Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.
Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime
Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.
Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.
Optimized Energy Scheduling Algorithm for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks can be tiny, low cost, intelligent sensors connected with advanced communication systems. WSNs have pulled in significant consideration as a matter of fact that, industrial as well as medical solicitations employ these in monitoring targets, conservational observation, obstacle exposure, movement regulator etc. In these applications, sensor hubs are thickly sent in the unattended environment with little non-rechargeable batteries. This constraint requires energy-efficient systems to drag out the system lifetime. There are redundancies in data sent over the network. To overcome this, multiple virtual spine scheduling has been presented. Such networks problems are called Maximum Lifetime Backbone Scheduling (MLBS) problems. Though this sleep wake cycle reduces radio usage, improvement can be made in the path in which the group heads stay selected. Cluster head selection with emphasis on geometrical relation of the system will enhance the load sharing among the nodes. Also the data are analyzed to reduce redundant transmission. Multi-hop communication will facilitate lighter loads on the network.
Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.
Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud
The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.
Current Status of 5A Lab6 Hollow Cathode Life Tests in Lanzhou Institute of Physics, China
The current statuses of lifetime test of LaB6 hollow
cathode at the Lanzhou Institute of Physics (LIP), China, was
described. 5A LaB6 hollow cathode was design for LIPS-200 40mN
Xenon ion thruster, and it could be used for LHT-100 80 mN Hall
thruster, too. Life test of the discharge and neutralizer modes of LHC-5
hollow cathode were stared in October 2011, and cumulative operation
time reached 17,300 and 16,100 hours in April 2015, respectively. The
life of cathode was designed more than 11,000 hours. Parameters of
discharge and key structure dimensions were monitored in different
stage of life test indicated that cathodes were health enough. The test
will continue until the cathode cannot work or operation parameter is
not in normally. The result of the endurance test of cathode
demonstrated that the LaB6 hollow cathode is satisfied for the required
of thruster in life and performance.
Ion Thruster Grid Lifetime Assessment Based on Its Structural Failure
This article developed an ion thruster optic system
sputter erosion depth numerical 3D model by IFE-PIC (Immersed
Finite Element-Particle-in-Cell) and Mont Carlo method, and
calculated the downstream surface sputter erosion rate of accelerator
grid; compared with LIPS-200 life test data. The results of the
numerical model are in reasonable agreement with the measured data.
Finally, we predicted the lifetime of the 20cm diameter ion thruster via
the erosion data obtained with the model. The ultimate result
demonstrated that under normal operating condition, the erosion rate
of the grooves wears on the downstream surface of the accelerator grid
is 34.6μm⁄1000h, which means the conservative lifetime until
structural failure occurring on the accelerator grid is 11500 hours.
Steady State and Accelerated Decay Rate Evaluations of Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEM Fuel Cells
Durability of Membrane Electrode Assembly for
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells was evaluated in both steady
state and accelerated decay modes. Steady state mode was carried out
at constant current of 800mA/cm2 for 2500 hours using air as cathode
feed and pure hydrogen as anode feed. The degradation of the cell
voltage was 0.015V after such 2500 hrs operation. The degradation
rate was therefore calculated to be 6uV/hr. Continuously Vigorous
fluctuation of the cell voltage, which was switched between OCV and
0.2V, was employed for the accelerated decay mode. No obvious
change in performance of the MEA was observed after 10000 cycles
of such operation.
Heuristic Search Algorithm (HSA) for Enhancing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks
The lifetime of a wireless sensor network can be
effectively increased by using scheduling operations. Once the
sensors are randomly deployed, the task at hand is to find the largest
number of disjoint sets of sensors such that every sensor set provides
complete coverage of the target area. At any instant, only one of these
disjoint sets is switched on, while all other are switched off. This
paper proposes a heuristic search method to find the maximum
number of disjoint sets that completely cover the region. A
population of randomly initialized members is made to explore the
solution space. A set of heuristics has been applied to guide the
members to a possible solution in their neighborhood. The heuristics
escalate the convergence of the algorithm. The best solution explored
by the population is recorded and is continuously updated. The
proposed algorithm has been tested for applications which require
sensing of multiple target points, referred to as point coverage
applications. Results show that the proposed algorithm outclasses the
existing algorithms. It always finds the optimum solution, and that
too by making fewer number of fitness function evaluations than the
Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle
Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring
was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and
reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion
for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we
performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of
chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by
curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear
test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the
load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to
useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the
compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature
ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the
Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber
material was proposed.
