lightening and shadows varies from image to image. Existing methods mostly failed to produce the appropriate result due to variation in colour information, lightening effects, threshold specifications, histogram dependencies and colour ranges. To overcome these limitations we propose an object detection algorithm, with pre-processing methods, to reduce the interference caused by shadow and illumination effects without fixed parameters. We use the Y CrCb colour model without any specific colour ranges and predefined threshold values. The segmented object regions are further classified using morphological operations (Erosion and Dilation) and contours. Proposed approach applied on a large image data set acquired under various environmental conditions for wood stack detection. Experiments show the promising result of the proposed approach in comparison with existing methods.
Image Segmentation and Contour Recognition Based on Mathematical Morphology
In image segmentation contour detection is one of the important pre-processing steps in recent days. Contours characterize boundaries and contour detection is one of the most difficult tasks in image processing. Hence it is a problem of fundamental importance in image processing. Contour detection of an image decreases the volume of data considerably and useless information is removed, but the structural properties of the image remain same. In this research, a robust and effective contour detection technique has been proposed using mathematical morphology. Three different contour detection results are obtained by using morphological dilation and erosion. The comparative analyses of three different results also have been done.
Manipulation of Image Segmentation Using Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony Approach
Image segmentation is the concept of splitting the images into several images. Image Segmentation algorithm is used to manipulate the process of image segmentation. The advantage of ABC is that it conducts every worldwide exploration and inhabitant exploration for iteration. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) encompass a number of search problems. Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony algorithm has been imposed to increase the performance of a neighborhood search. The simulation results clearly show that the presented ABC methods outperform the existing methods. The result shows that the algorithms can be used to implement the manipulator for grasping of colored objects. The efficiency of the presented method is improved a lot by comparing to other methods.
Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries
This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.
Medical Image Edge Detection Based on Neuro-Fuzzy Approach
Edge detection is one of the most important tasks in image processing. Medical image edge detection plays an important role in segmentation and object recognition of the human organs. It refers to the process of identifying and locating sharp discontinuities in medical images. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy based approach is introduced to detect the edges for noisy medical images. This approach uses desired number of neuro-fuzzy subdetectors with a postprocessor for detecting the edges of medical images. The internal parameters of the approach are optimized by training pattern using artificial images. The performance of the approach is evaluated on different medical images and compared with popular edge detection algorithm. From the experimental results, it is clear that this approach has better performance than those of other competing edge detection algorithms for noisy medical images.
A Comparative Study of Image Segmentation Algorithms
In some applications, such as image recognition or compression, segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. Image segmentation is typically used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images. Image segmentation is to classify or cluster an image into several parts (regions) according to the feature of image, for example, the pixel value or the frequency response. More precisely, image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain visual characteristics. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image, or a set of contours extracted from the image. Several image segmentation algorithms were proposed to segment an image before recognition or compression. Up to now, many image segmentation algorithms exist and be extensively applied in science and daily life. According to their segmentation method, we can approximately categorize them into region-based segmentation, data clustering, and edge-base segmentation. In this paper, we give a study of several popular image segmentation algorithms that are available.
Medical Image Segmentation and Detection of MR Images Based on Spatial Multiple-Kernel Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm
In this paper, a spatial multiple-kernel fuzzy C-means (SMKFCM) algorithm is introduced for segmentation problem. A linear combination of multiples kernels with spatial information is used in the kernel FCM (KFCM) and the updating rules for the linear coefficients of the composite kernels are derived as well. Fuzzy cmeans (FCM) based techniques have been widely used in medical image segmentation problem due to their simplicity and fast convergence. The proposed SMKFCM algorithm provides us a new flexible vehicle to fuse different pixel information in medical image segmentation and detection of MR images. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed segmentation algorithm in noisy environment, we add noise in medical brain tumor MR images and calculated the success rate and segmentation accuracy. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed algorithm has better performance than those of other FCM based techniques for noisy medical MR images.
Review of the Software Used for 3D Volumetric Reconstruction of the Liver

In medical imaging, segmentation of different areas of human body like bones, organs, tissues, etc. is an important issue. Image segmentation allows isolating the object of interest for further processing that can lead for example to 3D model reconstruction of whole organs. Difficulty of this procedure varies from trivial for bones to quite difficult for organs like liver. The liver is being considered as one of the most difficult human body organ to segment. It is mainly for its complexity, shape versatility and proximity of other organs and tissues. Due to this facts usually substantial user effort has to be applied to obtain satisfactory results of the image segmentation. Process of image segmentation then deteriorates from automatic or semi-automatic to fairly manual one. In this paper, overview of selected available software applications that can handle semi-automatic image segmentation with further 3D volume reconstruction of human liver is presented. The applications are being evaluated based on the segmentation results of several consecutive DICOM images covering the abdominal area of the human body.

