Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 29

Biodegradability Evaluation of Polylactic Acid Composite with Natural Fiber (Sisal)

Due to increasing environmental pressure for biodegradable products, especially in polymeric materials, in order to meet the demands of the biological cycles of the circular economy, new materials have been developed as a sustainability strategy. This study proposes a composite material developed from the biodegradable polymer PLA Ecovio® (polylactic acid - PLA) with natural sisal fibers, where the soybean ester was used as a plasticizer, which can aid in adhesion between the materials and fibers, making the most attractive final composite from an environmental point of view. The composites were obtained by extrusion. The materials tests were produced and submitted to biodegradation tests. Through the biodegradation tests, it can be seen that the biodegradable polymer composition with 5% sisal fiber presented about 12.4% more biodegradability compared to the polymer without fiber addition. It has also been found that the plasticizer was not a compatible with fibers and the polymer. Finally, fibers help to anticipate the decomposition process of the material when subjected to conditions of a landfill. Therefore, its intrinsic properties are not affected during its use, only the biodegradation process begins after its exposure to landfill conditions.

MRI Compatible Fresnel Zone Plates made of Polylactic Acid
Zone Plates (ZPs) are used in many areas of physics where planar fabrication is advantageous in comparison with conventional curved lenses. There are several types of ZPs, such as the well-known Fresnel ZPs or the more recent Fractal ZPs and Fibonacci ZPs. The material selection of the lens plays a very important role in the beam modulation control. This work presents a comparison between two Fresnel ZP made from different materials in the ultrasound domain: Polylactic Acid (PLA) and brass. PLA is the most common material used in commercial 3D-printers due to its high design flexibility and low cost. Numerical simulations based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and experimental results are shown, and they prove that the focusing capabilities of brass ZPs and PLA ZPs are similar. For this reason, PLA is proposed as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible material with great potential for therapeutic ultrasound focusing applications.
Screening of Antagonistic/Synergistic Effect between Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Yeast Strains Isolated from Kefir

Kefir is a traditional fermented refreshing beverage which is known for its valuable and beneficial properties for human health. Mainly yeast species, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and fewer acetic acid bacteria strains live together in a natural matrix named “kefir grain”, which is formed from various proteins and polysaccharides. Different microbial species live together in slimy kefir grain and it has been thought that synergetic effect could take place between microorganisms, which belong to different genera and species. In this research, yeast and LAB were isolated from kefir samples obtained from Uludag University Food Engineering Department. The cell morphology of isolates was screened by microscopic examination. Gram reactions of bacteria isolates were determined by Gram staining method, and as well catalase activity was examined. After observing the microscopic/morphological and physical, enzymatic properties of all isolates, they were divided into the groups as LAB and/or yeast according to their physicochemical responses to the applied examinations. As part of this research, the antagonistic/synergistic efficacy of the identified five LAB and five yeast strains to each other were determined individually by disk diffusion method. The antagonistic or synergistic effect is one of the most important properties in a co-culture system that different microorganisms are living together. The synergistic effect should be promoted, whereas the antagonistic effect is prevented to provide effective culture for fermentation of kefir. The aim of this study was to determine microbial interactions between identified yeast and LAB strains, and whether their effect is antagonistic or synergistic. Thus, if there is a strain which inhibits or retards the growth of other strains found in Kefir microflora, this circumstance shows the presence of antagonistic effect in the medium. Such negative influence should be prevented, whereas the microorganisms which have synergistic effect on each other should be promoted by combining them in kefir grain. Standardisation is the most desired property for industrial production. Each microorganism found in the microbial flora of a kefir grain should be identified individually. The members of the microbial community found in the glue-like kefir grain may be redesigned as a starter culture regarding efficacy of each microorganism to another in kefir processing. The main aim of this research was to shed light on more effective production of kefir grain and to contribute a standardisation of kefir processing in the food industry.

