The Role and Importance of Genome Sequencing in Prediction of Cancer Risk
The role and relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development of complex diseases such as cancer still remains a controversial issue. Determining the amount of variation explained by these factors needs experimental data and statistical models. These models are nevertheless based on the occurrence and accumulation of random mutational events during stem cell division, thus rendering cancer development a stochastic outcome. We demonstrate that not only individual genome sequencing is uninformative in determining cancer risk, but also assigning a unique genome sequence to any given individual (healthy or affected) is not meaningful. Current whole-genome sequencing approaches are therefore unlikely to realize the promise of personalized medicine. In conclusion, since genome sequence differs from cell to cell and changes over time, it seems that determining the risk factor of complex diseases based on genome sequence is somewhat unrealistic, and therefore, the resulting data are likely to be inherently uninformative.
Modeling of a Vehicle Wheel System Having a Built-in Suspension Structure Consisted of Radially Deployed Colloidal Spokes between Hub and Rim
In this work, by replacing the traditional solid spokes with colloidal spokes, a vehicle wheel with a built-in suspension structure is proposed. Following the background and description of the wheel system, firstly, a vibration model of the wheel equipped with colloidal spokes is proposed, and based on such model the equivalent damping coefficients and spring constants are identified. Then, a modified model of a quarter-vehicle moving on a rough pavement is proposed in order to estimate the transmissibility of vibration from the road roughness to vehicle body. In the end, the optimal design of the colloidal spokes and the optimum number of colloidal spokes are decided in order to minimize the transmissibility of vibration, i.e., to maximize the ride comfort of the vehicle.
Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Multiscale Analysis of Physiological Signal
We present a refined multiscale Shannon entropy for
analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflects the underlying
dynamics of EEG over multiple scales. The rationale behind
this method is that neurological signals such as EEG possess
distinct dynamics over different spectral modes. To deal with the
nonlinear and nonstationary nature of EEG, the recently developed
empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is incorporated, allowing a
decomposition of EEG into its inherent spectral components, referred
to as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). By calculating the Shannon
entropy of IMFs in a time-dependent manner and summing them over
adaptive multiple scales, it results in an adaptive subscale entropy
measure of EEG. Simulation and experimental results show that
the proposed entropy properly reveals the dynamical changes over
The Implementation of Self-Determination Theory on the Opportunities and Challenges for Blended e-Learning in Motivating Egyptian Logistic Learners
Learner motivation is considered to be an important
component for the Blended e-Learning (BL) Method. BL is an
effective learning method in multiple domains, which opens several
opportunities for its participants to engage in the learning
environment. This research explores the learners’ perspective of BL
according to the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). It identifies the
opportunities and challenges for using the BL in Logistics Education
(LE) in Egyptian Higher Education (HE). SDT is approached from
different perspectives within the relationship between Intrinsic
Motivation (IM), Extrinsic Motivation (EM) and Amotivation (AM).
A self-administered face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect
data from learners who were geographically widely spread around
three colleges of International Transport and Logistics (CILTs) at the
Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport
(AAST&MT) in Egypt. Six hundred and sixteen undergraduates
responded to a questionnaire survey. Respondents were drawn from
three branches in Greater Cairo, Alexandria, and Port Said. The data
analysis used was SPSS 22 and AMOS 18.
Novel Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Current Limiting Device (CLD) for Surge Protection
In the past many uneconomic solutions for limitation
and interruption of short-circuit currents in low power applications
have been introduced, especially polymer switch based on the
positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PCTR) concept.
However there are many limitations in the active material, which
consists of conductive fillers. This paper presents a significantly
improved and simplified approach that replaces the existing current
limiters with faster switching elements. Its elegance lies in the
remarkable simplicity and low-cost processes of producing the device
using polyaniline (PANI) doped with methane-sulfonic acid (MSA).
Samples characterized as lying in the metallic and critical regimes of
metal insulator transition have been studied by means of electrical
performance in the voltage range from 1V to 5 V under different
environmental conditions. Moisture presence is shown to increase the
resistivity and also improved its current limiting performance.
Additionally, the device has also been studied for electrical resistivity
in the temperature range 77 K-300 K. The temperature dependence of
the electrical conductivity gives evidence for a transport mechanism
based on variable range hopping in three dimensions.
The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in Explaining Students- Willingness to Use Software Applications
The present study was designed to test the influence
of intrinsic ICT-motivation, perceived usefulness and ease of use on
business students- willingness to use a particular software package. A
questionnaire was completed by 196 business students in Norway.
