Steady State Power Flow Calculations with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies
Flexible AC transmission system controllers play an important role in controlling the line power flow and in improving voltage profiles of the power system network. They can be used to increase the reliability and efficiency of transmission and distribution system. The modeling of these FACTS controllers in power flow calculations have become a challenging research problem. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for a steady state power flow calculations of power system with STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator). It shows how systematically STATCOM can be implemented in conventional power flow calculations. The main contribution of this paper is to investigate this approach for two special conditions i.e. consideration of load increase pattern incorporating load change (active, reactive and both active and reactive) at all load buses simultaneously and the line contingencies under such load change. Such investigation proves to be relevant for determination of strategy for the optimal placement of STATCOM to enhance the voltage stability. The performance has been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems. The results for standard IEEE-30 bus test system are presented here.
Power Flow and Modal Analysis of a Power System Including Unified Power Flow Controller
The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
technology is a new advanced solution that increases the reliability
and provides more flexibility, controllability, and stability of a power
system. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), as the most
versatile FACTS device for regulating power flow, is able to control
respectively transmission line real power, reactive power, and node
voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the
UPFC on the load flow, the power losses, and the voltage stability
using NEPLAN software modules, Newton-Raphson load flow is
used for the power flow analysis and the modal analysis is used for
the study of the voltage stability. The simulation was carried out on
the IEEE 14-bus test system.
Using Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Voltage Stability Improvement
This paper presents an application of Artificial Neural
Network (ANN) algorithm for improving power system voltage
stability. The training data is obtained by solving several normal and
abnormal conditions using the Linear Programming technique. The
selected objective function gives minimum deviation of the reactive
power control variables, which leads to the maximization of
minimum Eigen value of load flow Jacobian. The considered reactive
power control variables are switchable VAR compensators, OLTC
transformers and excitation of generators. The method has been
implemented on a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The results
obtain from the test clearly show that the trained neural network is
capable of improving the voltage stability in power system with a
high level of precision and speed.
Investigation of Different Control Stratgies for UPFC Decoupled Model and the Impact of Location on Control Parameters
In order to evaluate the performance of a unified power
flow controller (UPFC), mathematical models for steady state and
dynamic analysis are to be developed. The steady state model is
mainly concerned with the incorporation of the UPFC in load flow
studies. Several load flow models for UPFC have been introduced
in literature, and one of the most reliable models is the decoupled
UPFC model. In spite of UPFC decoupled load flow model simplicity,
it is more robust compared to other UPFC load flow models and it
contains unique capabilities. Some shortcoming such as additional
set of nonlinear equations are to be solved separately after the load
flow solution is obtained. The aim of this study is to investigate the
different control strategies that can be realized in the decoupled load
flow model (individual control and combined control), and the impact
of the location of the UPFC in the network on its control parameters.
Power Flow Analysis for Radial Distribution System Using Backward/Forward Sweep Method
This paper proposes a backward/forward sweep
method to analyze the power flow in radial distribution systems. The
distribution system has radial structure and high R/X ratios. So the
newton-raphson and fast decoupled methods are failed with
distribution system. The proposed method presents a load flow study
using backward/forward sweep method, which is one of the most
effective methods for the load-flow analysis of the radial distribution
system. By using this method, power losses for each bus branch and
voltage magnitudes for each bus node are determined. This method
has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and
effective results are obtained using MATLAB.
Modification of the Conventional Power Flow Analysis for the Deployment of an HVDC Grid System in the Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent is facing a massive challenge with regards to the energy security in member countries, i.e. providing a reliable source of electricity to facilitate development across various sectors of the economy and thereby achieve the developmental targets it has set for itself. A highly precarious situation exists in the subcontinent which is observed in the series of system failures which most of the times leads to system collapses-blackouts. To mitigate the issues related with energy security as well as keep in check the increasing supply demand gap, a possible solution that stands in front of the subcontinent is the deployment of an interconnected electricity ‘Supergrid’ designed to carry huge quanta of power across the sub continent as well as provide the infra structure for RES integration. This paper assesses the need and conditions for a Supergrid deployment and consequently proposes a meshed topology based on VSC HVDC converters for the Supergrid modeling.
Supergrid Modeling and Operation and Control of Multi Terminal DC Grids for the Deployment of a Meshed HVDC Grid in South Asia
The Indian subcontinent is facing a massive challenge with regards to energy security in its member countries; to provide reliable electricity to facilitate development across various sectors of the economy and consequently achieve the developmental targets. The instability of the current precarious situation is observable in the frequent system failures and blackouts.
The deployment of interconnected electricity ‘Supergrid’ designed to carry huge quanta of power across the Indian sub-continent is proposed in this paper. Not only enabling energy security in the subcontinent it will also provide a platform for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) integration. This paper assesses the need and conditions for a Supergrid deployment and consequently proposes a meshed topology based on Voltage Source High Voltage Direct Current (VSC- HVDC) converters for the Supergrid modeling. Various control schemes for the control of voltage and power are utilized for the regulation of the network parameters. A 3 terminal Multi Terminal Direct Current (MTDC) network is used for the simulations.