Comparison of Methods for the Detection of Biofilm Formation in Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species Isolated from Dairy Products

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and some yeast species are common microorganisms found in dairy products and most of them are responsible for the fermentation of foods. Such cultures are isolated and used as a starter culture in the food industry because of providing standardisation of the final product during the food processing. Choice of starter culture is the most important step for the production of fermented food. Isolated LAB and yeast cultures which have the ability to create a biofilm layer can be preferred as a starter in the food industry. The biofilm formation could be beneficial to extend the period of usage time of microorganisms as a starter. On the other hand, it is an undesirable property in pathogens, since biofilm structure allows a microorganism become more resistant to stress conditions such as antibiotic presence. It is thought that the resistance mechanism could be turned into an advantage by promoting the effective microorganisms which are used in the food industry as starter culture and also which have potential to stimulate the gastrointestinal system. Development of the biofilm layer is observed in some LAB and yeast strains. The resistance could make LAB and yeast strains dominant microflora in the human gastrointestinal system; thus, competition against pathogen microorganisms can be provided more easily. Based on this circumstance, in the study, 10 LAB and 10 yeast strains were isolated from various dairy products, such as cheese, yoghurt, kefir, and cream. Samples were obtained from farmer markets and bazaars in Bursa, Turkey. As a part of this research, all isolated strains were identified and their ability of biofilm formation was detected with two different methods and compared with each other. The first goal of this research was to determine whether isolates have the potential for biofilm production, and the second was to compare the validity of two different methods, which are known as “Tube method” and “96-well plate-based method”. This study may offer an insight into developing a point of view about biofilm formation and its beneficial properties in LAB and yeast cultures used as a starter in the food industry.

Study of Biocomposites Based of Poly(Lactic Acid) and Olive Husk Flour
In this work, the composites were prepared with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and olive husk flour (OHF) with different percentages (10, 20 and 30%) using extrusion method followed by injection molding. The morphological, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of composites were investigated. Tensile strength and elongation at break of composites showed a decreasing trend with increasing fiber content. On the other hand, Young modulus and storage modulus were increased. The addition of OHF resulted in a decrease in thermal stability of composites. The presence of OHF led to an increase in percentage of crystallinity (Xc) of PLA matrix.
The Thermochemical Conversion of Lactic Acid in Subcritical and Supercritical Water

One way to utilize biomass is to thermochemically convert it into gases and chemicals. For conversion of biomass, glucose is a particularly popular model compound for cellulose, or more generally for biomass. The present study takes a different approach by employing lactic acid as the model compound for cellulose. Since lactic acid and glucose have identical elemental composition, they are expected to produce similar results as they go through the conversion process. In the current study, lactic acid was thermochemically converted to assess its reactivity and reaction mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water, by using a 16-ml autoclave reactor. The major operating parameters investigated include: The reaction temperature, from 673 to 873 K, the reaction pressure, 10 and 25 MPa, the dosage of oxidizing agent, 0 and 0.5 chemical oxygen demand, and the concentration of lactic acid in the feed, 0.5 and 1.0 M. Gaseous products from the conversion were generally found to be comparable to those derived from the conversion of glucose.

Effect of the Polymer Modification on the Cytocompatibility of Human and Rat Cells

