Temperature Evolution, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding: Comparison with Tungsten Inert Gas
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique that can join material without melting the plates to be welded. In this work, we are interested to demonstrate the potentiality of FSW for joining the heat-treatable aluminum alloy 2024-T3 which is reputed as difficult to be welded by fusion techniques. Thereafter, the FSW joint is compared with another one obtained from a conventional fusion process Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG). FSW welds are made up using an FSW tool mounted on a milling machine. Single pass welding was applied to fabricated TIG joint. The comparison between the two processes has been made on the temperature evolution, mechanical and microstructure behavior. The microstructural examination revealed that FSW weld is composed of four zones: Base metal (BM), Heat affected zone (HAZ), Thermo-mechanical affected zone (THAZ) and the nugget zone (NZ). The NZ exhibits a recrystallized equiaxed refined grains that induce better mechanical properties and good ductility compared to TIG joint where the grains have a larger size in the welded region compared with the BM due to the elevated heat input. The microhardness results show that, in FSW weld, the THAZ contains the lowest microhardness values and increase in the NZ; however, in TIG process, the lowest values are localized on the NZ.
Investigation of Microstructure of Differently Sub-Zero Treated Vanadis 6 Steel
Ledeburitic tool steel Vanadis 6 has been subjected to sub-zero treatment (SZT) at -140 °C and -196 °C, for different durations up to 48 h. The microstructure and hardness have been examined with reference to the same material after room temperature quenching, by using the light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers hardness testing method. The microstructure of the material consists of the martensitic matrix with certain amount of retained austenite, and of several types of carbides – eutectic carbides, secondary carbides, and small globular carbides. SZT reduces the retained austenite amount – this is more effective at -196 °C than at -140 °C. Alternatively, the amount of small globular carbides increases more rapidly after SZT at -140 °C than after the treatment at -140 °C. The hardness of sub-zero treated material is higher than that of conventionally treated steel when tempered at low temperature. Compressive hydrostatic stresses are developed in the retained austenite due to the application of SZT, as a result of more complete martensitic transformation. This is also why the population density of small globular carbides is substantially increased due to the SZT. In contrast, the hardness of sub-zero treated samples decreases more rapidly compared to that of conventionally treated steel, and in addition, sub-zero treated material induces a loss the secondary hardening peak.
Simultaneous Improvement of Wear Performance and Toughness of Ledeburitic Tool Steels by Sub-Zero Treatment
The strength, hardness, and toughness (ductility) are in strong conflict for the metallic materials. The only possibility how to make their simultaneous improvement is to provide the microstructural refinement, by cold deformation, and subsequent recrystallization. However, application of this kind of treatment is impossible for high-carbon high-alloyed ledeburitic tool steels. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated over the last few years that sub-zero treatment induces some microstructural changes in these materials, which might favourably influence their complex of mechanical properties. Commercially available PM ledeburitic steel Vanadis 6 has been used for the current investigations. The paper demonstrates that sub-zero treatment induces clear refinement of the martensite, reduces the amount of retained austenite, enhances the population density of fine carbides, and makes alterations in microstructural development that take place during tempering. As a consequence, the steel manifests improved wear resistance at higher toughness and fracture toughness. Based on the obtained results, the key question “can the wear performance be improved by sub-zero treatment simultaneously with toughness” can be answered by “definitely yes”.
Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method
The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.
The Temperature Effects on the Microstructure and Profile in Laser Cladding
In this study, a 50-W CO2 laser was used for the clad of 304L powders on the stainless steel substrate with a temperature sensor and image monitoring system. The laser power and cladding speed and focal position were modified to achieve the requirement of the workpiece flatness and mechanical properties. The numerical calculation is based on ANSYS to analyze the temperature change of the moving heat source at different surface positions when coating the workpiece, and the effect of the process parameters on the bath size was discussed. The temperature of stainless steel powder in the nozzle outlet reacting with the laser was simulated as a process parameter. In the experiment, the difference of the thermal conductivity in three-dimensional space is compared with single-layer cladding and multi-layer cladding. The heat dissipation pattern of the single-layer cladding is the steel plate and the multi-layer coating is the workpiece itself. The relationship between the multi-clad temperature and the profile was analyzed by the temperature signal from an IR pyrometer.
Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy
Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method. In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.
