Kinetics and Thermodynamics Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous Material
Mesoporous materials are very commonly used as adsorbent materials for removing phenolic compounds. However, the adsorption mechanism of these compounds is still poorly controlled. However, understanding the interactions mesoporous materials/adsorbed molecules is very important in order to optimize the processes of liquid phase adsorption. The difficulty of synthesis is to keep an orderly and cubic pore structure and achieve a homogeneous surface modification. The grafting of Si(CH3)3 was chosen, to transform hydrophilic surfaces hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of this work is to study the kinetics and thermodynamics of two volatile organic compounds VOC phenol (PhOH) and P hydroxy benzoic acid (4AHB) on a mesoporous material of type MCM-48 grafted with an organosilane of the Trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) type, the material thus grafted or functionalized (hereinafter referred to as MCM-48-G). In a first step, the kinetic and thermodynamic study of the adsorption isotherms of each of the VOCs in mono-solution was carried out. In a second step, a similar study was carried out on a mixture of these two compounds. Kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order) were used to determine kinetic adsorption parameters. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption isotherms were determined by the adsorption models (Langmuir, Freundlich). The comparative study of adsorption of PhOH and 4AHB proved that MCM-48-G had a high adsorption capacity for PhOH and 4AHB; this may be related to the hydrophobicity created by the organic function of TMCS in MCM-48-G. The adsorption results for the two compounds using the Freundlich and Langmuir models show that the adsorption of 4AHB was higher than PhOH. The values obtained by the adsorption thermodynamics show that the adsorption interactions for our sample with the phenol and 4AHB are of a physical nature. The adsorption of our VOCs on the MCM-48 (G) is a spontaneous and exothermic process.
Malt Bagasse Waste as Biosorbent for Malachite Green: An Ecofriendly Approach for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution
In this study, malt bagasse, a low-cost waste biomass, was tested as a biosorbent to remove the cationic dye Malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Batch biosorption experiments were investigated as functions of different experimental parameters such as initial pH, salt (NaCl) concentration, contact time, temperature and initial dye concentration. Higher removal rates of MG were obtained at pH 8 and 10. The equilibrium and kinetic studies suggest that the biosorption follows Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was estimated at 117.65 mg/g (at 45 °C). According to Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of MG onto malt bagasse occurs physically. The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated that the MG biosorption onto malt bagasse is spontaneous and endothermic. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance under high salt concentrations. It can be concluded that malt bagasse waste has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of MG from aqueous solution.
Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method
The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour
parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching
sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is
subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction
parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the
wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled
using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been
solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition
to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity,
nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction
coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters.
A comparison of current findings with previously published results
for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.
Removal of Textile Dye from Industrial Wastewater by Natural and Modified Diatomite
The textile industry produces high amount of colored effluent each year. The management or treatment of these discharges depends on the applied techniques. Adsorption is one of wastewater treatment techniques destined to treat this kind of pollution, and the performance and efficiency predominantly depend on the nature of the adsorbent used. Therefore, scientific research is directed towards the development of new materials using different physical and chemical treatments to improve their adsorption capacities. In the same perspective, we looked at the effect of the heat treatment on the effectiveness of diatomite, which is found in abundance in Algeria. The textile dye Orange Bezaktiv (SRL-150) which is used as organic pollutants in this study is provided by the textile company SOITEXHAM in Oran city (west Algeria). The effect of different physicochemical parameters on the adsorption of SRL-150 on natural and modified diatomite is studied, and the results of the kinetics and adsorption isotherms were modeled.
Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Textile Dye (Yellow Bemacid) onto Brahea edulis
Environmental contamination is a major problem being faced by the society today. Industrial, agricultural, and domestic wastes, due to the rapid development in the technology, are discharged in the several receivers. Generally, this discharge is directed to the nearest water sources such as rivers, lakes, and seas. While the rates of development and waste production are not likely to diminish, efforts to control and dispose of wastes are appropriately rising. Wastewaters from textile industries represent a serious problem all over the world. They contain different types of synthetic dyes which are known to be a major source of environmental pollution in terms of both the volume of dye discharged and the effluent composition. From an environmental point of view, the removal of synthetic dyes is of great concern. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption is a promising technique due to the ease of use and low cost compared to other applications in the process of discoloration, especially if the adsorbent is inexpensive and readily available. The focus of the present study was to assess the potentiality of Brahea edulis (BE) for the removal of synthetic dye Yellow bemacid (YB) from aqueous solutions. The results obtained here may transfer to other dyes with a similar chemical structure. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The biosorption kinetic data of the material (BE) was tested by the pseudo first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH, and entropy ΔS have revealed that the adsorption of YB on the BE is feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The equilibrium data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, and Temkin isotherm models. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g: 12 mg/g; 1.5 g: 47.44 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at around pH value of 2 for the YB. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial dye concentration in solution (Co = 120 mg/l; q = 35.97 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.998) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 35.97 mg/g for YB.
