Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 42

42
10009167
Hybrid Anomaly Detection Using Decision Tree and Support Vector Machine
Abstract:

Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are the main components of network security. These systems analyze the network events for intrusion detection. The design of an IDS is through the training of normal traffic data or attack. The methods of machine learning are the best ways to design IDSs. In the method presented in this article, the pruning algorithm of C5.0 decision tree is being used to reduce the features of traffic data used and training IDS by the least square vector algorithm (LS-SVM). Then, the remaining features are arranged according to the predictor importance criterion. The least important features are eliminated in the order. The remaining features of this stage, which have created the highest level of accuracy in LS-SVM, are selected as the final features. The features obtained, compared to other similar articles which have examined the selected features in the least squared support vector machine model, are better in the accuracy, true positive rate, and false positive. The results are tested by the UNSW-NB15 dataset.

41
10007929
A Distributed Mobile Agent Based on Intrusion Detection System for MANET
Abstract:

This study is about an algorithmic dependence of Artificial Neural Network on Multilayer Perceptron (MPL) pertaining to the classification and clustering presentations for Mobile Adhoc Network vulnerabilities. Moreover, mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is ubiquitous intelligent internetworking devices in which it has the ability to detect their environment using an autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Security affairs are the most important subject in MANET due to the easy penetrative scenarios occurred in such an auto configuration network. One of the powerful techniques used for inspecting the network packets is Intrusion Detection System (IDS); in this article, we are going to show the effectiveness of artificial neural networks used as a machine learning along with stochastic approach (information gain) to classify the malicious behaviors in simulated network with respect to different IDS techniques. The monitoring agent is responsible for detection inference engine, the audit data is collected from collecting agent by simulating the node attack and contrasted outputs with normal behaviors of the framework, whenever. In the event that there is any deviation from the ordinary behaviors then the monitoring agent is considered this event as an attack , in this article we are going to demonstrate the  signature-based IDS approach in a MANET by implementing the back propagation algorithm over ensemble-based Traffic Table (TT), thus the signature of malicious behaviors or undesirable activities are often significantly prognosticated and efficiently figured out, by increasing the parametric set-up of Back propagation algorithm during the experimental results which empirically shown its effectiveness  for the ratio of detection index up to 98.6 percentage. Consequently it is proved in empirical results in this article, the performance matrices are also being included in this article with Xgraph screen show by different through puts like Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Through Put(TP), and Average Delay(AD).

40
10007173
Malware Detection in Mobile Devices by Analyzing Sequences of System Calls
Abstract:
With the increase in popularity of mobile devices, new and varied forms of malware have emerged. Consequently, the organizations for cyberdefense have echoed the need to deploy more effective defensive schemes adapted to the challenges posed by these recent monitoring environments. In order to contribute to their development, this paper presents a malware detection strategy for mobile devices based on sequence alignment algorithms. Unlike the previous proposals, only the system calls performed during the startup of applications are studied. In this way, it is possible to efficiently study in depth, the sequences of system calls executed by the applications just downloaded from app stores, and initialize them in a secure and isolated environment. As demonstrated in the performed experimentation, most of the analyzed malicious activities were successfully identified in their boot processes.
39
10006735
Detection of New Attacks on Ubiquitous Services in Cloud Computing and Countermeasures
Abstract:

Cloud computing provides infrastructure to the enterprise through the Internet allowing access to cloud services at anytime and anywhere. This pervasive aspect of the services, the distributed nature of data and the wide use of information make cloud computing vulnerable to intrusions that violate the security of the cloud. This requires the use of security mechanisms to detect malicious behavior in network communications and hosts such as intrusion detection systems (IDS). In this article, we focus on the detection of intrusion into the cloud sing IDSs. We base ourselves on client authentication in the computing cloud. This technique allows to detect the abnormal use of ubiquitous service and prevents the intrusion of cloud computing. This is an approach based on client authentication data. Our IDS provides intrusion detection inside and outside cloud computing network. It is a double protection approach: The security user node and the global security cloud computing.

