|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 8|
The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.
The rheological response of blends obtained from quaternized polysulfone and polyvinyl alcohol in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone as against structural peculiarity of polymers from the blend, composition of polymer mixtures, as well as the types of interactions were investigated. Results show that the variation of polyvinyl alcohol composition in the studied system determines changes of the rheological properties, suggesting that the PVA acts as a plasticizer. Consequently, rheological behavior of complex system, described by the nonlinear flow curve, indicates the impact of polyvinil alcohol content to polysulfone solution, in order to facilitate the subsequently preparation of bioactive membranes.
In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.