Nanostructure of Gamma-Alumina Prepared by a Modified Sol-Gel Technique
Nanoporous g-Al2O3 samples were synthesized via a sol-gel technique, introducing changes in the Yoldas´ method. The aim of the work was to achieve an effective control of the nanostructure properties and morphology of the final g-Al2O3. The influence of the reagent temperature during the hydrolysis was evaluated in case of water at 5 ºC and 98 ºC, and alkoxide at -18 ºC and room temperature. Sol-gel transitions were performed at 120 ºC and room temperature. All g-Al2O3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and thermal analysis. Our results showed that temperature of both water and alkoxide has not much influence on the nanostructure of the final g-Al2O3, thus giving a structure very similar to that of samples obtained by the reference method as long as the reaction temperature above 75 ºC is reached soon enough. XRD characterization showed diffraction patterns corresponding to g-Al2O3 for all samples. Also BET specific area values (253-280 m2/g) were similar to those obtained by Yoldas’s original method. The temperature of the sol-gel transition does not affect the resulting sample structure, and crystalline boehmite particles were identified in all dried gels. We analyzed the reproducibility of the samples’ structure by preparing different samples under identical conditions; we found that performing the sol-gel transition at 120 ºC favors the production of more reproducible samples and also reduces significantly the time of the sol-gel reaction.
Mitigation of Nitrate Pollution in Wastewater: A Case Study of the Treatment of Cassava Processing Effluent Using Cassava Peel Carbon Material
The study investigated efficiency cassava peel carbon
and Zinc Chloride activated cassava peel carbon at 1:3, 2:3 and 1:1
activation levels in the removal of nitrates from oxidized cassava
processing wastewater. Results showed that the CPC and CPAC were
effective in adsorption of nitrates. A summary of results from the
study revealed that CPAC at 1:3 exhibited the highest initial
decontamination (69.5% after 2 hrs) while CPAC at 1:1 activation
ratio showed a slower initial decontamination rate. The CPC &
CPAC exhibited Langmuir Rα values of 0.15, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.07 for
the 0:1, 1:3, 2:3 and 1:1 confirming its suitability as adsorption
Comparative DNA Binding of Iron and Manganese Complexes by Spectroscopic and ITC Techniques and Antibacterial Activity
Interaction of Schiff base complexes of Iron and
Manganese: Iron [N, N’ Bis (5- (triphenyl phosphonium methyl)
salicylidene) -1, 2 ethanediamine) chloride, [Fe Salen]Cl; Manganese
[N, N’ Bis (5- (triphenyl phosphonium methyl) salicylidene) -1, 2
ethanediamine) acetate, were investigated by spectroscopic and
isothermal titration calorimetry techniques (ITC).
The absorbance spectra of complexes have shown hyper and
hypochromism in the presence of DNA that is indication of
interaction of complexes with DNA. The linear dichroism (LD)
measurements confirmed the bending of DNA in the presence of
Furthermore, Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments
approved that complexes bound to DNA on the base of both
electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. More, ITC profile exhibits
the existence of two binding phases for the complexes. Antibacterial
activity of ligand and complexes were tested in vitro to evaluate their
activity against the gram positive and negative bacteria.
Ion-Acoustic Double Layer in a Plasma with Two- Temperature Nonisothermal Electrons and Charged Dust Grains
Using the pseudopotential technique the Sagdeev
potential equation has been derived in a plasma consisting of twotemperature
nonisothermal electrons, negatively charged dust grains
and warm positive ions. The study shows that the presence of
nonisothermal two-temperature electrons and charged dust grains
have significant effects on the excitation and structure of the ionacoustic
double layers in the model plasma under consideration. Only
compressive type double layer is obtained in the present plasma
model. The double layer solution has also been obtained by including
higher order nonlinearity and nonisothermality, which is shown to
modify the amplitude and deform the shape of the double layer.