Microstructural Properties of the Interfacial Transition Zone and Strength Development of Concrete Incorporating Recycled Concrete Aggregate
This study investigates the potential of using crushed concrete as aggregates to produce green and sustainable concrete. Crushed concrete was sieved to powder fine recycled aggregate (PFRA) less than 80 µm and coarse recycled aggregates (CRA). Physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties for PFRA and CRA were evaluated. The effect of the additional rates of PFRA and CRA on strength development of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between cement paste and recycled aggregate were also examined. Results show that concrete mixtures made with 100% of CRA and 40% PFRA exhibited similar performance to that of the control mixture prepared with 100% natural aggregate (NA) and 40% natural pozzolan (NP). Moreover, concrete mixture incorporating recycled aggregate exhibited a slightly higher later compressive strength than that of the concrete with NA. This was confirmed by the very dense microstructure for concrete mixture incorporating recycled concrete aggregates compared to that of conventional concrete mixture.
A Review of the Characteristics and Optimization of Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations
The ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial for several decades. The strength and toughness of this material can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, which include transformation toughening, crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucence of Y-TZP in polycrystalline form is such that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance. To improve the optical properties of Y-TZP, more detailed study of the optical properties is required; in particular, precise evaluation of the refractive index, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient are necessary. The measurement of the optical parameters has been based on the assumption that light scattered from biological media is isotropically distributed over all angles. In fact, the optical behavior of real biological materials depends on the angular scattering of light due to the anisotropic nature of the materials. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the optical properties (including color, opacity/translucence, scattering, and fluorescence) of zirconia dental ceramics and their control through modification of the chemical composition, phase composition, and surface microstructure.
Comparative Studies of the Effects of Microstructures on the Corrosion Behavior of Micro-Alloyed Steels in Unbuffered 3.5 Wt% NaCl Saturated with CO2
Corrosion problem which exists in every stage of oil and gas production has been a great challenge to the operators in the industry. The conventional carbon steel with all its inherent advantages has been adjudged susceptible to the aggressive corrosion environment of oilfield. This has aroused increased interest in the use of micro alloyed steels for oil and gas production and transportation. The corrosion behavior of three commercially supplied micro alloyed steels designated as A, B, and C have been investigated with API 5L X65 as reference samples. Electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted in an unbuffered 3.5 wt% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 at 30 0C for 24 hours. Pre-corrosion analyses revealed that samples A, B and X65 consist of ferrite-pearlite microstructures but with different grain sizes, shapes and distribution whereas sample C has bainitic microstructure with dispersed acicular ferrites. The results of the electrochemical corrosion tests showed that within the experimental conditions, the corrosion rate of the samples can be ranked as CR(A)< CR(X65)< CR(B)< CR(C). These results are attributed to difference in microstructures of the samples as depicted by ASTM grain size number in accordance with ASTM E112-12 Standard and ferrite-pearlite volume fractions determined by ImageJ Fiji grain size analysis software.
Microstructural and Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 as Cathode Material for Li-Batteries
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, pure LiFePO4 (LFP) and carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 (LFP-C) is synthesized and characterized for its microstructural properties. X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LFP structure with about 63 nm crystallite size as calculated by using Scherrer’s equation. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LFP and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of the compositional elements. In addition, galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements were investigated for the cathode performance of the synthesized LFP and LFP-C samples. The results showed that the carbon-coated sample demonstrated the highest capacity of about 140 mAhg-1 as compared to non-coated and micrograined sized commercial LFP.
Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials
One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.
Nanomechanical Characterization of Titanium Alloy Modified by Nitrogen Ion Implantation
An ion implantation technique was used for designing the surface area of a titanium alloy and for irradiation-enhanced hardening of the surface. The Ti6Al4V alloy was treated by nitrogen ion implantation at fluences of 2·1017 and 4·1017 cm-2 and at ion energy 90 keV. The depth distribution of the nitrogen was investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The gradient of mechanical properties was investigated by nanoindentation. The continuous measurement mode was used to obtain depth profiles of the indentation hardness and the reduced storage modulus of the modified surface area. The reduced storage modulus and the hardness increase with increasing fluence. Increased fluence shifts the peak of the mechanical properties as well as the peak of nitrogen concentration towards to the surface. This effect suggests a direct relationship between mechanical properties and nitrogen distribution.
Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures
In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.