Appraisal on Link Lifetime Prediction Using Geographical Information
Geographical routing protocol requires node physical
location information to make forwarding decision. Geographical
routing uses location service or position service to obtain the position
of a node. The geographical information is a geographic coordinates
or can be obtained through reference points on some fixed coordinate
system. Link can be formed between two nodes. Link lifetime plays a
crucial role in MANET. Link lifetime represent how long the link is
stable without any failure between the nodes. Link failure may occur
due to mobility and because of link failure energy of nodes can be
drained. Thus this paper proposes survey about link lifetime
prediction using geographical information.
A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model
This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.
Useful Lifetime Prediction of Rail Pads for High Speed Trains
Useful lifetime evaluation of railpads were very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of rail pads. In this study, we performed properties and accelerated heat aging tests of rail pads considering degradation factors and all environmental conditions including operation, and then derived a lifetime prediction equation according to changes in hardness, thickness, and static spring constants in the Arrhenius plot to establish how to estimate the aging of rail pads. With the useful lifetime prediction equation, the lifetime of e-clip pads was 2.5 years when the change in hardness was 10% at 25°C; and that of f-clip pads was 1.7 years. When the change in thickness was 10%, the lifetime of e-clip pads and f-clip pads is 2.6 years respectively. The results obtained in this study to estimate the useful lifetime of rail pads for high speed trains can be used for determining the maintenance and replacement schedule for rail pads.
Lifetime Maximization in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Network Coding and Matrix Game
In this paper, we present a matrix game-theoretic cross-layer optimization formulation to maximize the network lifetime in wireless ad hoc networks with network coding. To this end, we introduce a cross-layer formulation of general NUM (network utility maximization) that accommodates routing, scheduling, and stream control from different layers in the coded networks. Specifically, for the scheduling problem and then the objective function involved, we develop a matrix game with the strategy sets of the players corresponding to hyperlinks and transmission modes, and design the payoffs specific to the lifetime. In particular, with the inherit merit that matrix game can be solved with linear programming, our cross-layer programming formulation can benefit from both game-based and NUM-based approaches at the same time by cooperating the programming model for the matrix game with that for the other layers in a consistent framework. Finally, our numerical example demonstrates its performance results on a well-known wireless butterfly network to verify the cross-layer optimization scheme.
Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Adsorbed in Particulates
The progress of concentrations of particular heavy metals was assessed in chosen localities in region Moravia, the Czech Republic, from 2007 to 2009. Particular metals were observed in localities with various types and characterization of zone. Pb, Ni, As and Cd were emphasized as a result of their toxicity and potential adverse health effect to the exposed population. The progress of metal concentrations and their health effects in the most polluted localities were examined. According to the results, the air pollution limit values were not exceeded. Based on the health risk assessment, the probability of developing tumorous diseases is acceptable, except for the increased probability of cancer risk from long-term exposure to As.
A Physics-Based Model for Fast Recovery Diodes with Lifetime Control and Emitter Efficiency Reduction
This paper presents a physics-based model for the
high-voltage fast recovery diodes. The model provides a good
trade-off between reverse recovery time and forward voltage drop
realized through a combination of lifetime control and emitter
efficiency reduction techniques. The minority carrier lifetime can be
extracted from the reverse recovery transient response and forward
characteristics. This paper also shows that decreasing the amount of
the excess carriers stored in the drift region will result in softer
characteristics which can be achieved using a lower doping level. The
developed model is verified by experiment and the measurement data
agrees well with the model.