38
10003512
Anomaly Detection with ANN and SVM for Telemedicine Networks
Abstract:
In recent years, a wide variety of applications are developed with Support Vector Machines -SVM- methods and Artificial Neural Networks -ANN-. In general, these methods depend on intrusion knowledge databases such as KDD99, ISCX, and CAIDA among others. New classes of detectors are generated by machine learning techniques, trained and tested over network databases. Thereafter, detectors are employed to detect anomalies in network communication scenarios according to user’s connections behavior. The first detector based on training dataset is deployed in different real-world networks with mobile and non-mobile devices to analyze the performance and accuracy over static detection. The vulnerabilities are based on previous work in telemedicine apps that were developed on the research group. This paper presents the differences on detections results between some network scenarios by applying traditional detectors deployed with artificial neural networks and support vector machines.
37
10002184
A New DIDS Design Based on a Combination Feature Selection Approach
Abstract:
Feature selection has been used in many fields such as classification, data mining and object recognition and proven to be effective for removing irrelevant and redundant features from the original dataset. In this paper, a new design of distributed intrusion detection system using a combination feature selection model based on bees and decision tree. Bees algorithm is used as the search strategy to find the optimal subset of features, whereas decision tree is used as a judgment for the selected features. Both the produced features and the generated rules are used by Decision Making Mobile Agent to decide whether there is an attack or not in the networks. Decision Making Mobile Agent will migrate through the networks, moving from node to another, if it found that there is an attack on one of the nodes, it then alerts the user through User Interface Agent or takes some action through Action Mobile Agent. The KDD Cup 99 dataset is used to test the effectiveness of the proposed system. The results show that even if only four features are used, the proposed system gives a better performance when it is compared with the obtained results using all 41 features.
36
9999878
Parallel Hybrid Honeypot and IDS Architecture to Detect Network Attacks
Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a parallel IDS and honeypot based approach to detect and analyze the unknown and known attack taxonomy for improving the IDS performance and protecting the network from intruders. The main theme of our approach is to record and analyze the intruder activities by using both the low and high interaction honeypots. Our architecture aims to achieve the required goals by combing signature based IDS, honeypots and generate the new signatures. The paper describes the basic component, design and implementation of this approach and also demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach to reduce the probability of network attacks.

35
10000033
Apoptosis Inspired Intrusion Detection System
Abstract:

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), inspired by the human immune system, are algorithms and mechanisms which are self-adaptive and self-learning classifiers capable of recognizing and classifying by learning, long-term memory and association. Unlike other human system inspired techniques like genetic algorithms and neural networks, AIS includes a range of algorithms modeling on different immune mechanism of the body. In this paper, a mechanism of a human immune system based on apoptosis is adopted to build an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to protect computer networks. Features are selected from network traffic using Fisher Score. Based on the selected features, the record/connection is classified as either an attack or normal traffic by the proposed methodology. Simulation results demonstrates that the proposed AIS based on apoptosis performs better than existing AIS for intrusion detection.

34
9999865
Feature Based Unsupervised Intrusion Detection
Abstract:

The goal of a network-based intrusion detection system is to classify activities of network traffics into two major categories: normal and attack (intrusive) activities. Nowadays, data mining and machine learning plays an important role in many sciences; including intrusion detection system (IDS) using both supervised and unsupervised techniques. However, one of the essential steps of data mining is feature selection that helps in improving the efficiency, performance and prediction rate of proposed approach. This paper applies unsupervised K-means clustering algorithm with information gain (IG) for feature selection and reduction to build a network intrusion detection system. For our experimental analysis, we have used the new NSL-KDD dataset, which is a modified dataset for KDDCup 1999 intrusion detection benchmark dataset. With a split of 60.0% for the training set and the remainder for the testing set, a 2 class classifications have been implemented (Normal, Attack). Weka framework which is a java based open source software consists of a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks has been used in the testing process. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is very accurate with low false positive rate and high true positive rate and it takes less learning time in comparison with using the full features of the dataset with the same algorithm.