Effect of Pack Aluminising Conditions on βNiAl Coatings
In this study, nickel aluminide coatings were deposited onto CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy and pure Ni substrates by using in-situ chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The microstructural evolutions and coating thickness (CT) were studied upon the variation of processing conditions i.e. time and temperature. The results demonstrated (under identical conditions) that coating formed on pure Ni contains no substrate entrapments and have lower CT in comparison to one deposited on the CMSX-4 counterpart. In addition, the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) of Ni substrate is a γ’-Ni3Al in comparison to the CMSX-4 alloy that is βNiAl phase. The higher CT on CMSX-4 superalloy is attributed to presence of γ-Ni/γ’-Ni3Al structure which contains ~ 15 at.% Al before deposition (that is already present in superalloy). Two main deposition parameters (time and temperature) of the coatings were also studied in addition to standard comparison of substrate effects. The coating formation time was found to exhibit profound effect on CT, whilst temperature was found to change coating activities. In addition, the CT showed linear trend from 800 to 1000 °C, thereafter reduction was observed. This was attributed to the change in coating activities.
Influence of Raw Material Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of raw material composition on the microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron. In order to evaluate the influence of charge composition, the structural analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests and microfractographic analysis were carried out on specimens of ten melts with different charge compositions. The basic charge of individual melts was formed by different ratio of pig iron and steel scrap and by different additive for regulation of chemical composition (silicon carbide or ferrosilicon). The results show differences in mechanical and fatigue properties, which are connected with the microstructure. SiC additive positively influences microstructure. Consequently, mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved, especially in the melts with higher ratio of steel scrap in the charge.
The Manufacturing of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Diatomaceous Silica by an Induction Furnace
The metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) is obtained from the reduction of silica (SiO2) in an induction furnace or an electric arc furnace. Impurities inherent in reduction process also depend on the quality of the raw material used. Among the applications of the silicon, it is used as a substrate for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy and this conversion is wider as the purity of the substrate is important. Research is being done where the purpose is looking for new methods of manufacturing and purification of silicon, as well as new materials that can be used as substrates for the photovoltaic conversion of light energy. In this research, the technique of production of silicon in an induction furnace, using a high vacuum for fusion. Diatomaceous Silica (SiO2) used is 99 mass% initial purities, the carbon used is 6N of purity and the particle size of 63μm as starting materials. The final achieved purity of the material was above 50% by mass. These results demonstrate that this method is a technically reliable, and allows obtaining a better return on the amount 50% of silicon.
Characterization of Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of the Welded AISI 304L Using Pulsed and Non-Pulsed Current TIG Welding
The present paper aims to investigate the effects of the welding process parameters and cooling state on the weld bead geometry, mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics for weldments of AISI 304L stainless steel. The welding process was carried out using TIG welding with pulsed/non-pulsed current techniques. The cooling state was introduced as an input parameter to investigate the main effects on the structure morphology and thereby the mechanical property. This paper clarifies microstructure- mechanical property relationship of the welded specimens. In this work, the selected pulse frequency levels were 5-500 Hz in order to study the effect of low and high frequencies on the weldment characteristics using filler metal of ER 308LSi. The key findings of this work clarified that the pulse frequency has a significant effect on the breaking of the dendrite arms during the welding process and so strongly influences on the tensile strength and microhardness. The cooling state also significantly affects on the microstructure texture and thereby, the mechanical properties. The most important factor affects the bead geometry and aspect ratio is the travel speed and pulse frequency.
Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-xAlxO2 Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries
The layered structure LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-xAlxO2 (x = 0 ~
0.04) series cathode materials were synthesized by a carbonate
co-precipitation method, followed by a high temperature calcination
process. The influence of Al substitution on the microstructure and
electrochemical performances of the prepared materials was
investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron
microscopy (SEM), and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. The
results show that the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-xAlxO2 has a well-ordered
hexagonal α-NaFeO2 structure. Although the discharge capacity of
Al-doped samples decreases as x increases,
LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-0.02Al0.02O2 exhibits superior capacity retention at
high voltage (4.6 V). Therefore, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-0.02Al0.02O2 is a
promising material for “green” vehicles.
Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels
In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series
ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges
of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of
temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load
applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal
cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted
under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were
completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at
the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal
fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel
is found to be superior to the other steels.