Retrieving Similar Segmented Objects Using Motion Descriptors

The fuzzy composition of objects depicted in images acquired through MR imaging or the use of bio-scanners has often been a point of controversy for field experts attempting to effectively delineate between the visualized objects. Modern approaches in medical image segmentation tend to consider fuzziness as a characteristic and inherent feature of the depicted object, instead of an undesirable trait. In this paper, a novel technique for efficient image retrieval in the context of images in which segmented objects are either crisp or fuzzily bounded is presented. Moreover, the proposed method is applied in the case of multiple, even conflicting, segmentations from field experts. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested method in retrieving similar objects from the aforementioned categories while taking into account the fuzzy nature of the depicted data.

Unsupervised Segmentation Technique for Acute Leukemia Cells Using Clustering Algorithms

Leukaemia is a blood cancer disease that contributes to the increment of mortality rate in Malaysia each year. There are two main categories for leukaemia, which are acute and chronic leukaemia. The production and development of acute leukaemia cells occurs rapidly and uncontrollable. Therefore, if the identification of acute leukaemia cells could be done fast and effectively, proper treatment and medicine could be delivered. Due to the requirement of prompt and accurate diagnosis of leukaemia, the current study has proposed unsupervised pixel segmentation based on clustering algorithm in order to obtain a fully segmented abnormal white blood cell (blast) in acute leukaemia image. In order to obtain the segmented blast, the current study proposed three clustering algorithms which are k-means, fuzzy c-means and moving k-means algorithms have been applied on the saturation component image. Then, median filter and seeded region growing area extraction algorithms have been applied, to smooth the region of segmented blast and to remove the large unwanted regions from the image, respectively. Comparisons among the three clustering algorithms are made in order to measure the performance of each clustering algorithm on segmenting the blast area. Based on the good sensitivity value that has been obtained, the results indicate that moving kmeans clustering algorithm has successfully produced the fully segmented blast region in acute leukaemia image. Hence, indicating that the resultant images could be helpful to haematologists for further analysis of acute leukaemia.

Evolutionary Program Based Approach for Manipulator Grasping Color Objects
Image segmentation and color identification is an important process used in various emerging fields like intelligent robotics. A method is proposed for the manipulator to grasp and place the color object into correct location. The existing methods such as PSO, has problems like accelerating the convergence speed and converging to a local minimum leading to sub optimal performance. To improve the performance, we are using watershed algorithm and for color identification, we are using EPSO. EPSO method is used to reduce the probability of being stuck in the local minimum. The proposed method offers the particles a more powerful global exploration capability. EPSO methods can determine the particles stuck in the local minimum and can also enhance learning speed as the particle movement will be faster.
The Use of Classifiers in Image Analysis of Oil Wells Profiling Process and the Automatic Identification of Events

Different strategies and tools are available at the oil and gas industry for detecting and analyzing tension and possible fractures in borehole walls. Most of these techniques are based on manual observation of the captured borehole images. While this strategy may be possible and convenient with small images and few data, it may become difficult and suitable to errors when big databases of images must be treated. While the patterns may differ among the image area, depending on many characteristics (drilling strategy, rock components, rock strength, etc.). In this work we propose the inclusion of data-mining classification strategies in order to create a knowledge database of the segmented curves. These classifiers allow that, after some time using and manually pointing parts of borehole images that correspond to tension regions and breakout areas, the system will indicate and suggest automatically new candidate regions, with higher accuracy. We suggest the use of different classifiers methods, in order to achieve different knowledge dataset configurations.

Segmentation of Noisy Digital Images with Stochastic Gradient Kernel
Image segmentation and edge detection is a fundamental section in image processing. In case of noisy images Edge Detection is very less effective if we use conventional Spatial Filters like Sobel, Prewitt, LOG, Laplacian etc. To overcome this problem we have proposed the use of Stochastic Gradient Mask instead of Spatial Filters for generating gradient images. The present study has shown that the resultant images obtained by applying Stochastic Gradient Masks appear to be much clearer and sharper as per Edge detection is considered.
Nature Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms for Multilevel Thresholding Image Segmentation - A Survey

Segmentation is one of the essential tasks in image processing. Thresholding is one of the simplest techniques for performing image segmentation. Multilevel thresholding is a simple and effective technique. The primary objective of bi-level or multilevel thresholding for image segmentation is to determine a best thresholding value. To achieve multilevel thresholding various techniques has been proposed. A study of some nature inspired metaheuristic algorithms for multilevel thresholding for image segmentation is conducted. Here, we study about Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, artificial bee colony optimization (ABC), Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm and Cuckoo search (CS) algorithm.