33
9997533
Incorporating Multiple Supervised Learning Algorithms for Effective Intrusion Detection
Abstract:

As internet continues to expand its usage with an  enormous number of applications, cyber-threats have significantly  increased accordingly. Thus, accurate detection of malicious traffic in  a timely manner is a critical concern in today’s Internet for security.  One approach for intrusion detection is to use Machine Learning (ML)  techniques. Several methods based on ML algorithms have been  introduced over the past years, but they are largely limited in terms of  detection accuracy and/or time and space complexity to run. In this  work, we present a novel method for intrusion detection that  incorporates a set of supervised learning algorithms. The proposed  technique provides high accuracy and outperforms existing techniques  that simply utilizes a single learning method. In addition, our  technique relies on partial flow information (rather than full  information) for detection, and thus, it is light-weight and desirable for  online operations with the property of early identification. With the  mid-Atlantic CCDC intrusion dataset publicly available, we show that  our proposed technique yields a high degree of detection rate over 99%  with a very low false alarm rate (0.4%). 

 

32
9996779
Evaluating Performance of an Anomaly Detection Module with Artificial Neural Network Implementation
Abstract:

Anomaly detection techniques have been focused on two main components: data extraction and selection and the second one is the analysis performed over the obtained data. The goal of this paper is to analyze the influence that each of these components has over the system performance by evaluating detection over network scenarios with different setups. The independent variables are as follows: the number of system inputs, the way the inputs are codified and the complexity of the analysis techniques. For the analysis, some approaches of artificial neural networks are implemented with different number of layers. The obtained results show the influence that each of these variables has in the system performance.

31
16078
Evaluation of State of the Art IDS Message Exchange Protocols
Abstract:

During the last couple of years, the degree of dependence on IT systems has reached a dimension nobody imagined to be possible 10 years ago. The increased usage of mobile devices (e.g., smart phones), wireless sensor networks and embedded devices (Internet of Things) are only some examples of the dependency of modern societies on cyber space. At the same time, the complexity of IT applications, e.g., because of the increasing use of cloud computing, is rising continuously. Along with this, the threats to IT security have increased both quantitatively and qualitatively, as recent examples like STUXNET or the supposed cyber attack on Illinois water system are proofing impressively. Once isolated control systems are nowadays often publicly available - a fact that has never been intended by the developers. Threats to IT systems don’t care about areas of responsibility. Especially with regard to Cyber Warfare, IT threats are no longer limited to company or industry boundaries, administrative jurisdictions or state boundaries. One of the important countermeasures is increased cooperation among the participants especially in the field of Cyber Defence. Besides political and legal challenges, there are technical ones as well. A better, at least partially automated exchange of information is essential to (i) enable sophisticated situational awareness and to (ii) counter the attacker in a coordinated way. Therefore, this publication performs an evaluation of state of the art Intrusion Detection Message Exchange protocols in order to guarantee a secure information exchange between different entities.

30
13220
Intrusion Detection Using a New Particle Swarm Method and Support Vector Machines
Abstract:
Intrusion detection is a mechanism used to protect a system and analyse and predict the behaviours of system users. An ideal intrusion detection system is hard to achieve due to nonlinearity, and irrelevant or redundant features. This study introduces a new anomaly-based intrusion detection model. The suggested model is based on particle swarm optimisation and nonlinear, multi-class and multi-kernel support vector machines. Particle swarm optimisation is used for feature selection by applying a new formula to update the position and the velocity of a particle; the support vector machine is used as a classifier. The proposed model is tested and compared with the other methods using the KDD CUP 1999 dataset. The results indicate that this new method achieves better accuracy rates than previous methods.
29
13529
A Review on Soft Computing Technique in Intrusion Detection System
Abstract:
Intrusion Detection System is significant in network security. It detects and identifies intrusion behavior or intrusion attempts in a computer system by monitoring and analyzing the network packets in real time. In the recent year, intelligent algorithms applied in the intrusion detection system (IDS) have been an increasing concern with the rapid growth of the network security. IDS data deals with a huge amount of data which contains irrelevant and redundant features causing slow training and testing process, higher resource consumption as well as poor detection rate. Since the amount of audit data that an IDS needs to examine is very large even for a small network, classification by hand is impossible. Hence, the primary objective of this review is to review the techniques prior to classification process suit to IDS data.
28
14960
Moving towards Positive Security Model for Web Application Firewall
Abstract:

The proliferation of web application and the pervasiveness of mobile technology make web-based attacks even more attractive and even easier to launch. Web Application Firewall (WAF) is an intermediate tool between web server and users that provides comprehensive protection for web application. WAF is a negative security model where the detection and prevention mechanisms are based on predefined or user-defined attack signatures and patterns. However, WAF alone is not adequate to offer best defensive system against web vulnerabilities that are increasing in number and complexity daily. This paper presents a methodology to automatically design a positive security based model which identifies and allows only legitimate web queries. The paper shows a true positive rate of more than 90% can be achieved.