We found that 34% of the variance in the students- willingness to use
the software could be explained by the three proposed antecedents.
Intrinsic ICT-motivation seems to be the most important predictor of
students- satisfaction willingness to use the software package.
A Novel Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach for Empirical Mode Decomposition
This paper introduces a new instantaneous frequency
computation approach -Counting Instantaneous Frequency for a
general class of signals called simple waves. The classsimple wave
contains a wide range of continuous signals for which the concept
instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense. The concept of
-Counting Instantaneous Frequency also applies to all the discrete data.
For all the simple wave signals and the discrete data, -Counting
instantaneous frequency can be computed directly without signal
decomposition process. The intrinsic mode functions obtained through
empirical mode decomposition belongs to simple wave. So
-Counting instantaneous frequency can be used together with
empirical mode decomposition.
Intrinsic Kinetics of Methanol Dehydration over Al2O3 Catalyst
Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME)
over a commercial Al2O3 catalyst was studied in an isothermal integral
fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature
interval 513-613 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.9-2.1h-1,
pressures between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa. The effect of different operation
conditions on the dehydration of methanol was investigated in a
laboratory scale experiment. A new intrinsic kinetics equation based
on the mechanism of Langmuir-Hinshelwood dissociation adsorption
was developed for the dehydration reaction by fitting the expressions
to the experimental data. An activation energy of 67.21 kJ/mol was
obtained for the catalyst with the best performance. Statistic test
showed that this new intrinsic kinetics equation was acceptable.
Investigating Mental Workload of VR Training versus Serious Game Training on Shoot Operation Training
Thanks to VR technology advanced, there are many
researches had used VR technology to develop a training system.
Using VR characteristics can simulate many kinds of situations to
reach our training-s goal. However, a good training system not only
considers real simulation but also considers learner-s learning
motivation. So, there are many researches started to conduct game-s
features into VR training system. We typically called this is a serious
game. It is using game-s features to engage learner-s learning
motivation. However, VR or Serious game has another important
advantage. That is simulating feature. Using this feature can create
any kinds of pressured environments. Because in the real
environment may happen any emergent situations. So, increasing the
trainees- pressure is more important when they are training. Most
pervious researches are investigated serious game-s applications and
learning performance. Seldom researches investigated how to
increase the learner-s mental workload when they are training. So, in
our study, we will introduce a real case study and create two types
training environments. Comparing the learner-s mental workload
between VR training and serious game.
Analysis of Euler Angles in a Simple Two-Axis Gimbals Set
Any rotation of a 3-dimensional object can be performed by three consecutive rotations over Euler angles. Intrinsic rotations produce the same result as extrinsic rotations in transformation. Euler rotations are the movement obtained by changing one of the Euler angles while leaving the other two constant. These Euler rotations are applied in a simple two-axis gimbals set mounted on an automotives. The values of Euler angles are [π/4, π/4, π/4] radians inside the angles ranges for a given coordinate system and these actual orientations can be directly measured from these gimbals set of moving automotives but it can occur the gimbals lock in application at [π/2.24, 0, 0] radians. In order to avoid gimbals lock, the values of quaternion must be [π/4.8, π/8.2, 0, π/4.8] radians. The four-gimbals set can eliminate gimbals lock.
Oxidation of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Water Matrices by Bromine and Chlorine
The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals
(metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, hydrochlorotiazide and
phenacetin) in ultrapure water and in three water matrices (a
groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir and a secondary
effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The apparent rate
constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function
of the pH, and the sequence obtained for the reaction rate was
amoxicillin > naproxen >> hydrochlorotiazide ≈ phenacetin ≈
metoprolol. The proposal of a kinetic mechanism, which specifies the
dissociation of bromine and each pharmaceutical according to their
pKa values and the pH allowed the determination of the intrinsic rate
constants for every elementary reaction. The influence of the main
operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and the water matrix)
on the degradation of pharmaceuticals was established. In addition,
the presence of bromide in chlorination experiments was
investigated. The presence of bromide in wastewaters and drinking
waters in the range of 10 to several hundred μg L-1 accelerated
slightly the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chorine
Carrageenan Properties Extracted From Eucheuma cottonii, Indonesia
The effect of extraction solvent upon properties
of carrageenan from Eucheuma cottonii was studied. The
distilled water and KOH solution (concentration 0.1- 0.5N) were
used as the solvent. Extraction process was carried out in water
bath equipped by stirrer with constant speed of 275 rpm with a
constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume ( 1:50 g/mL)
at 86oC for 45 minutes. The extract was then precipitated in 3
volume of 90% ethanol, oven dried at 60oC. Based on
experimental data, alkali significantly influenced yield and
properties of extracted carrageenan. The extracted carrageenan
was found to have essentially identical FTIR spectra to the
reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Increasing the KOH
concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content
and intrinsic viscosity. The gel strength increased along with the
increasing of KOH concentration. The decreasing of intrinsic
viscosity value indicates that a polymer degradation occurs
during alkali extraction.
