Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 8

8
10007965
A Review on Electrical Behavior of Different Substrates, Electrodes and Membranes in Microbial Fuel Cell
Abstract:

The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.

7
10005286
Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes
Abstract:
The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.
6
10003341
Maximizing Performance of the Membranes Based on Quaternized Polysulfone/Polyvinil Alcohol for Biomedical Applications: Rheological Investigations
Abstract:

The rheological response of blends obtained from quaternized polysulfone and polyvinyl alcohol in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone as against structural peculiarity of polymers from the blend, composition of polymer mixtures, as well as the types of interactions were investigated. Results show that the variation of polyvinyl alcohol composition in the studied system determines changes of the rheological properties, suggesting that the PVA acts as a plasticizer. Consequently, rheological behavior of complex system, described by the nonlinear flow curve, indicates the impact of polyvinil alcohol content to polysulfone solution, in order to facilitate the subsequently preparation of bioactive membranes.

5
10001433
Unconventional Composite Inorganic Membrane Fabrication for Carbon Emissions Mitigation
Abstract:
An unconventional composite inorganic ceramic membrane capable of enhancing carbon dioxide emission decline was fabricated and tested at laboratory scale in conformism to various environmental guidelines and also to mitigate the effect of global warming. A review of the existing membrane technologies for carbon capture including the relevant gas transport mechanisms is presented. Single gas permeation experiments using silica modified ceramic membrane with internal diameter 20mm, outside diameter 25mm and length of 368mm deposited on a macro porous support was carried out to investigate individual gas permeation behaviours at different pressures at room temperature. Membrane fabrication was achieved using after a dip coating method. Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Argon, Oxygen and Methane pure gases were used to investigate their individual permeation rates at various pressures. Results show that the gas flow rate increases with pressure drop. However above a pressure of 3bar, CO2 permeability ratio to that of the other gases indicated control of a more selective surface adsorptive transport mechanism.
4
10001364
Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Abstract:

In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.

3
1538
Selective and Facilitated Transport of Vanadium (VO2 +) Ion through Supported Liquid Membrane and Effects of Membrane Characteristics
Abstract:
A new supported liquid membrane (SLM) system for the selective transport of VO2 + ions was prepared in this present work. The SLM was a thin porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane soaked with Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as mobile carrier in Xylene as organic solvent. D2EHPA acts as a highly selective carrier for the uphill transport of VO2 + ions through the SLM. The transport of VO2 + ions reached to 64%. In the presence of P2O7-2 ion as suitable masking agent in the feed solution, the interfering effects of other cations were eliminated.
2
12902
Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Adsorption and Membrane Processes: a Comparative Study
Abstract:
This research aimed at investigating the Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) removal efficiencies by using the newly synthesized metal oxides/ polyethersulfone (PES), Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES, membranes from synthetic wastewater and exploring fouling mechanisms. A Comparative study between the removal efficiencies of Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from synthetic and natural wastewater by using adsorption onto agricultural by products and the newly synthesized Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES membranes was conducted to assess the advantages and limitations of using the metal oxides/PES membranes for heavy metals removal. The results showed that about 99 % and 88 % removal efficiencies were achieved by the tested membranes for Pb (II) and Cr (III), respectively.
1
6284
A New Analytical Approach for Free Vibration of Membrane from Wave Standpoint
Abstract:
In this paper, an analytical approach for free vibration analysis of rectangular and circular membranes is presented. The method is based on wave approach. From wave standpoint vibration propagate, reflect and transmit in a structure. Firstly, the propagation and reflection matrices for rectangular and circular membranes are derived. Then, these matrices are combined to provide a concise and systematic approach to free vibration analysis of membranes. Subsequently, the eigenvalue problem for free vibration of membrane is formulated and the equation of membrane natural frequencies is constructed. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is shown by comparison of the results with existing classical solution.
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