Banana Peels as an Eco-Sorbent for Manganese Ions
This study was conducted to evaluate the manganese
removal from aqueous solution using Banana peels activated carbon
(BPAC). Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the
influence of parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial metal ion
concentrations and contact times on the biosorption process. From
these investigations, a significant increase in percentage removal of
manganese 97.4% is observed at pH value 5.0, biosorbent dose 0.8 g,
initial concentration 20 ppm, temperature 25 ± 2°C, stirring rate 200
rpm and contact time 2h. The equilibrium concentration and the
adsorption capacity at equilibrium of the experimental results were
fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Langmuir
isotherm was found to well represent the measured adsorption data
implying BPAC had heterogeneous surface. A raw groundwater
samples were collected from Baharmos groundwater treatment plant
network at Embaba and Manshiet Elkanater City/District-Giza,
Egypt, for treatment at the best conditions that reached at first phase
by BPAC. The treatment with BPAC could reduce iron and
manganese value of raw groundwater by 91.4% and 97.1%,
respectively and the effect of the treatment process on the
microbiological properties of groundwater sample showed decrease
of total bacterial count either at 22°C or at 37°C to 85.7% and 82.4%,
respectively. Also, BPAC was characterized using SEM and FTIR
Forming Simulation of Thermoplastic Pre-Impregnated Textile Composite
The process of thermoforming a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) has increased its presence in the automotive industry for its wide applicability to the mass production car. A non-isothermal forming for CFRTP can shorten its cycle time to less than 1 minute. In this paper, the textile reinforcement FE model which the authors proposed in a previous work is extended to the CFRTP model for non-isothermal forming simulation. The effect of thermoplastic is given by adding shell elements which consider thermal effect to the textile reinforcement model. By applying Reuss model to the stress calculation of thermoplastic, the proposed model can accurately predict in-plane shear behavior, which is the key deformation mode during forming, in the range of the process temperature. Using the proposed model, thermoforming simulation was conducted and the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses
In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.
Utilization of Cement Kiln Dust in Adsorption Technology
This paper involves a study of the heavy metal pollution of the soils around one of cement plants in Libya called Suk-Alkhameas and surrounding urban areas caused by cement kiln dust (CKD) emitted. Samples of soil was collected from sites at four directions around the cement factory at distances 250m, 1000m, and 3000m from the factory and at (0-10)cm deep in the soil. These samples are analyzed for Fe (iii), Zn(ii), and Pb (ii) as major pollutants. These values are compared with soils at 25 Km distances from the factory as a reference or control samples. The results show that the concentration of Fe ions in the surface soil was within the acceptable range of 1000ppm. However, for Zn and Pb ions the concentrations at the east and north sides of the factory were found six fold higher than the benchmark level. This high value was attributed to the wind which blows usually from south to north and from west to east. This work includes an investigation of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption efficiency of CKD as adsorbent of heavy metal ions (Fe (iii), Zn(ii), and Pb(ii)) from the polluted soils of Suk-Alkameas city. The investigation was conducted in batch and fixed bed column flow technique. The adsorption efficiency of the studied heavy metals ions removals onto CKD depends on the pH of the solution. The optimum pH values are found to be in the ranges of 8-10 and decreases at lower pH values. The removal efficiency of these heavy metals ions ranged from 93% for Pb, 94% for Zn, and 98% for Fe ions for 10 g.l-1 adsorbent concentration. The maximum removal efficiency of these ions was achieved at 50-60 minutes contact times at which equilibrium is reached. Fixed bed column experimental measurements are also made to evaluate CKD as an adsorbent for the heavy metals. Results obtained are with good agreement with Langmuir and Drachsal assumption of multilayer formation on the adsorbent surface.
Effect of Different Conditions on the Sorption Behavior of Co2+ Using Celatom- ZeoliteY Composite
Composite of Celatom-ZeoliteY (Cel-ZY) was used to
remove cobalt ion from an aqueous solution using batch mode.
ZeoliteY has successfully superimposed on Celatom FW-14 surface
using hydrothermal treatment .The product was synthesized as a
novel of hierarchical porous material. It was observed from the
results that Cel-ZY has higher ability to remove cobalt ions than the
pure ZeoliteY powder (PZY) synthesized under the same conditions.
Several parameters were studied in this project to investigate the
effect of removal cobalt ion such as pH and initial cobalt
concentration. It was clearly observed that the uptake of cobalt ions
was affected with increase these parameters. The results proved that
the product can be used effectively to remove Co2+ ions from
wastewater as an environmentally friendly alternative.
Defluoridation of Water by Schwertmannite
In the present study Schwertmannite (an iron oxide
hydroxide) is selected as an adsorbent for defluoridation of water.