Damage of Tubular Equipment in Process Industry
Tubular process equipment is often damaged in
industrial processes. The damage occurs both on devices working at
high temperatures and also on less exposed devices. In case of sudden
damage of key equipment a shutdown of the whole production unit
and resulting significant economic losses are imminent. This paper
presents a solution of several types of tubular process equipment. The
causes of damage and suggestions of correction actions are discussed
in all cases. Very important part is the analysis of operational
conditions, determination of unfavourable working states decreasing
lifetime of devices and suggestions of correction actions. Lately very
popular numerical methods are used for analysis of the equipment.
A Heuristic Statistical Model for Lifetime Distribution Analysis of Complicated Systems in the Reliability Centered Maintenance
A heuristic conceptual model for to develop the
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), especially in preventive
strategy, has been explored during this paper. In most real cases
which complicity of system obligates high degree of reliability, this
model proposes a more appropriate reliability function between life
time distribution based and another which is based on relevant
Extreme Value (EV) distribution. A statistical and mathematical
approach is used to estimate and verify these two distribution
functions. Then best one is chosen just among them, whichever is
more reliable. A numeric Industrial case study will be reviewed to
represent the concepts of this paper, more clearly.
Energy Efficient and Reliable Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
The wireless link can be unreliable in realistic wireless
sensor networks (WSNs). Energy efficient and reliable data
forwarding is important because each node has limited resources.
Therefore, we must suggest an optimal solution that considers using
the information of the node-s characteristics. Previous routing
protocols were unsuited to realistic asymmetric WSNs. In this paper,
we propose a Protocol that considers Both sides of Link-quality and
Energy (PBLE), an optimal routing protocol that balances modified
link-quality, distance and energy. Additionally, we propose a node
scheduling method. PBLE achieves a longer lifetime than previous
routing protocols and is more energy-efficient. PBLE uses energy,
local information and both sides of PRR in a 1-hop distance. We
explain how to send data packets to the destination node using the
node's information. Simulation shows PBLE improves delivery rate
and network lifetime compared to previous schemes. Moreover, we
show the improvement in various WSN environments.
A Lifetime-Guaranteed Routing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we propose a routing scheme that guarantees
the residual lifetime of wireless sensor networks where each
sensor node operates with a limited budget of battery energy. The
scheme maximizes the communications QoS while sustaining the
residual battery lifetime of the network for a specified duration.
Communication paths of wireless nodes are translated into a directed
acyclic graph(DAG) and the maximum-flow algorithm is applied to
the graph. The found maximum flow are assigned to sender nodes, so
as to maximize their communication QoS. Based on assigned flows,
the scheme determines the routing path and the transmission rate of
data packet so that any sensor node on the path would not exhaust
its battery energy before a specified duration.
A Study of Dynamic Clustering Method to Extend the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network
In recent years, the research in wireless sensor
network has increased steadily, and many studies were focusing on
reducing energy consumption of sensor nodes to extend their lifetimes.
In this paper, the issue of energy consumption is investigated and two
adaptive mechanisms are proposed to extend the network lifetime.
This study uses high-energy-first scheme to determine cluster heads
for data transmission. Thus, energy consumption in each cluster is
balanced and network lifetime can be extended. In addition, this study
uses cluster merging and dynamic routing mechanisms to further
reduce energy consumption during data transmission. The simulation
results show that the proposed method can effectively extend the
lifetime of wireless sensor network, and it is suitable for different base
Construction Of Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks
To meet the demands of wireless sensor networks
(WSNs) where data are usually aggregated at a single source prior to
transmitting to any distant user, there is a need to establish a tree
structure inside any given event region. In this paper , a novel
technique to create one such tree is proposed .This tree preserves the
energy and maximizes the lifetime of event sources while they are
constantly transmitting for data aggregation. The term Decentralized
Lifetime Maximizing Tree (DLMT) is used to denote this tree.
DLMT features in nodes with higher energy tend to be chosen as data
aggregating parents so that the time to detect the first broken tree link
can be extended and less energy is involved in tree maintenance. By
constructing the tree in such a way, the protocol is able to reduce the
frequency of tree reconstruction, minimize the amount of data loss
,minimize the delay during data collection and preserves the energy.