Color Image Segmentation Using SVM Pixel Classification Image

The goal of image segmentation is to cluster pixels into salient image regions. Segmentation could be used for object recognition, occlusion boundary estimation within motion or stereo systems, image compression, image editing, or image database lookup. In this paper, we present a color image segmentation using support vector machine (SVM) pixel classification. Firstly, the pixel level color and texture features of the image are extracted and they are used as input to the SVM classifier. These features are extracted using the homogeneity model and Gabor Filter. With the extracted pixel level features, the SVM Classifier is trained by using FCM (Fuzzy C-Means).The image segmentation takes the advantage of both the pixel level information of the image and also the ability of the SVM Classifier. The Experiments show that the proposed method has a very good segmentation result and a better efficiency, increases the quality of the image segmentation compared with the other segmentation methods proposed in the literature.

Common Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness Segmentation Survey

The ultrasound imaging is very popular to diagnosis the disease because of its non-invasive nature. The ultrasound imaging slowly produces low quality images due to the presence of spackle noise and wave interferences. There are several algorithms to be proposed for the segmentation of ultrasound carotid artery images but it requires a certain limit of user interaction. The pixel in an image is highly correlated so the spatial information of surrounding pixels may be considered in the process of image segmentation which improves the results further. When data is highly correlated, one pixel may belong to more than one cluster with different degree of membership. There is an important step to computerize the evaluation of arterial disease severity using segmentation of carotid artery lumen in 2D and 3D ultrasonography and in finding vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques susceptible to rupture which can cause stroke.

Image Segmentation by Mathematical Morphology: An Approach through Linear, Bilinear and Conformal Transformation

Image segmentation process based on mathematical morphology has been studied in the paper. It has been established from the first principles of the morphological process, the entire segmentation is although a nonlinear signal processing task, the constituent wise, the intermediate steps are linear, bilinear and conformal transformation and they give rise to a non linear affect in a cumulative manner.

Sequential Partitioning Brainbow Image Segmentation Using Bayesian

This paper proposes a data-driven, biology-inspired neural segmentation method of 3D drosophila Brainbow images. We use Bayesian Sequential Partitioning algorithm for probabilistic modeling, which can be used to detect somas and to eliminate crosstalk effects. This work attempts to develop an automatic methodology for neuron image segmentation, which nowadays still lacks a complete solution due to the complexity of the image. The proposed method does not need any predetermined, risk-prone thresholds, since biological information is inherently included inside the image processing procedure. Therefore, it is less sensitive to variations in neuron morphology; meanwhile, its flexibility would be beneficial for tracing the intertwining structure of neurons.

Automatic Moment-Based Texture Segmentation

An automatic moment-based texture segmentation approach is proposed in this paper. First, we describe the related work in this computer vision domain. Our texture feature extraction, the first part of the texture recognition process, produces a set of moment-based feature vectors. For each image pixel, a texture feature vector is computed as a sequence of area moments. Then, an automatic pixel classification approach is proposed. The feature vectors are clustered using an unsupervised classification algorithm, the optimal number of clusters being determined using a measure based on validation indexes. From the resulted pixel classes one determines easily the desired texture regions of the image.

Probabilistic Bhattacharya Based Active Contour Model in Structure Tensor Space

Object identification and segmentation application requires extraction of object in foreground from the background. In this paper the Bhattacharya distance based probabilistic approach is utilized with an active contour model (ACM) to segment an object from the background. In the proposed approach, the Bhattacharya histogram is calculated on non-linear structure tensor space. Based on the histogram, new formulation of active contour model is proposed to segment images. The results are tested on both color and gray images from the Berkeley image database. The experimental results show that the proposed model is applicable to both color and gray images as well as both texture images and natural images. Again in comparing to the Bhattacharya based ACM in ICA space, the proposed model is able to segment multiple object too.