Tissue engineering includes combination of materials and techniques used for the improvement, repair or replacement of the tissue. Scaffolds, permanent or temporally material, are used as support for the creation of the "new cell structures". For this important component (scaffold), a variety of materials can be used. The advantage of some polymeric materials is their cytocompatibility and possibility of biodegradation. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable,  semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer. PLLA can be fully degraded into H2O and CO2. In this experiment, the effect of the surface modification of biodegradable polymer (performed by plasma treatment) on the various cell types was studied. The surface parameters and changes of the physicochemical properties of modified PLLA substrates were studied by different methods. Surface wettability was determined by goniometry, surface morphology and roughness study were performed with atomic force microscopy and chemical composition was determined using photoelectron spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties were studied in relation to cytocompatibility of human osteoblast (MG 63 cells), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and human stem cells (ASC) of the adipose tissue in vitro. A fluorescence microscopy was chosen to study and compare cell-material interaction. Important parameters of the cytocompatibility like adhesion, proliferation, viability, shape, spreading of the cells were evaluated. It was found that the modification leads to the change of the surface wettability depending on the time of modification. Short time of exposition (10-120 s) can reduce the wettability of the aged samples, exposition longer than 150 s causes to increase of contact angle of the aged PLLA. The surface morphology is significantly influenced by duration of modification, too. The plasma treatment involves the formation of the crystallites, whose number increases with increasing time of modification. On the basis of physicochemical properties evaluation, the cells were cultivated on the selected samples. Cell-material interactions are strongly affected by material chemical structure and surface morphology. It was proved that the plasma treatment of PLLA has a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and viability of all cultivated cells. This effect was even more apparent for the VSMCs and ASCs which homogeneously covered almost the whole surface of the substrate after 7 days of cultivation. The viability of these cells was high (more than 98% for VSMCs, 89-96% for ASCs). This experiment is one part of the basic research, which aims to easily create scaffolds for tissue engineering with subsequent use of stem cells and their subsequent "reorientation" towards the bone cells or smooth muscle cells.

Assessment of Vermiculite Concrete Containing Bio-Polymer Aggregate
The present study aims to assess the performance of vermiculite concrete containing poly-lactic acid beads as an eco-friendly aggregate. Vermiculite aggregate was replaced by poly-lactic acid in percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%. Mechanical and thermal properties of concrete were investigated. Test results indicated that the inclusion of poly-lactic acid decreased the PH value of concrete and all the poly-lactic acid particles were dissolved due to the formation of sodium lactide and lactide oligomers when subjected to the high alkaline environment of concrete. In addition, an increase in thermal conductivity value of concrete was observed as the ratio of poly-lactic acid increased. Moreover, a set of equations was proposed to estimate the water-cement ratio, cement content and water absorption ratio of concrete.
Feasibility of a Biopolymer as Lightweight Aggregate in Perlite Concrete
Lightweight concrete is being used in the construction industry as a building material in its own right. Ultra-lightweight concrete can be applied as a filler and support material for the manufacturing of composite building materials. This paper is about the development of a stable and reproducible ultra-lightweight concrete with the inclusion of poly-lactic acid (PLA) beads and assessing the feasibility of PLA as a lightweight aggregate that will deliver advantages such as a more eco-friendly concrete and a non-petroleum polymer aggregate. In total, sixty-three samples were prepared and the effectiveness of mineral admixture, curing conditions, water-cement ratio, PLA ratio, EPS ratio and perlite ratio on compressive strength of perlite concrete are studied. The results show that PLA particles are sensitive to alkali environment of cement paste and considerably shrank and lost their strength. A higher compressive strength and a lower density was observed when expanded polystyrene (EPS) particles replaced PLA beads. In addition, a set of equations is proposed to estimate the water-cement ratio, cement content and compressive strength of perlite concrete.
Fermentation of Germinated Native Black Rice Milk Mixture by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria
This research aimed to demonstrate probiotic germinated native black rice juice fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei TISTR 390). Germinated native black rice juice was inoculated with a 24-h old lactic culture and incubated at 30 °C for 72 hours. Changes in pH, acidity, total soluble solid, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions at 0-h, 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h fermentations were evaluated. The study found out that the change in pH and total soluble solid of probiotic germinated black rice juice significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased at 72-h fermentation (5.67±0.12 to 2.86±0.04 and 7.00±0.00 to 6.40±0.00 ºbrix at 0-h and 72-h fermentations, respectively). On the other hand, the amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid and the viable cell count significantly (p≤0.05) increased at 72-h fermentation (0.11±0.06 to 0.43±0.06 (% lactic acid) and 3.60 x 106 to 2.75 x 108 CFU/ml at 0-h and 72-h fermentations, respectively). Interestingly, the amount of γ-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) had a significant difference (p≤0.05) twice as high as that of the control group (0.25±0.01 and 0.13±0.01 mg/100g, respectively). In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity assayed by DPPH method also showed that the IC50 values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the control (147.71±0.96 and 202.55±1.24 mg/ml, respectively). After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 °C, the viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria reduced to 1.37 x 106 CFU/ml. In conclusion, fermented germinated native black rice juice could be served as a healthy beverage for vegans and people who are allergic to cow milk products.
Effect of Starch and Plasticizer Types and Fiber Content on Properties of Polylactic Acid/Thermoplastic Starch Blend
Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most commercially available bio-based and biodegradable plastic at present. PLA has been used in plastic related industries including single-used containers, disposable and environmentally friendly packaging owing to its renewability, compostability, biodegradability, and safety. Although PLA demonstrates reasonably good optical, physical, mechanical and barrier properties comparable to the existing petroleum-based plastics, its brittleness and mold shrinkage as well as its price are the points to be concerned for the production of rigid and semi-rigid packaging. Blending PLA with other bio-based polymers including thermoplastic starch (TPS) is an alternative not only to achieve a complete bio-based plastic, but also to reduce the brittleness, shrinkage during molding and production cost of the PLA-based products. TPS is a material produced mainly from starch which is cheap, renewable, biodegradable, compostable, and nontoxic. It is commonly prepared by a plasticization of starch under applying heat and shear force. Although glycerol has been reported as one of the most plasticizers used for preparing TPS, its migration caused the surface stickiness of the TPS products. In some cases, mixed plasticizers or natural fibers have been applied to impede the retrogradation of starch or reduce the migration of glycerol. The introduction of fibers into TPS-based materials could reinforce the polymer matrix as well. Therefore, the objective of the present research is to study the effect of starch type (i.e. native starch and phosphate starch), plasticizer type (i.e. glycerol and xylitol with a weight ratio of glycerol to xylitol of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100) and fiber content (i.e. in the range of 1-25 %wt) on properties of PLA/TPS blend and composite. PLA/TPS blends and composites were prepared using a twin-screw extruder and then converted into dumbbell-shaped specimens using an injection molding machine. The PLA/TPS blends prepared by using phosphate starch showed higher tensile strength and stiffness than the blends prepared by using native one. In contrast, the blends from native starch exhibited higher extensibility and heat distortion temperature (HDT) than those from the modified starch. Increasing xylitol content resulted in enhanced tensile strength, stiffness and water resistance, but decreased extensibility and HDT of the PLA/TPS blend. Tensile properties and hydrophobicity of the blend could be improved by incorporating silane treated-jute fibers.
The Impact of the Cell-Free Solution of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Cadaverine Production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Lysine-Decarboxylase Broth