Ageing Assessment of Insulation Systems by Absorption/Resorption Currents
Degradation of polymeric insulation systems of
electrical equipments increases the space charge density and the
concentration of electrical dipoles. By consequence, the maximum
values and the slopes of absorption/resorption (A/R) currents can
change with insulation systems ageing. In this paper, an analysis of
the nature of the A/R currents and the importance of their
components, especially the polarization current and the current given
by the space charge, is presented. The experimental study concerns
the A/R currents measurements of plane samples (made from
CALMICAGLAS tapes), virgin and thermally accelerated aged. The
obtained results show that the ageing process produces an increase of
the values and a decrease of shapes of the A/R currents. Finally, the
possibility of estimating insulations ageing state and lifetime from
A/R currents measurements is discussed.
An Energy-Efficient Distributed Unequal Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
The wireless sensor networks have been extensively
deployed and researched. One of the major issues in wireless sensor
networks is a developing energy-efficient clustering protocol.
Clustering algorithm provides an effective way to prolong the lifetime
of a wireless sensor networks. In the paper, we compare several
clustering protocols which significantly affect a balancing of energy
consumption. And we propose an Energy-Efficient Distributed
Unequal Clustering (EEDUC) algorithm which provides a new way of
creating distributed clusters. In EEDUC, each sensor node sets the
waiting time. This waiting time is considered as a function of residual
energy, number of neighborhood nodes. EEDUC uses waiting time to
distribute cluster heads. We also propose an unequal clustering
mechanism to solve the hot-spot problem. Simulation results show that
EEDUC distributes the cluster heads, balances the energy
consumption well among the cluster heads and increases the network
Increasing Lifetime of Target Tracking Wireless Sensor Networks
A model to identify the lifetime of target tracking
wireless sensor network is proposed. The model is a static clusterbased
architecture and aims to provide two factors. First, it is to
increase the lifetime of target tracking wireless sensor network.
Secondly, it is to enable good localization result with low energy
consumption for each sensor in the network. The model consists of
heterogeneous sensors and each sensing member node in a cluster
uses two operation modes–active mode and sleep mode. The
performance results illustrate that the proposed architecture consumes
less energy and increases lifetime than centralized and dynamic
clustering architectures, for target tracking sensor network.
Theoretical Study on a Thermal Model for Large Power Transformer Units
The paper analyzes the large power transformer unit regimes, indicating the criteria for the management of the voltage operating conditions, as well as the change in the operating conditions with the load connected to the secondary winding of the transformer unit. Further, the paper presents the software application for the evaluation of the transformer unit operation under different conditions. The software application was developed by means of virtual instrumentation.
Analysis of Message Authentication in Turbo Coded Halftoned Images using Exit Charts
Considering payload, reliability, security and operational lifetime as major constraints in transmission of images we put forward in this paper a steganographic technique implemented at the physical layer. We suggest transmission of Halftoned images (payload constraint) in wireless sensor networks to reduce the amount of transmitted data. For low power and interference limited applications Turbo codes provide suitable reliability. Ensuring security is one of the highest priorities in many sensor networks. The Turbo Code structure apart from providing forward error correction can be utilized to provide for encryption. We first consider the Halftoned image and then the method of embedding a block of data (called secret) in this Halftoned image during the turbo encoding process is presented. The small modifications required at the turbo decoder end to extract the embedded data are presented next. The implementation complexity and the degradation of the BER (bit error rate) in the Turbo based stego system are analyzed. Using some of the entropy based crypt analytic techniques we show that the strength of our Turbo based stego system approaches that found in the OTPs (one time pad).
Networks with Unreliable Nodes and Edges: Monte Carlo Lifetime Estimation
Estimating the lifetime distribution of computer networks in which nodes and links exist in time and are bound for failure is very useful in various applications. This problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present efficient combinatorial approaches to Monte Carlo estimation of network lifetime distribution. We also present some simulation results.