A Comparative Study of Image Segmentation using Edge-Based Approach

Image segmentation is the process to segment a given image into several parts so that each of these parts present in the image can be further analyzed. There are numerous techniques of image segmentation available in literature. In this paper, authors have been analyzed the edge-based approach for image segmentation. They have been implemented the different edge operators like Prewitt, Sobel, LoG, and Canny on the basis of their threshold parameter. The results of these operators have been shown for various images.

Human Interactive E-learning Systems using Head Posture Images

This paper explains a novel approach to human interactive e-learning systems using head posture images. Students- face and hair information are used to identify a human presence and estimate the gaze direction. We then define the human-computer interaction level and test the definition using ten students and seventy different posture images. The experimental results show that head posture images provide adequate information for increasing human-computer interaction in e-learning systems.

Active Contours with Prior Corner Detection
Deformable active contours are widely used in computer vision and image processing applications for image segmentation, especially in biomedical image analysis. The active contour or “snake" deforms towards a target object by controlling the internal, image and constraint forces. However, if the contour initialized with a lesser number of control points, there is a high probability of surpassing the sharp corners of the object during deformation of the contour. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to construct the initial contour by incorporating prior knowledge of significant corners of the object detected using the Harris operator. This new reconstructed contour begins to deform, by attracting the snake towards the targeted object, without missing the corners. Experimental results with several synthetic images show the ability of the new technique to deal with sharp corners with a high accuracy than traditional methods.
Unsupervised Segmentation by Hidden Markov Chain with Bi-dimensional Observed Process

In unsupervised segmentation context, we propose a bi-dimensional hidden Markov chain model (X,Y) that we adapt to the image segmentation problem. The bi-dimensional observed process Y = (Y 1, Y 2) is such that Y 1 represents the noisy image and Y 2 represents a noisy supplementary information on the image, for example a noisy proportion of pixels of the same type in a neighborhood of the current pixel. The proposed model can be seen as a competitive alternative to the Hilbert-Peano scan. We propose a bayesian algorithm to estimate parameters of the considered model. The performance of this algorithm is globally favorable, compared to the bi-dimensional EM algorithm through numerical and visual data.

Tracking Objects in Color Image Sequences: Application to Football Images

In this paper, we present a comparative study between two computer vision systems for objects recognition and tracking, these algorithms describe two different approach based on regions constituted by a set of pixels which parameterized objects in shot sequences. For the image segmentation and objects detection, the FCM technique is used, the overlapping between cluster's distribution is minimized by the use of suitable color space (other that the RGB one). The first technique takes into account a priori probabilities governing the computation of various clusters to track objects. A Parzen kernel method is described and allows identifying the players in each frame, we also show the importance of standard deviation value research of the Gaussian probability density function. Region matching is carried out by an algorithm that operates on the Mahalanobis distance between region descriptors in two subsequent frames and uses singular value decomposition to compute a set of correspondences satisfying both the principle of proximity and the principle of exclusion.

Featured based Segmentation of Color Textured Images using GLCM and Markov Random Field Model

In this paper, we propose a new image segmentation approach for colour textured images. The proposed method for image segmentation consists of two stages. In the first stage, textural features using gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) are computed for regions of interest (ROI) considered for each class. ROI acts as ground truth for the classes. Ohta model (I1, I2, I3) is the colour model used for segmentation. Statistical mean feature at certain inter pixel distance (IPD) of I2 component was considered to be the optimized textural feature for further segmentation. In the second stage, the feature matrix obtained is assumed to be the degraded version of the image labels and modeled as Markov Random Field (MRF) model to model the unknown image labels. The labels are estimated through maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation criterion using ICM algorithm. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of the existing schemes, JSEG and another scheme which uses GLCM and MRF in RGB colour space. The proposed method is found to be outperforming the existing ones in terms of segmentation accuracy with acceptable rate of convergence. The results are validated with synthetic and real textured images.

Medical Image Segmentation Using Deformable Model and Local Fitting Binary: Thoracic Aorta
This paper presents an application of level sets for the segmentation of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in CTA datasets. An important challenge in reliably detecting aortic is the need to overcome problems associated with intensity inhomogeneities. Level sets are part of an important class of methods that utilize partial differential equations (PDEs) and have been extensively applied in image segmentation. A kernel function in the level set formulation aids the suppression of noise in the extracted regions of interest and then guides the motion of the evolving contour for the detection of weak boundaries. The speed of curve evolution has been significantly improved with a resulting decrease in segmentation time compared with previous implementations of level sets, and are shown to be more effective than other approaches in coping with intensity inhomogeneities. We have applied the Courant Friedrichs Levy (CFL) condition as stability criterion for our algorithm.
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