The influences of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on cadaverine and other biogenic amines production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in lysine decarboxylase broth (LDB) using HPLC. Cell free solutions were prepared from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici and Streptococcus thermophiles. Two different concentrations that were 50% and 25% CFS and the control without CFSs were prepared. Significant variations on biogenic amine production were observed in the presence of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus (P < 0.05). The function of CFS on biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens varied depending on strains and specific amine. Cadaverine formation by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in control were 500.9 and 948.1 mg/L, respectively while the CFSs of LAB induced 4-fold lower cadaverine production by L. monocytogenes and 7-fold lower cadaverine production by S. aureus. The CFSs resulted in strong decreases in cadaverine and putrescine production by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, although remarkable increases were observed for histamine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, tyramine and agmatine in the presence of LAB in lysine decarboxylase broth.

Mathematical Modeling for Continuous Reactive Extrusion of Poly Lactic Acid formation by Ring Opening Polymerization Considering Metal/Organic Catalyst and Alternative Energies

PLA emerged as a promising polymer because of its property as a compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic made from renewable sources. PLA can be polymerized from monomers (Lactide or Lactic acid) obtained by fermentation processes from renewable sources such as corn starch or sugarcane. For PLA synthesis, ring opening polymerization (ROP) of Lactide monomer is one of the preferred methods. In the literature, the technique mainly developed for ROP of PLA is based on metal/bimetallic catalyst (Sn, Zn and Al) or other organic catalysts in suitable solvent. However, the PLA synthesized using such catalysts may contain trace elements of the catalyst which may cause toxicity. This work estimated the usefulness and drawbacks of using different catalysts as well as effect of alternative energies and future aspects for PLA production.