The adsorbent was prepared by wet chemical process and was
characterized by SEM, XRD and BET. The fluoride adsorption
efficiency of the prepared adsorbent was determined with respect to
contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent dose and pH of
the solution. The batch adsorption data revealed that the fluoride
adsorption efficiency was highly influenced by the studied factors.
Equilibrium was attained within one hour of contact time indicating
fast kinetics and the adsorption data followed pseudo second order
kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm data fitted to both Langmuir and
Freundlich isotherm models for a concentration range of 5-30 mg/L.
The adsorption system followed Langmuir isotherm model with
maximum adsorption capacity of 11.3 mg/g. The high adsorption
capacity of Schwertmannite points towards the potential of this
adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous medium.
Binary Mixture of Copper-Cobalt Ions Uptake by Zeolite using Neural Network
In this study a neural network (NN) was proposed to
predict the sorption of binary mixture of copper-cobalt ions into
clinoptilolite as ion-exchanger. The configuration of the
backpropagation neural network giving the smallest mean square
error was three-layer NN with tangent sigmoid transfer function at
hidden layer with 10 neurons, linear transfer function at output layer
and Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm.
Experiments have been carried out in the batch reactor to obtain
equilibrium data of the individual sorption and the mixture of coppercobalt
ions. The obtained modeling results have shown that the used
of neural network has better adjusted the equilibrium data of the
binary system when compared with the conventional sorption
Adsorption of Ferrous and Ferric Ions in Aqueous and Industrial Effluent onto Pongamia pinnata Tree Bark
One of the causes of water pollution is the presence of heavy metals in water. In the present study, an adsorbent prepared from the raw bark of the Pongamia pinnata tree is used for the removal of ferrous or ferric ions from aqueous and waste water containing heavy metals. Adsorption studies were conducted at different pH, concentration of metal ion, amount of adsorbent, contact time, agitation and temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied for the results. The Langmuir isotherms were best fitted by the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption was found to 146mg/g in waste water at a temperature of 30°C which is in agreement as comparable to the adsorption capacity of different adsorbents reported in literature. Pseudo second order model best fitted the adsorption of both ferrous and ferric ions.
Non-Isothermal Kinetics of Crystallization and Phase Transformation of SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-CaO-CaF Glass
The crystallization kinetics and phase transformation
of SiO2.Al2O3.0,56P2O5.1,8CaO.0,56CaF2 glass have been
investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), x-ray
diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Glass
samples were obtained by melting the glass mixture at 14500С/120
min. in platinum crucibles. The mixture were prepared from
chemically pure reagents: SiO2, Al(OH)3, H3PO4, CaCO3 and CaF2.
The non-isothermal kinetics of crystallization was studied by
applying the DTA measurements carried out at various heating rates.
The activation energies of crystallization and viscous flow were
measured as 348,4 kJ.mol–1 and 479,7 kJ.mol–1 respectively. Value of
Avrami parameter n ≈ 3 correspond to a three dimensional of crystal
growth mechanism. The major crystalline phase determined by XRD
analysis was fluorapatite (Ca(PO4)3F) and as the minor phases –
fluormargarite (CaAl2(Al2SiO2)10F2) and vitlokite (Ca9P6O24). The
resulting glass-ceramic has a homogeneous microstructure, composed
of prismatic crystals, evenly distributed in glass phase.
Impregnation of Cupper into Kanuma Volcanic Ash Soil to Improve Mercury Sorption Capacity
The present study attempted to improve the Mercury
(Hg) sorption capacity of kanuma volcanic ash soil (KVAS) by
impregnating the cupper (Cu). Impregnation was executed by 1 and
5% Cu powder and sorption characterization of optimum Hg
removing Cu impregnated KVAS was performed under different
operational conditions, contact time, solution pH, sorbent dosage and
Hg concentration using the batch operation studies. The 1% Cu
impregnated KVAS pronounced optimum improvement (79%) in
removing Hg from water compare to control. The present
investigation determined the equilibrium state of maximum Hg
adsorption at 6 h contact period. The adsorption revealed a pH
dependent response and pH 3.5 showed maximum sorption capacity
of Hg. Freundlich isotherm model is well fitted with the experimental
data than that of Langmuir isotherm. It can be concluded that the Cu
impregnation improves the Hg sorption capacity of KVAS and 1%
Cu impregnated KVAS could be employed as cost-effective
adsorbent media for treating Hg contaminated water.