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn Alloys
Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and
mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys with Zn contents from 6 to 10
weight percent was investigated in this study. Through calculation of
phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, carried out by using FactSage® and
FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as
temperatures from 300 to 400oC, where supersaturated solid solution
can be obtained. Solid solution treatment of Mg-Zn alloys was
successfully conducted at 380oC and supersaturated microstructure
with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. After solution
treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of
60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room
temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and
recrystallized after rolling. After solid solution treatment, each alloy
was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from
1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by
micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the
temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. By addition of Zn by 10 weight
percent, hardness and strength were enhanced.
The Effect of the Weld Current Types on Microstructure and Hardness in Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet
In this study, the butt welding of the commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets have been carried out by using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process with alternative and pulsed current. Welded samples were examined with regards to hardness and microstructure. Despite some recent developments in welding of magnesium alloys, they have some problems such as porosity, hot cracking, oxide formation and so on. Samples of the welded parts have undergone metallographic and mechanical examination. Porosities and homogeneous micron grain oxides were rarely observed. Orientations of the weld microstructure in terms of heat transfer also were rarely observed and equiaxed grain morphology was dominant grain structure as in the base metal. As results, fusion zone and few locations of the HAZ of the welded samples have shown twin’s grains. Hot cracking was not observed for any samples. Weld bead geometry of the welded samples were evaluated as normal according to welding parameters. In the results, conditions of alternative and pulsed current and the samples were compared to each other with regards to microstructure and hardness.
Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints
Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding
techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to
investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of
weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical
microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal.
Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of
weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better
than tungsten inert gas weld joints.
A Review on Application of Waste Tire in Concrete
The application of recycle waste tires into civil
engineering practices, namely asphalt paving mixtures and cementbased
materials has been gaining ground across the world. This
review summarizes and compares the recent achievements in the area
of plain rubberized concrete (PRC), in details. Different treatment
methods have been discussed to improve the performance of
rubberized Portland cement concrete. The review also includes the
effects of size and amount of tire rubbers on mechanical and
durability properties of PRC. The microstructure behaviour of the
rubberized concrete was detailed.
Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Duplex Satinless Steel
Effect of alloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties of heat-resisting duplex stainless steel (DSS) for Mg production was investigated in this study. 25Cr-8Ni based DSS’s were cast into rectangular ingots of which the dimension was 350×350×100 mm3 . Nitrogen and Yttrium were added in the range within 0.3 in weight percent. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software. Hot exposure, high temperature tensile and compression tests were conducted on the ingots at 1230oC, which is operation temperature employed for Mg production by Silico-thermic reduction. The steel with N and Y showed much higher strength than 310S alloy in both tensile and compression tests. By thermal exposition at 1230oC for 200 hrs, hardness of DSS containing N and Y was found to increase. Hot workability of the heat-resisting DSS was evaluated by employing hot rolling at 1230 oC. Hot shortness was observed in the ingot with N and found to disappear after addition of Y.
Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions
Pure nickel coatings have been successfully
electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique.
The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on
the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was
determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit
increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal
orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2
to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in
increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection.
An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture
coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained
at high current densities and duty cycle present a mixed morphology
of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was
achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings
with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the
microhardness of the coatings.
Production of Composite Materials by Mixing Chromium-Rich Ash and Soda-Lime Glass Powder: Mechanical Properties and Microstructure
A chromium-loaded ash originating from incineration of tannery sludge under anoxic conditions was mixed with low grade soda-lime glass powder coming from commercial glass bottles. The relative weight proportions of ash over glass powder tested were 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The solid mixtures, formed in green state compacts, were sintered at the temperature range of 800o C up to 1200o C. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and micro-indentation. The above methods were employed to characterize the various phases, microstructure and hardness of the produced materials. Thermal treatment at 800o C and 1000o C produced opaque ceramic products composed of a variety of chromium-containing and chromium-free crystalline phases. Thermal treatment at 1200o C gave rise to composite products, where only chromium-containing crystalline phases were detected. Hardness results suggest that specific products are serious candidates for structural applications.
Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels
The present study was carried out to investigate the
effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT)
i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the
hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy
steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying
elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting
from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels,
it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum
mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio.
Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio,
hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated
low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and
mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.
Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy
Microstructural and hardening changes of
Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions
at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation
density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation
free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation
configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed
at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while
many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some
large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of
Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which
ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated
specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the
irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy
decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also
Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process
In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.
The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property
RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets,
each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with
aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD
analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO,
AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties;
it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of
2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020
cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.