The Effects of Alkalization to the Mechanical Properties of the Ijuk Fiber Reinforced PLA Biocomposites

Today, the pollution due to non-degradable material such as plastics, has led to studies about the development of environmental-friendly material. Because of biodegradability obtained from natural sources, polylactid acid (PLA) and ijuk fiber are interesting to modify into a composite. This material is also expected to reduce the impact of environmental pollution. Surface modification of ijuk fiber through alkalinization with 0.25 M NaOH solution for 30 minutes was aimed to enhance its compatibility to PLA, in order to improve properties of the composite such as the mechanical properties. Alkalinization of the ijuk fibers annihilates some surface components such as lignin, wax and hemicelloluse, so the pore on the surface clearly appeared, decreasing of the density and diameter of the ijuk fibers. The change of the ijuk fiber properties leads to increase the mechanical properties of PLA composites reinforced the ijuk fibers through strengthening of the mechanical interlocking with the PLA matrix. An addition to enhance the distribution of the fibers in the PLA matrix, the stirring during DCM solvent evaporation from the mixture of the ijuk fibers and the dissolved-PLA can reduce amount of the trapped-voids and fibers pull-out phenomena, which can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite.

Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Escherichia coli and Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Thailand Fermented Foods

The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 10 samples of fermented foods (Sa-tor-dong and Bodo) in South locality of Thailand. The 23 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were selected, which were exhibited a clear zone and growth on MRS agar supplemented with CaCO3. All of lactic acid bacteria were tested on morphological and biochemical. The result showed that all isolates were Gram’s positive, non-spore forming but only 10 isolates displayed catalase negative. The 10 isolates including BD1 .1, BD 1.2, BD 2.1, BD2.2, BD 2.3, BD 3.1, BD 4.1, BD 5.2, ST 4.1 and ST 5.2 were selected for inhibition activity determination. Only 2 strains (ST 4.1 and BD 2.3) showed inhibition zone on agar, when using Escherichia coli sp. as target strain. The ST 4.1 showed highest inhibition zone on agar, which was selected for probiotic property testing. The ST4.1 isolate could grow in MRS broth containing a high concentration of sodium chloride 6%, bile salts 7%, pH 4-10 and vary temperature at 15-45°C.

Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio, and batch extraction time (τ)  with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs, ψ, and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively. 

Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has better flexibility were prepared with PLA. An effective way to endow polylactic acid with toughness is through chain-extension reaction of the polylactic acid pre-polymer with polycaprolactone used as chain extender. Polyurethane prepared from MDI showed brittle behaviour, while, polyurethane prepared from HDI showed flexibility at same concentrations.

Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Food

The objectives of this study were to isolate LAB from various sources, dietary supplement, Thai traditional fermented food, and freshwater fish and to characterize their potential as probiotic cultures. Out of 1,558 isolates, 730 were identified as LAB based on isolation on MRS agar supplemented with a bromocresol purple indicator&CaCO3 and Gram-positive, catalase- and oxidase-negative characteristics. Eight isolates showed the potential probiotic properties including tolerance to acid, bile salt & heat, proteolytic, amylolytic & lipolytic activities and oxalate-degrading capability. They all showed the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, they were identified as Enterococcus faecalis BT2 & MG30, Leconostoc mesenteroides SW64 and Pediococcus pentosaceous BD33, CF32, NP6, PS34 & SW5. The health beneficial effects and food safety will be further investigated and developed as a probiotic or protective culture used in Nile tilapia belly flap meat fermentation.

