Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 18

The Role and Importance of Genome Sequencing in Prediction of Cancer Risk

The role and relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development of complex diseases such as cancer still remains a controversial issue. Determining the amount of variation explained by these factors needs experimental data and statistical models. These models are nevertheless based on the occurrence and accumulation of random mutational events during stem cell division, thus rendering cancer development a stochastic outcome. We demonstrate that not only individual genome sequencing is uninformative in determining cancer risk, but also assigning a unique genome sequence to any given individual (healthy or affected) is not meaningful. Current whole-genome sequencing approaches are therefore unlikely to realize the promise of personalized medicine. In conclusion, since genome sequence differs from cell to cell and changes over time, it seems that determining the risk factor of complex diseases based on genome sequence is somewhat unrealistic, and therefore, the resulting data are likely to be inherently uninformative.

Modeling of a Vehicle Wheel System Having a Built-in Suspension Structure Consisted of Radially Deployed Colloidal Spokes between Hub and Rim

In this work, by replacing the traditional solid spokes with colloidal spokes, a vehicle wheel with a built-in suspension structure is proposed. Following the background and description of the wheel system, firstly, a vibration model of the wheel equipped with colloidal spokes is proposed, and based on such model the equivalent damping coefficients and spring constants are identified. Then, a modified model of a quarter-vehicle moving on a rough pavement is proposed in order to estimate the transmissibility of vibration from the road roughness to vehicle body. In the end, the optimal design of the colloidal spokes and the optimum number of colloidal spokes are decided in order to minimize the transmissibility of vibration, i.e., to maximize the ride comfort of the vehicle.

Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Multiscale Analysis of Physiological Signal
We present a refined multiscale Shannon entropy for analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflects the underlying dynamics of EEG over multiple scales. The rationale behind this method is that neurological signals such as EEG possess distinct dynamics over different spectral modes. To deal with the nonlinear and nonstationary nature of EEG, the recently developed empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is incorporated, allowing a decomposition of EEG into its inherent spectral components, referred to as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). By calculating the Shannon entropy of IMFs in a time-dependent manner and summing them over adaptive multiple scales, it results in an adaptive subscale entropy measure of EEG. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed entropy properly reveals the dynamical changes over multiple scales.
The Implementation of Self-Determination Theory on the Opportunities and Challenges for Blended e-Learning in Motivating Egyptian Logistic Learners

Learner motivation is considered to be an important component for the Blended e-Learning (BL) Method. BL is an effective learning method in multiple domains, which opens several opportunities for its participants to engage in the learning environment. This research explores the learners’ perspective of BL according to the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). It identifies the opportunities and challenges for using the BL in Logistics Education (LE) in Egyptian Higher Education (HE). SDT is approached from different perspectives within the relationship between Intrinsic Motivation (IM), Extrinsic Motivation (EM) and Amotivation (AM). A self-administered face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect data from learners who were geographically widely spread around three colleges of International Transport and Logistics (CILTs) at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AAST&MT) in Egypt. Six hundred and sixteen undergraduates responded to a questionnaire survey. Respondents were drawn from three branches in Greater Cairo, Alexandria, and Port Said. The data analysis used was SPSS 22 and AMOS 18.

Novel Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Current Limiting Device (CLD) for Surge Protection

In the past many uneconomic solutions for limitation and interruption of short-circuit currents in low power applications have been introduced, especially polymer switch based on the positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PCTR) concept. However there are many limitations in the active material, which consists of conductive fillers. This paper presents a significantly improved and simplified approach that replaces the existing current limiters with faster switching elements. Its elegance lies in the remarkable simplicity and low-cost processes of producing the device using polyaniline (PANI) doped with methane-sulfonic acid (MSA). Samples characterized as lying in the metallic and critical regimes of metal insulator transition have been studied by means of electrical performance in the voltage range from 1V to 5 V under different environmental conditions. Moisture presence is shown to increase the resistivity and also improved its current limiting performance. Additionally, the device has also been studied for electrical resistivity in the temperature range 77 K-300 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity gives evidence for a transport mechanism based on variable range hopping in three dimensions.