A New Definition of the Intrinsic Mode Function
This paper makes a detailed analysis regarding the definition of the intrinsic mode function and proves that Condition 1 of the intrinsic mode function can really be deduced from Condition 2. Finally, an improved definition of the intrinsic mode function is given.
Jitter Transfer in High Speed Data Links
Phase locked loops for data links operating at 10 Gb/s
or faster are low phase noise devices designed to operate with a low
jitter reference clock. Characterization of their jitter transfer function
is difficult because the intrinsic noise of the device is comparable to
the random noise level in the reference clock signal. A linear model
is proposed to account for the intrinsic noise of a PLL. The intrinsic
noise data of a PLL for 10 Gb/s links is presented. The jitter transfer
function of a PLL in a test chip for 12.8 Gb/s data links was
determined in experiments using the 400 MHz reference clock as the
source of simultaneous excitations over a wide range of frequency.
The result shows that the PLL jitter transfer function can be
approximated by a second order linear model.
Mathematical Model of Dengue Disease with the Incubation Period of Virus
Dengue virus is transmitted from person to person
through the biting of infected Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes. DEN-1,
DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4 are four serotypes of this virus. Infection
with one of these four serotypes apparently produces permanent
immunity to it, but only temporary cross immunity to the others. The
length of time during incubation of dengue virus in human and
mosquito are considered in this study. The dengue patients are
classified into infected and infectious classes. The infectious human
can transmit dengue virus to susceptible mosquitoes but infected
human can not. The transmission model of this disease is formulated.
The human population is divided into susceptible, infected, infectious
and recovered classes. The mosquito population is separated into
susceptible, infected and infectious classes. Only infectious
mosquitoes can transmit dengue virus to the susceptible human. We
analyze this model by using dynamical analysis method. The
threshold condition is discussed to reduce the outbreak of this
Analytical Camera Model Supplemented with Influence of Temperature Variations
A camera in the building site is exposed to different
weather conditions. Differences between images of the same scene
captured with the same camera arise also due to temperature variations.
The influence of temperature changes on camera parameters
were modelled and integrated into existing analytical camera model.
Modified camera model enables quantitatively assessing the influence
of temperature variations.
Phase Jitter Transfer in High Speed Data Links
Phase locked loops in 10 Gb/s and faster data links are
low phase noise devices. Characterization of their phase jitter
transfer functions is difficult because the intrinsic noise of the PLLs
is comparable to the phase noise of the reference clock signal. The
problem is solved by using a linear model to account for the intrinsic
noise. This study also introduces a novel technique for measuring the
transfer function. It involves the use of the reference clock as a
source of wideband excitation, in contrast to the commonly used
sinusoidal excitations at discrete frequencies. The data reported here
include the intrinsic noise of a PLL for 10 Gb/s links and the jitter
transfer function of a PLL for 12.8 Gb/s links. The measured transfer
function suggests that the PLL responded like a second order linear
system to a low noise reference clock.
Endogenous Fantasy – Based Serious Games: Intrinsic Motivation and Learning
Current technological advances pale in comparison to the changes in social behaviors and 'sense of place' that is being empowered since the Internet made it on the scene. Today-s students view the Internet as both a source of entertainment and an educational tool. The development of virtual environments is a conceptual framework that needs to be addressed by educators and it is important that they become familiar with who these virtual learners are and how they are motivated to learn. Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs), if well designed, could become the vehicle of choice to deliver learning content. We suggest that these games, in order to accomplish these goals, must begin with well-established instructional design principles that are co-aligned with established principles of video game design. And have the opportunity to provide an instructional model of significant prescriptive power. The authors believe that game designers need to take advantage of the natural motivation player-learners have for playing games by developing them in such a way so as to promote, intrinsic motivation, content learning, transfer of knowledge, and naturalization.