Exploratory Tests of Crude Bacteriocins from Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria

The aim of the present work was to test in vitro inhibition of food pathogens and spoilage bacteria by crude bacteriocins from autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. Thirty autochthonous lactic acid bacteria isolated previously, belonging to the genera: Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus, have been screened by an agar spot test and a well diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative harmful bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa under conditions means to reduce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide effect to select bacteria with high bacteriocinogenic potential. Furthermore, crude bacteriocins semiquantification and heat sensitivity to different temperatures (80, 95, 110°C, and 121°C) were performed. Another exploratory test concerning the response of St. aureus ATCC 6538 to the presence of crude bacteriocins was realized. It has been observed by the agar spot test that fifteen candidates were active toward Gram-positive targets strains. The secondary screening demonstrated an antagonistic activity oriented only against St. aureus ATCC 6538, leading to the selection of five isolates: Lm14, Lm21, Lm23, Lm24, and Lm25 with a larger inhibition zone compared to the others. The ANOVA statistical analysis reveals a small variation of repeatability: Lm21: 0.56%, Lm23: 0%, Lm25: 1.67%, Lm14: 1.88%, Lm24: 2.14%. Conversely, slight variation was reported in terms of inhibition diameters: 9.58± 0.40, 9.83± 0.46 and 10.16± 0.24 8.5 ± 0.40 10 mm for, Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14and Lm24, indicating that the observed potential showed a heterogeneous distribution (BMS = 0.383, WMS = 0.117). The repeatability coefficient calculated displayed 7.35%. As for the bacteriocins semiquantification, the five samples exhibited production amounts about 4.16 for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25 and 2.08 AU/ml for Lm14, Lm24. Concerning the sensitivity the crude bacteriocins were fully insensitive to heat inactivation, until 121°C, they preserved the same inhibition diameter. As to, kinetic of growth , the µmax showed reductions in pathogens load for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14, Lm24 of about 42.92%, 84.12%, 88.55%, 54.95%, 29.97% in the second trails. Inversely, this pathogen growth after five hours displayed differences of 79.45%, 12.64%, 11.82%, 87.88%, 85.66% in the second trails, compared to the control. This study showed potential inhibition to the growth of this food pathogen, suggesting the possibility to improve the hygienic food quality.

Characterization of Biodegradable Nanocomposites with Poly (Lactic Acid) and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
In this study, structural, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) nanocomposites with low-loaded (0-1.5 wt%) untreated, heat and nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. Among the composites, untreated 0.5 wt % MWCNTs and acid-treated 1.0 wt% MWCNTs reinforced PLA show the tensile strength and modulus values higher than the others. These two samples along with pure PLA exhibit the stable orthorhombic α-form, whilst other samples reveal the less stable orthorhombic β-form, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction study. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals the evolution of the mentioned different phases by controlled cooling and discloses an enhancement of PLA crystallization by nanotubes incorporation. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the MWCNTs loaded sample degraded faster than PLA. Surface resistivity of the nanocomposites is found to be dropped drastically by a factor of 1013 with a low loading of MWCNTs (1.5 wt%).
Processing, Morphological, Thermal and Absorption Behavior of PLA/Thermoplastic Starch/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites
Thermoplastic starch, polylactic acid glycerol and maleic anhydride (MA) were compounded with natural montmorillonite (MMT) through a twin screw extruder to investigate the effects of different loading of MMT on structure, thermal and absorption behavior of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that sample with MMT loading 4phr exhibited exfoliated structure while sample that contained MMT 8 phr exhibited intercalated structure. FESEM images showed big lump when MMT loading was at 8 phr. The thermal properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that MMT increased melting temperature and crystallization temperature of matrix but reduction in glass transition temperature was observed Meanwhile the addition of MMT has improved the water barrier property. The nanosize MMT particle is also able to block a tortuous pathway for water to enter the starch chain, thus reducing the water uptake and improved the physical barrier of nanocomposite.
Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasses for Lactic Acid Production by acid Hydrolysis and Fermentation using Lactobacillus sp