The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in Explaining Students- Willingness to Use Software Applications
The present study was designed to test the influence of intrinsic ICT-motivation, perceived usefulness and ease of use on business students- willingness to use a particular software package. A questionnaire was completed by 196 business students in Norway. We found that 34% of the variance in the students- willingness to use the software could be explained by the three proposed antecedents. Intrinsic ICT-motivation seems to be the most important predictor of students- satisfaction willingness to use the software package.
A Novel Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach for Empirical Mode Decomposition
This paper introduces a new instantaneous frequency computation approach  -Counting Instantaneous Frequency for a general class of signals called simple waves. The classsimple wave contains a wide range of continuous signals for which the concept instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense. The concept of  -Counting Instantaneous Frequency also applies to all the discrete data. For all the simple wave signals and the discrete data, -Counting instantaneous frequency can be computed directly without signal decomposition process. The intrinsic mode functions obtained through empirical mode decomposition belongs to simple wave. So  -Counting instantaneous frequency can be used together with empirical mode decomposition.
Intrinsic Kinetics of Methanol Dehydration over Al2O3 Catalyst
Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over a commercial Al2O3 catalyst was studied in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 513-613 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.9-2.1h-1, pressures between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa. The effect of different operation conditions on the dehydration of methanol was investigated in a laboratory scale experiment. A new intrinsic kinetics equation based on the mechanism of Langmuir-Hinshelwood dissociation adsorption was developed for the dehydration reaction by fitting the expressions to the experimental data. An activation energy of 67.21 kJ/mol was obtained for the catalyst with the best performance. Statistic test showed that this new intrinsic kinetics equation was acceptable.
Investigating Mental Workload of VR Training versus Serious Game Training on Shoot Operation Training
Thanks to VR technology advanced, there are many researches had used VR technology to develop a training system. Using VR characteristics can simulate many kinds of situations to reach our training-s goal. However, a good training system not only considers real simulation but also considers learner-s learning motivation. So, there are many researches started to conduct game-s features into VR training system. We typically called this is a serious game. It is using game-s features to engage learner-s learning motivation. However, VR or Serious game has another important advantage. That is simulating feature. Using this feature can create any kinds of pressured environments. Because in the real environment may happen any emergent situations. So, increasing the trainees- pressure is more important when they are training. Most pervious researches are investigated serious game-s applications and learning performance. Seldom researches investigated how to increase the learner-s mental workload when they are training. So, in our study, we will introduce a real case study and create two types training environments. Comparing the learner-s mental workload between VR training and serious game.
Analysis of Euler Angles in a Simple Two-Axis Gimbals Set

Any rotation of a 3-dimensional object can be performed by three consecutive rotations over Euler angles. Intrinsic rotations produce the same result as extrinsic rotations in transformation. Euler rotations are the movement obtained by changing one of the Euler angles while leaving the other two constant. These Euler rotations are applied in a simple two-axis gimbals set mounted on an automotives. The values of Euler angles are [π/4, π/4, π/4] radians inside the angles ranges for a given coordinate system and these actual orientations can be directly measured from these gimbals set of moving automotives but it can occur the gimbals lock in application at [π/2.24, 0, 0] radians. In order to avoid gimbals lock, the values of quaternion must be [π/4.8, π/8.2, 0, π/4.8] radians. The four-gimbals set can eliminate gimbals lock.

Oxidation of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Water Matrices by Bromine and Chlorine
The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, hydrochlorotiazide and phenacetin) in ultrapure water and in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, and the sequence obtained for the reaction rate was amoxicillin > naproxen >> hydrochlorotiazide ≈ phenacetin ≈ metoprolol. The proposal of a kinetic mechanism, which specifies the dissociation of bromine and each pharmaceutical according to their pKa values and the pH allowed the determination of the intrinsic rate constants for every elementary reaction. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and the water matrix) on the degradation of pharmaceuticals was established. In addition, the presence of bromide in chlorination experiments was investigated. The presence of bromide in wastewaters and drinking waters in the range of 10 to several hundred μg L-1 accelerated slightly the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chorine disinfection.
Carrageenan Properties Extracted From Eucheuma cottonii, Indonesia
The effect of extraction solvent upon properties of carrageenan from Eucheuma cottonii was studied. The distilled water and KOH solution (concentration 0.1- 0.5N) were used as the solvent. Extraction process was carried out in water bath equipped by stirrer with constant speed of 275 rpm with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume ( 1:50 g/mL) at 86oC for 45 minutes. The extract was then precipitated in 3 volume of 90% ethanol, oven dried at 60oC. Based on experimental data, alkali significantly influenced yield and properties of extracted carrageenan. The extracted carrageenan was found to have essentially identical FTIR spectra to the reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Increasing the KOH concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content and intrinsic viscosity. The gel strength increased along with the increasing of KOH concentration. The decreasing of intrinsic viscosity value indicates that a polymer degradation occurs during alkali extraction.
A New Definition of the Intrinsic Mode Function