Mass Transfer Modeling of Nitrate in an Ion Exchange Selective Resin
The rate of nitrate adsorption by a nitrate selective ion
exchange resin was investigated in a well-stirred batch experiments.
The kinetic experimental data were simulated with diffusion models including external mass transfer, particle diffusion and chemical
adsorption. Particle pore volume diffusion and particle surface diffusion were taken into consideration separately and simultaneously
in the modeling. The model equations were solved numerically using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. An optimization technique was
employed to optimize the model parameters. All nitrate concentration
decay data were well described with the all diffusion models. The
results indicated that the kinetic process is initially controlled by external mass transfer and then by particle diffusion. The external
mass transfer coefficient and the coefficients of pore volume diffusion and surface diffusion in all experiments were close to each
other with the average value of 8.3×10-3 cm/S for external mass
transfer coefficient. In addition, the models are more sensitive to the
mass transfer coefficient in comparison with particle diffusion. Moreover, it seems that surface diffusion is the dominant particle
diffusion in comparison with pore volume diffusion.
Adsorption of Lead from Synthetic Solution using Luffa Charcoal
This work was to study batch biosorption of Pb(II)
ions from aqueous solution by Luffa charcoal. The effect of operating
parameters such as adsorption contact time, initial pH solution and
different initial Pb(II) concentration on the sorption of Pb(II) were
investigated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions
was initially rapid and the equilibrium time was 10 h. Adsorption
kinetics of Pb(II) ions onto Luffa charcoal could be best described by
the pseudo-second order model. At pH 5.0 was favorable for the
adsorption and removal of Pb(II) ions. Freundlich adsorption
isotherm model was better fitted for the adsorption of Pb(II) ions than
Langmuir and Timkin isotherms, respectively. The highest monolayer
adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm model was
51.02 mg/g. This study demonstrated that Luffa charcoal could be
used for the removal of Pb(II) ions in water treatment.
Kinetics Study of Ammonia Removal from Synthetic Waste Water
The aim of this study was to investigate ammonium
exchange capacity of natural and activated clinoptilolite from
Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. X – ray fluorescence (XRF)
analysis showed that the clinoptilolite contained exchangeable ions
of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. This analysis also
confirmed that the zeolite sample had a high silicon composition
compared to aluminium. Batch equilibrium studies were performed
in an orbital shaker and the data fitted the Langmuir isotherm very
well. The ammonium exchange capacity was found to increase with
pH and temperature. Clinoptilolite functionalization with
hydrochloric acid increased its ammonia uptake ability.
A Study on Removal of Toluidine Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Neem Leaf Powder
Adsorption of Toluidine blue dye from aqueous solutions onto Neem Leaf Powder (NLP) has been investigated. The surface characterization of this natural material was examined by Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact duration on the adsorption capacities have been evaluated, in which pH has been found to be most effective parameter among all. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich for explaining the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. And kinetic models like pseudo first- order, second-order model and Elovich equation were utilized to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Free energy of adsorption (AG"), enthalpy change (AH') and entropy change (AS°) were also determined and evaluated.
Experimental Evaluation of Methane Adsorptionon Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Determination of Model Isotherm
This study investigates the capacity of granular
activated carbon (GAC) for the storage of methane through the
equilibrium adsorption. An experimental apparatus consist of a dual
adsorption vessel was set up for the measurement of equilibrium
adsorption of methane on GAC using volumetric technique (pressure
decay). Experimental isotherms of methane adsorption were
determined by the measurement of equilibrium uptake of methane in
different pressures (0-50 bar) and temperatures (285.15-328.15°K).
The experimental data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir
equations to determine the model isotherm. The results show that the
experimental data is equally well fitted by the both model isotherms.
Using the experimental data obtained in different temperatures the
isosteric heat of methane adsorption was also calculated by the
Clausius-Clapeyron equation from the Sips isotherm model. Results
of isosteric heat of adsorption show that decreasing temperature or
increasing methane uptake by GAC decrease the isosteric heat of
Decolourization of Melanoidin Containing Wastewater Using South African Coal Fly Ash
Batch adsorption of recalcitrant melanoidin using the abundantly available coal fly ash was carried out. It had low specific surface area (SBET) of 1.7287 m2/g and pore volume of 0.002245 cm3/g while qualitative evaluation of the predominant phases in it was done by XRD analysis. Colour removal efficiency was found to be dependent on various factors studied. Maximum colour removal was achieved around pH 6, whereas increasing sorbent mass from 10g/L to 200 g/L enhanced colour reduction from 25% to 86% at 298 K. Spontaneity of the process was suggested by negative Gibbs free energy while positive values for enthalpy change showed endothermic nature of the process. Non-linear optimization of error functions resulted in Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms describing sorption equilibrium data best. The coal fly ash had maximum sorption capacity of 53 mg/g and could thus be used as a low cost adsorbent in melanoidin removal.