Sugarcane bagasses are one of the most extensively used agricultural residues. Using acid hydrolysis and fermentation, conversion of sugarcane bagasses to lactic acid was technically and economically feasible. This research was concerned with the solubility of lignin in ammonium hydroxide, acid hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei. The lignin extraction results for different ammonium hydroxide concentrations showed that 10 % (v/v) NH4OH was favorable to lignin dissolution. Acid hydrolysis can be enhanced with increasing acid concentration and reaction temperature. The optimum glucose and xylose concentrations occurred at 121 ○C for 1 hour hydrolysis time in 10% sulphuric acid solution were 32 and 11 g/l, respectively. In order to investigate the significance of medium composition on lactic acid production, experiments were undertaken whereby a culture of Lactococcus lactis was grown under various glucose, peptone, yeast extract and xylose concentrations. The optimum medium was composed of 5 g/l glucose, 2.5 g/l xylose, 10 g/l peptone and 5 g/l yeast extract. Lactococcus lactis represents the most efficient for lactic acid production amongst those considered. The lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis after 72 hours gave the highest yield of 1.4 (g lactic acid per g reducing sugar).

Preparation and Properties of Biopolymer from L-Lactide (LL) and ε-Caprolactone (CL)

Biopolymers have gained much attention as ecofriendly alternatives to petrochemical-based plastics because they are biodegradable and can be produced from renewable feedstocks. One class of biopolyester with many potential environmentally friendly applications is polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). The PLA/PCL biodegradable copolyesters were synthesized by bulk ring-opening copolymerization of successively added Llactide (LL) and ε-caprolactone (CL) in the presence of toluene, using 1-hexanol as initiator and stannous octoate (Sn(Oct)2) as catalyst. Reaction temperature, reaction time and amount of catalyst were evaluated to obtain optimum reaction conditions. The results showed that the %conversion increased with increases in reaction temperature and reaction time, but after a critical amount of catalyst was reached the %conversion decreased. The yield of PLA/PCL biopolymer achieved 98.02% at the reaction temperature 160 °C, amount of catalyst 0.3 mol% and reaction time of 48 h. In addition, the thermal properties of the product were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Utilization of Wheat Bran as Bed Material in Solid State Bacterial Production of Lactic Acid with Various Nitrogen Sources
The present experimental investigation brings about a comparative study of lactic acid production by pure strains of Lactobacilli (1) L. delbreuckii (NCIM2025), (2) L. pentosus (NCIM 2912), (3) Lactobacillus sp.(NCIM 2734, (4) Lactobacillus sp. (NCIM2084) and coculture of strain-1 and Stain-2 in solid bed of wheat bran, under the influence of different nitrogen sources such as baker-s yeast, meat extract and proteose peptone. Among the pure cultures, strain-3 attained lowest pH value of 3.44, hence highest acid formation 46.41 g/L, while the coculture attained an overall maximum value 47.56 g/L lactic acid (pH 3.38) at 15 g/L and 20 g/L level of baker-s yeast, respectively.
Antibacterial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Table Olives against Skin Pathogens
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LAB isolated from Iranian native olives on the opportunistic skin pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactic Acid Bacteria were isolated from the brine of each sample in the prior of time. The samples were spread on MRS agar for isolation of lactobacillus and for lactococcus. 28 strains of labs were isolated. The labs were centrifuged, the supernatant was strewed and pellet was used to inoculation in wells or at blank disks. 20μl of each pellet was inoculated to blank disks and 40μl of each pellet was inoculated to each well. The result of disk and well diffusion agar against these pathogens were confirmed each other. The size of inhibition zone was different according to the type of bacteria, the method and the concentrations of labs.
n-Butanol as an Extractant for Lactic Acid Recovery

Extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solution using n-butanol as an extractant was studied. Effect of mixing time, pH of the aqueous solution, initial lactic acid concentration, and volume ratio between the organic and the aqueous phase were investigated. Distribution coefficient and degree of lactic acid extraction was found to increase when the pH of aqueous solution was decreased. The pH Effect was substantially pronounced at pH of the aqueous solution less than 1. Initial lactic acid concentration and organic-toaqueous volume ratio appeared to have positive effect on the distribution coefficient and the degree of extraction. Due to the nature of n-butanol that is partially miscible in water, incorporation of aqueous solution into organic phase was observed in the extraction with large organic-to-aqueous volume ratio.

Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Arsenic-Resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria for Uptaking Arsenic
The growing health hazardous impact of arsenic (As) contamination in environment is the impetus of the present investigation. Application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the removal of toxic and heavy metals from water has been reported. This study was performed in order to isolate and characterize the Asresistant LAB from mud and sludge samples for using as efficient As uptaking probiotic. Isolation of As-resistant LAB colonies was performed by spread plate technique using bromocresol purple impregnated-MRS (BP-MRS) agar media provided with As @ 50 μg/ml. Isolated LAB were employed for probiotic characterization process, acid and bile tolerance, lactic acid production, antibacterial activity and antibiotic tolerance assays. After As-resistant and removal characterizations, the LAB were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 103 isolates were identified as As-resistant strains of LAB. The survival of 6 strains (As99-1, As100-2, As101-3, As102-4, As105-7, and As112-9) was found after passing through the sequential probiotic characterizations. Resistant pattern pronounced hollow zones at As concentration >2000 μg/ml in As99-1, As100-2, and As101-3 LAB strains, whereas it was found at ~1000 μg/ml in rest 3 strains. Among 6 strains, the As uptake efficiency of As102-4 (0.006 μg/h/mg wet weight of cell) was higher (17 – 209%) compared to remaining LAB. 16S rDNA sequencing data of 3 (As99- 1, As100-2, and As101-3) and 3 (As102-4, As105-7, and As112-9) LAB strains clearly showed 97 to 99% (340 bp) homology to Pediococcus dextrinicus and Pediococcus acidilactici, respectively. Though, there was no correlation between the metal resistant and removal efficiency of LAB examined but identified elevated As removing LAB would probably be a potential As uptaking probiotic agent. Since present experiment concerned with only As removal from pure water, As removal and removal mechanism in natural condition of intestinal milieu should be assessed in future studies.
Effect of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria on Phytic Acid Content and Quality of whole Wheat Toast Bread
Nowadays, consumption of whole flours and flours with high extraction rate is recommended, because of their high amount of fibers, vitamins and minerals. Despite nutritional benefits of whole flour, concentration of some undesirable components such as phytic acid is higher than white flour. In this study, effect of several lactic acid bacteria sourdough on Toast bread is investigated. Sourdough from lactic acid bacteria (Lb. plantarum, Lb. reuteri) with different dough yield (250 and 300) is made and incubated at 30°C for 20 hour, then added to dough in the ratio of 10, 20 and 30% replacement. Breads that supplemented with Lb. plantarum sourdough had lower phytic acid. Higher replacement of sourdough and higher DY cause higher decrease in phytic acid content. Sourdough from Lb. plantarum, DY = 300 and 30% replacement cause the highest decrease in phytic acid content (49.63 mg/100g). As indicated by panelists, Lb. reuteri sourdough can present the greatest effect on overall quality score of the breads. DY reduction cause a decrease in bread quality score. Sensory score of Toast bread is 81.71 in the samples that treated with Lb. reuteri sourdough with DY = 250 and 20% replacement.
Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Acid and Nisin on Bacterial Spoilage of Chilled Shrimp
Lactic acid alone and its combined application with nisin were evaluated for reducing population of naturally occurring microorganisms on chilled shrimp. Fresh shrimps were dipped in 0, 1.0% and 2.0% (v/v) lactic acid alone and their combined application with 0.04 (g/L/kg) nisin solution for 10 min. Total plate counts of aerobic bacteria (TPCs), Psychrotrophic counts, population of Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on shrimps were determined during storage at 4 °C. The results indicated that total plate counts were 2.91 and 2.63 log CFU/g higher on untreated shrimps after 7 and 14 days of storage, respectively, than on shrimps treated with 2.0% lactic acid combined with 0.04 (g/L/kg) nisin. Both concentrations of lactic acid indicated significant reduction on Pseudomonas counts during storage, while 2.0% lactic acid combined with nisin indicated the highest reduction. In addition, H2S producing bacteria were more sensitive to high concentration of lactic acid combined with nisin during storage.
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