27
3263
A Software of Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Virtual Platforms
Abstract:
Security is an interesting and significance issue for popular virtual platforms, such as virtualization cluster and cloud platforms. Virtualization is the powerful technology for cloud computing services, there are a lot of benefits by using virtual machine tools which be called hypervisors, such as it can quickly deploy all kinds of virtual Operating Systems in single platform, able to control all virtual system resources effectively, cost down for system platform deployment, ability of customization, high elasticity and high reliability. However, some important security problems need to take care and resolved in virtual platforms that include terrible viruses, evil programs, illegal operations and intrusion behavior. In this paper, we present useful Intrusion Detection Mechanism (IDM) software that not only can auto to analyze all system-s operations with the accounting journal database, but also is able to monitor the system-s state for virtual platforms.
26
2002
Designing a Framework for Network Security Protection
Authors:
Abstract:
As the Internet continues to grow at a rapid pace as the primary medium for communications and commerce and as telecommunication networks and systems continue to expand their global reach, digital information has become the most popular and important information resource and our dependence upon the underlying cyber infrastructure has been increasing significantly. Unfortunately, as our dependency has grown, so has the threat to the cyber infrastructure from spammers, attackers and criminal enterprises. In this paper, we propose a new machine learning based network intrusion detection framework for cyber security. The detection process of the framework consists of two stages: model construction and intrusion detection. In the model construction stage, a semi-supervised machine learning algorithm is applied to a collected set of network audit data to generate a profile of normal network behavior and in the intrusion detection stage, input network events are analyzed and compared with the patterns gathered in the profile, and some of them are then flagged as anomalies should these events are sufficiently far from the expected normal behavior. The proposed framework is particularly applicable to the situations where there is only a small amount of labeled network training data available, which is very typical in real world network environments.
25
9454
Combine a Population-based Incremental Learning with Artificial Immune System for Intrusion Detection System
Abstract:

This research focus on the intrusion detection system (IDS) development which using artificial immune system (AIS) with population based incremental learning (PBIL). AIS have powerful distinguished capability to extirpate antigen when the antigen intrude into human body. The PBIL is based on past learning experience to adjust new learning. Therefore we propose an intrusion detection system call PBIL-AIS which combine two approaches of PBIL and AIS to evolution computing. In AIS part we design three mechanisms such as clonal selection, negative selection and antibody level to intensify AIS performance. In experimental result, our PBIL-AIS IDS can capture high accuracy when an intrusion connection attacks.

24
10343
An Inter-banking Auditing Security Solution for Detecting Unauthorised Financial Transactions entered by Authorised Insiders
Abstract:
Insider abuse has recently been reported as one of the more frequently occurring security incidents, suggesting that more security is required for detecting and preventing unauthorised financial transactions entered by authorised users. To address the problem, and based on the observation that all authorised interbanking financial transactions trigger or are triggered by other transactions in a workflow, we have developed a security solution based on a redefined understanding of an audit workflow. One audit workflow where there is a log file containing the complete workflow activity of financial transactions directly related to one financial transaction (an electronic deal recorded at an e-trading system). The new security solution contemplates any two parties interacting on the basis of financial transactions recorded by their users in related but distinct automated financial systems. In the new definition interorganizational and intra-organization interactions can be described in one unique audit trail. This concept expands the current ideas of audit trails by adapting them to actual e-trading workflow activity, i.e. intra-organizational and inter-organizational activity. With the above, a security auditing service is designed to detect integrity drifts with and between organizations in order to detect unauthorised financial transactions entered by authorised users.
23
2096
Key Issues and Challenges of Intrusion Detection and Prevention System: Developing Proactive Protection in Wireless Network Environment
Abstract:
Nowadays wireless technology plays an important role in public and personal communication. However, the growth of wireless networking has confused the traditional boundaries between trusted and untrusted networks. Wireless networks are subject to a variety of threats and attacks at present. An attacker has the ability to listen to all network traffic which becoming a potential intrusion. Intrusion of any kind may lead to a chaotic condition. In addition, improperly configured access points also contribute the risk to wireless network. To overcome this issue, a security solution that includes an intrusion detection and prevention system need to be implemented. In this paper, first the security drawbacks of wireless network will be analyzed then investigate the characteristics and also the limitations on current wireless intrusion detection and prevention system. Finally, the requirement of next wireless intrusion prevention system will be identified including some key issues which should be focused on in the future to overcomes those limitations.
22
7009
Identify Features and Parameters to Devise an Accurate Intrusion Detection System Using Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:

The aim of this article is to explain how features of attacks could be extracted from the packets. It also explains how vectors could be built and then applied to the input of any analysis stage. For analyzing, the work deploys the Feedforward-Back propagation neural network to act as misuse intrusion detection system. It uses ten types if attacks as example for training and testing the neural network. It explains how the packets are analyzed to extract features. The work shows how selecting the right features, building correct vectors and how correct identification of the training methods with nodes- number in hidden layer of any neural network affecting the accuracy of system. In addition, the work shows how to get values of optimal weights and use them to initialize the Artificial Neural Network.

21
6954
Position Awareness Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:

A Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a set of battery-powered nodes, which collaborate to perform sensing tasks in a given environment. Each node in WSN should be capable to act for long periods of time with scrimpy or no external management. One requirement for this independent is: in the presence of adverse positions, the sensor nodes must be capable to configure themselves. Hence, the nodes for determine the existence of unusual events in their surroundings should make use of position awareness mechanisms. This work approaches the problem by considering the possible unusual events as diseases, thus making it possible to diagnose them through their symptoms, namely, their side effects. Considering these awareness mechanisms as a foundation for highlevel monitoring services, this paper also shows how these mechanisms are included in the primal plan of an intrusion detection system.

20
13376
Mining Network Data for Intrusion Detection through Naïve Bayesian with Clustering
Abstract:
Network security attacks are the violation of information security policy that received much attention to the computational intelligence society in the last decades. Data mining has become a very useful technique for detecting network intrusions by extracting useful knowledge from large number of network data or logs. Naïve Bayesian classifier is one of the most popular data mining algorithm for classification, which provides an optimal way to predict the class of an unknown example. It has been tested that one set of probability derived from data is not good enough to have good classification rate. In this paper, we proposed a new learning algorithm for mining network logs to detect network intrusions through naïve Bayesian classifier, which first clusters the network logs into several groups based on similarity of logs, and then calculates the prior and conditional probabilities for each group of logs. For classifying a new log, the algorithm checks in which cluster the log belongs and then use that cluster-s probability set to classify the new log. We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm by employing KDD99 benchmark network intrusion detection dataset, and the experimental results proved that it improves detection rates as well as reduces false positives for different types of network intrusions.
19
5652
Attacks Classification in Adaptive Intrusion Detection using Decision Tree
Abstract:
Recently, information security has become a key issue in information technology as the number of computer security breaches are exposed to an increasing number of security threats. A variety of intrusion detection systems (IDS) have been employed for protecting computers and networks from malicious network-based or host-based attacks by using traditional statistical methods to new data mining approaches in last decades. However, today's commercially available intrusion detection systems are signature-based that are not capable of detecting unknown attacks. In this paper, we present a new learning algorithm for anomaly based network intrusion detection system using decision tree algorithm that distinguishes attacks from normal behaviors and identifies different types of intrusions. Experimental results on the KDD99 benchmark network intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that the proposed learning algorithm achieved 98% detection rate (DR) in comparison with other existing methods.
18
6516
Adaptive Network Intrusion Detection Learning: Attribute Selection and Classification
Abstract:
In this paper, a new learning approach for network intrusion detection using naïve Bayesian classifier and ID3 algorithm is presented, which identifies effective attributes from the training dataset, calculates the conditional probabilities for the best attribute values, and then correctly classifies all the examples of training and testing dataset. Most of the current intrusion detection datasets are dynamic, complex and contain large number of attributes. Some of the attributes may be redundant or contribute little for detection making. It has been successfully tested that significant attribute selection is important to design a real world intrusion detection systems (IDS). The purpose of this study is to identify effective attributes from the training dataset to build a classifier for network intrusion detection using data mining algorithms. The experimental results on KDD99 benchmark intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that this new approach achieves high classification rates and reduce false positives using limited computational resources.
17
7026
Retrieval of Relevant Visual Data in Selected Machine Vision Tasks: Examples of Hardware-based and Software-based Solutions
Abstract:

To illustrate diversity of methods used to extract relevant (where the concept of relevance can be differently defined for different applications) visual data, the paper discusses three groups of such methods. They have been selected from a range of alternatives to highlight how hardware and software tools can be complementarily used in order to achieve various functionalities in case of different specifications of “relevant data". First, principles of gated imaging are presented (where relevance is determined by the range). The second methodology is intended for intelligent intrusion detection, while the last one is used for content-based image matching and retrieval. All methods have been developed within projects supervised by the author.

16
5029
Development of Genetic-based Machine Learning for Network Intrusion Detection (GBML-NID)
Abstract:
Society has grown to rely on Internet services, and the number of Internet users increases every day. As more and more users become connected to the network, the window of opportunity for malicious users to do their damage becomes very great and lucrative. The objective of this paper is to incorporate different techniques into classier system to detect and classify intrusion from normal network packet. Among several techniques, Steady State Genetic-based Machine Leaning Algorithm (SSGBML) will be used to detect intrusions. Where Steady State Genetic Algorithm (SSGA), Simple Genetic Algorithm (SGA), Modified Genetic Algorithm and Zeroth Level Classifier system are investigated in this research. SSGA is used as a discovery mechanism instead of SGA. SGA replaces all old rules with new produced rule preventing old good rules from participating in the next rule generation. Zeroth Level Classifier System is used to play the role of detector by matching incoming environment message with classifiers to determine whether the current message is normal or intrusion and receiving feedback from environment. Finally, in order to attain the best results, Modified SSGA will enhance our discovery engine by using Fuzzy Logic to optimize crossover and mutation probability. The experiments and evaluations of the proposed method were performed with the KDD 99 intrusion detection dataset.
15
3936
Network Intrusion Detection Design Using Feature Selection of Soft Computing Paradigms
Abstract:
The network traffic data provided for the design of intrusion detection always are large with ineffective information and enclose limited and ambiguous information about users- activities. We study the problems and propose a two phases approach in our intrusion detection design. In the first phase, we develop a correlation-based feature selection algorithm to remove the worthless information from the original high dimensional database. Next, we design an intrusion detection method to solve the problems of uncertainty caused by limited and ambiguous information. In the experiments, we choose six UCI databases and DARPA KDD99 intrusion detection data set as our evaluation tools. Empirical studies indicate that our feature selection algorithm is capable of reducing the size of data set. Our intrusion detection method achieves a better performance than those of participating intrusion detectors.
14
3059
A Novel Hybrid Mobile Agent Based Distributed Intrusion Detection System
Abstract:
The first generation of Mobile Agents based Intrusion Detection System just had two components namely data collection and single centralized analyzer. The disadvantage of this type of intrusion detection is if connection to the analyzer fails, the entire system will become useless. In this work, we propose novel hybrid model for Mobile Agent based Distributed Intrusion Detection System to overcome the current problem. The proposed model has new features such as robustness, capability of detecting intrusion against the IDS itself and capability of updating itself to detect new pattern of intrusions. In addition, our proposed model is also capable of tackling some of the weaknesses of centralized Intrusion Detection System models.
13
6483
Investigating Intrusion Detection Systems in MANET and Comparing IDSs for Detecting Misbehaving Nodes
Abstract:
As mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have different characteristics from wired networks and even from standard wireless networks, there are new challenges related to security issues that need to be addressed. Due to its unique features such as open nature, lack of infrastructure and central management, node mobility and change of dynamic topology, prevention methods from attacks on them are not enough. Therefore intrusion detection is one of the possible ways in recognizing a possible attack before the system could be penetrated. All in all, techniques for intrusion detection in old wireless networks are not suitable for MANET. In this paper, we classify the architecture for Intrusion detection systems that have so far been introduced for MANETs, and then existing intrusion detection techniques in MANET presented and compared. We then indicate important future research directions.
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