Removal of Copper (II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Teak (Tectona grandis L.f) Leaves
The experiments were performed in a batch set up
under different concentrations of Cu (II) (0.2 g.l-1 to 0.9 g.l-1), pH (4-
6), temperatures (20oC – 40oC) with varying teak leaves powder (as
biosorbent) dosage of 0.3 g.l-1 to 0.5 g.l-1. The kinetics of interactions
were tested with pseudo first order Lagergran equation and the value
for k1 was found to be 6.909 x 10-3 min-1. The biosorption data gave
a good fit with Langmuir and Fruendlich isotherms and the Langmuir
monolayer capacity (qm) was found to be 166.78 mg. g-1. Similarly
the Freundlich adsorption capacity (Kf) was estimated as 2.49 l g-1.
The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG
were -62.42 KJ. mol-1, -0.219 KJ.mol-1 K-1 and -1.747 KJ.mol-1 at
293 K from a solution containing 0.4 g l-1 of Cu(II) showing the
biosorption to be thermodynamically favourable. These results show
good potentiality of using teak leaves as a biosorbent for the removal
of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions.
Removal of Boron from Waste Waters by Ion- Exchange in a Batch System
Boron minerals are very useful for various industrial
activities, such as glass industry and detergent industry, due to its
mechanical and chemical properties. During the production of boron
compounds, many of these are introduced into the environment in the
form of waste. Boron is also an important micro nutrient for the
plants to vegetate but if it exists in high concentrations, it could have
toxic effects. The maximum boron level in drinking water for human
health is given as 0.3 mg/L in World Health Organization (WHO)
standards. The toxic effects of boron should be noted especially for
dry regions, thus, in recent years, increasing attention has been paid
to remove the boron from waste waters. In this study, boron removal
is implemented by ion exchange process using Amberlite IRA-743
resin. Amberlite IRA-743 resin is a boron specific resin and it
belongs to the polymerizate sorbent group within the aminopolyol
functional group. Batch studies were performed to investigate the
effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dose,
initial concentration and pH, on the removal of boron. It is found
that, when the adsorbent dose increases removal of boron from the
liquid phase increases. However, an increase in the initial
concentration decreases the removal of boron. The effective pH
values for removal of boron are determined between 8.5 and 9.
Equilibrium isotherms were also analyzed by Langmuir and
Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm is obeyed better
than the Freundlich isotherm.
Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies for Adsorption of Hg (II) on Palm Shell Powder
Palm shell obtained from coastal part of southern
India was studied for the removal for the adsorption of Hg (II) ions.
Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH,
concentration of Hg (II) ions, time, temperature and adsorbent dose.
Maximum removal was seen in the range pH 4.0- pH 7.0. The palm
shell powder used as adsorbent was characterized for its surface area,
SEM, PXRD, FTIR, ion exchange capacity, moisture content, and
bulk density, soluble content in water and acid and pH. The
experimental results were analyzed using Langmuir I, II, III, IV and
Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The batch sorption kinetics was
studied for the first order reversible reaction, pseudo first order;
pseudo second order reaction and the intra-particle diffusion reaction.
The biomass was successfully used for removal Hg (II) from
synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears
industrially applicable and viable.
Entropy Generation Analysis of Free Convection Film Condensation on a Vertical Ellipsoid with Variable Wall Temperature
This paper aims to perform the second law analysis of
thermodynamics on the laminar film condensation of pure saturated
vapor flowing in the direction of gravity on an ellipsoid with variable
wall temperature. The analysis provides us understanding how the
geometric parameter- ellipticity and non-isothermal wall temperature
variation amplitude “A." affect entropy generation during film-wise
condensation heat transfer process. To understand of which
irreversibility involved in this condensation process, we derived an
expression for the entropy generation number in terms of ellipticity
and A. The result indicates that entropy generation increases with
ellipticity. Furthermore, the irreversibility due to finite temperature
difference heat transfer dominates over that due to condensate film
flow friction and the local entropy generation rate decreases with
increasing A in the upper half of ellipsoid. Meanwhile, the local
entropy generation rate enhances with A around the rear lower half of