Load Flow Analysis: An Overview
The load flow study in a power system constitutes a study of paramount importance. The study reveals the electrical performance and power flows (real and reactive) for specified condition when the system is operating under steady state. This paper gives an overview of different techniques used for load flow study under different specified conditions.
Effects of Tap Changing Transformer and Shunt Capacitor on Voltage Stability Enhancement of Transmission Networks
Voltage stability has become an important issue to many power systems around the world due to the weak systems and long line on power system networks. In this paper, MATLAB load flow program is applied to obtain the weak points in the system combined with finding the voltage stability limit. The maximum permissible loading of a system, within the voltage stability limit, is usually determined. The methods for varying tap ratio (using tap changing transformer) and applying different values of shunt capacitor injection to improve the voltage stability within the limit are also provided.
A Simple Approach of Three phase Distribution System Modeling for Power Flow Calculations
This paper presents a simple three phase power flow
method for solution of three-phase unbalanced radial distribution
system (RDN) with voltage dependent loads. It solves a simple
algebraic recursive expression of voltage magnitude, and all the data
are stored in vector form. The algorithm uses basic principles of
circuit theory and can be easily understood. Mutual coupling between
the phases has been included in the mathematical model. The
proposed algorithm has been tested with several unbalanced radial
distribution networks and the results are presented in the article. 8-
bus and IEEE 13 bus unbalanced radial distribution system results
are in agreements with the literature and show that the proposed
model is valid and reliable.
Optimal Embedded Generation Allocation in Distribution System Employing Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Method
This paper proposes a new methodology for the
optimal allocation and sizing of Embedded Generation (EG)
employing Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) to minimize the
total power losses and to improve voltage profiles in the radial
distribution networks. RCGA is a method that uses continuous
floating numbers as representation which is different from
conventional binary numbers. The RCGA is used as solution tool,
which can determine the optimal location and size of EG in radial
system simultaneously. This method is developed in MATLAB. The
effect of EG units- installation and their sizing to the distribution
networks are demonstrated using 24 bus system.
Feeder Reconfiguration for Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution System Using Genetic Algorithm
This paper presents an efficient approach to feeder
reconfiguration for power loss reduction and voltage profile
imprvement in unbalanced radial distribution systems (URDS). In
this paper Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain solution for
reconfiguration of radial distribution systems to minimize the losses.
A forward and backward algorithm is used to calculate load flows in
unbalanced distribution systems. By simulating the survival of the
fittest among the strings, the optimum string is searched by
randomized information exchange between strings by performing
crossover and mutation. Results have shown that proposed algorithm
has advantages over previous algorithms The proposed method is
effectively tested on 19 node and 25 node unbalanced radial
Power Flow Control with UPFC in Power Transmission System
In this paper the performance of unified power flow
controller is investigated in controlling the flow of po wer over the
transmission line. Voltage sources model is utilized to study the
behaviour of the UPFC in regulating the active, reactive power and
voltage profile. This model is incorporated in Newton Raphson
algorithm for load flow studies. Simultaneous method is employed
in which equations of UPFC and the power balance equations of
network are combined in to one set of non-linear algebraic equations.
It is solved according to the Newton raphson algorithm. Case studies
are carried on standard 5 bus network. Simulation is done in Matlab.
The result of network with and without using UPFC are compared in
terms of active and reactive power flows in the line and active and
reactive power flows at the bus to analyze the performance of UPFC.
A Simplified Approach for Load Flow Analysis of Radial Distribution Network
This paper presents a simple approach for load
flow analysis of a radial distribution network. The proposed
approach utilizes forward and backward sweep algorithm
based on Kirchoff-s current law (KCL) and Kirchoff-s voltage
law (KVL) for evaluating the node voltages iteratively. In this
approach, computation of branch current depends only on the
current injected at the neighbouring node and the current in
the adjacent branch. This approach starts from the end nodes
of sub lateral line, lateral line and main line and moves
towards the root node during branch current computation. The
node voltage evaluation begins from the root node and moves
towards the nodes located at the far end of the main, lateral
and sub lateral lines. The proposed approach has been tested
using four radial distribution systems of different size and
configuration and found to be computationally efficient.
Development of a Comprehensive Electricity Generation Simulation Model Using a Mixed Integer Programming Approach
This paper presents the development of an electricity simulation model taking into account electrical network constraints, applied on the Belgian power system. The base of the model is optimizing an extensive Unit Commitment (UC) problem through the use of Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). Electrical constraints are incorporated through the implementation of a DC load flow. The model encloses the Belgian power system in a 220 – 380 kV high voltage network (i.e., 93 power plants and 106 nodes). The model features the use of pumping storage facilities as well as the inclusion of spinning reserves in a single optimization process. Solution times of the model stay below reasonable values.