This paper makes a detailed analysis regarding the definition of the intrinsic mode function and proves that Condition 1 of the intrinsic mode function can really be deduced from Condition 2. Finally, an improved definition of the intrinsic mode function is given.

Jitter Transfer in High Speed Data Links
Phase locked loops for data links operating at 10 Gb/s or faster are low phase noise devices designed to operate with a low jitter reference clock. Characterization of their jitter transfer function is difficult because the intrinsic noise of the device is comparable to the random noise level in the reference clock signal. A linear model is proposed to account for the intrinsic noise of a PLL. The intrinsic noise data of a PLL for 10 Gb/s links is presented. The jitter transfer function of a PLL in a test chip for 12.8 Gb/s data links was determined in experiments using the 400 MHz reference clock as the source of simultaneous excitations over a wide range of frequency. The result shows that the PLL jitter transfer function can be approximated by a second order linear model.
Mathematical Model of Dengue Disease with the Incubation Period of Virus
Dengue virus is transmitted from person to person through the biting of infected Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes. DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4 are four serotypes of this virus. Infection with one of these four serotypes apparently produces permanent immunity to it, but only temporary cross immunity to the others. The length of time during incubation of dengue virus in human and mosquito are considered in this study. The dengue patients are classified into infected and infectious classes. The infectious human can transmit dengue virus to susceptible mosquitoes but infected human can not. The transmission model of this disease is formulated. The human population is divided into susceptible, infected, infectious and recovered classes. The mosquito population is separated into susceptible, infected and infectious classes. Only infectious mosquitoes can transmit dengue virus to the susceptible human. We analyze this model by using dynamical analysis method. The threshold condition is discussed to reduce the outbreak of this disease.
Analytical Camera Model Supplemented with Influence of Temperature Variations
A camera in the building site is exposed to different weather conditions. Differences between images of the same scene captured with the same camera arise also due to temperature variations. The influence of temperature changes on camera parameters were modelled and integrated into existing analytical camera model. Modified camera model enables quantitatively assessing the influence of temperature variations.
Phase Jitter Transfer in High Speed Data Links
Phase locked loops in 10 Gb/s and faster data links are low phase noise devices. Characterization of their phase jitter transfer functions is difficult because the intrinsic noise of the PLLs is comparable to the phase noise of the reference clock signal. The problem is solved by using a linear model to account for the intrinsic noise. This study also introduces a novel technique for measuring the transfer function. It involves the use of the reference clock as a source of wideband excitation, in contrast to the commonly used sinusoidal excitations at discrete frequencies. The data reported here include the intrinsic noise of a PLL for 10 Gb/s links and the jitter transfer function of a PLL for 12.8 Gb/s links. The measured transfer function suggests that the PLL responded like a second order linear system to a low noise reference clock.
Endogenous Fantasy – Based Serious Games: Intrinsic Motivation and Learning

Current technological advances pale in comparison to the changes in social behaviors and 'sense of place' that is being empowered since the Internet made it on the scene. Today-s students view the Internet as both a source of entertainment and an educational tool. The development of virtual environments is a conceptual framework that needs to be addressed by educators and it is important that they become familiar with who these virtual learners are and how they are motivated to learn. Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs), if well designed, could become the vehicle of choice to deliver learning content. We suggest that these games, in order to accomplish these goals, must begin with well-established instructional design principles that are co-aligned with established principles of video game design. And have the opportunity to provide an instructional model of significant prescriptive power. The authors believe that game designers need to take advantage of the natural motivation player-learners have for playing games by developing them in such a way so as to promote, intrinsic motivation, content learning, transfer of knowledge, and naturalization.

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