Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 29

29
10009489
The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I
Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

28
10006512
The Effect of Cow Reproductive Traits on Lifetime Productivity and Longevity
Abstract:

The age of first calving (AFC) is one of the most important factors that have a significant impact on cow productivity in different lactations and its whole life. A belated AFC leads to reduced reproductive performance and it is one of the main reasons for reduced longevity. Cows that calved in time period from 2001-2007 and in this time finished at least four lactations were included in the database. Data were obtained from 68841 crossbred Holstein Black and White (HM), crossbred Latvian Brown (LB), and Latvian Brown genetic resources (LBGR) cows. Cows were distributed in four groups depending on age at first calving. The longest lifespan was conducted for LBGR cows, but they were also characterized with lowest lifetime milk yield and life day milk yield. HM breed cows had the shortest lifespan, but in the lifespan of 2862.2 days was obtained in average 37916.4 kg milk accordingly 13.2 kg milk in one life day. HM breed cows were also characterized with longer calving intervals (CI) in first four lactations, but LBGR cows had the shortest CI in the study group. Age at first calving significantly affected the length of CI in different lactations (p<0.05). HM cows that first time calved >30 months old in the fourth lactation had the longest CI in all study groups (421.4 days). The LBGR cows were characterized with the shortest CI, but there was slight increase in second and third lactation. Age at first calving had a significant impact on cows’ age in each calving time. In the analysis, cow group was conducted that cows with age at first calving <24 months or in average 580.5 days at the time of fifth calving were 2156.7 days (5.9 years) old, but cows with age at first calving >30 months (932.6 days) at the time of fifth calving were 2560.9 days (7.3 years) old.

27
10006662
Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds
Abstract:

κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

26
10002463
Assessment of Procurement-Demand of Milk Plant Using Quality Control Tools: A Case Study
Abstract:
Milk is considered as an essential and complete food. The present study was conducted at Milk Plant Mohali especially in reference to the procurement section where the cash inflow was maximum, with the objective to achieve higher productivity and reduce wastage of milk. In milk plant it was observed that during the month of Jan-2014 to March-2014 the average procurement of milk was Rs. 4, 19, 361 liter per month and cost of procurement of milk is Rs 35/- per liter. The total cost of procurement thereby equal to Rs. 1crore 46 lakh per month, but there was mismatch in procurementproduction of milk, which leads to an average loss of Rs. 12, 94, 405 per month. To solve the procurement-production problem Quality Control Tools like brainstorming, Flow Chart, Cause effect diagram and Pareto analysis are applied wherever applicable. With the successful implementation of Quality Control tools an average saving of Rs. 4, 59, 445 per month is done.
25
10002613
Delivery System Design of the Local Part to Reduce the Logistic Costs in an Automotive Industry
Abstract:

This research was conducted in an automotive company in Indonesia to overcome the problem of high logistics cost. The problem causes high of additional truck delivery. From the breakdown of the problem, chosen one route, which has the highest gap value, namely for RE-04. Research methodology will be started from calculating the ideal condition, making simulation, calculating the ideal logistic cost, and proposing an improvement. From the calculation of the ideal condition, box arrangement was done on the truck has efficiency with three trucks delivery per day. Route simulation making uses Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software as a visualization for the company about how the system is occurred on route RE-04 in ideal condition. The last step is proposing improvements on the area of route RE-04. The route arrangement is done by Saving Method and sequence of each supplier with the Nearest Neighbor. The results of the proposed improvements are three new route groups, where was expected to decrease logistics cost and increase the average of the truck efficiency per day.

24
10000727
Bifidobacterium lactis Fermented Milk Was Not Effective for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study
Abstract:

The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is still a matter of discussion, full effectiveness is rarely achieved, and it has many adverse effects. The use of probiotics may be associated with better eradication rates and possibly prevention of adverse events due to antibiotic therapy. The present clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a specially designed fermented milk product, containing Bifidobacterium lactis B420, on the eradication of H. pylori infection in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in humans. Four test fermented milks (FM) were specially designed in which counts of viable cells in all products were 10^10 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Bifidobacterium lactis - Bifidobacterium species 420. 190 subjects infected with H. pylori, with previous diagnosis of functional dyspepsia according to Rome III criteria entered the study. Bifidobacterium lactis B420, administered twice a day for 90 days was not able to eradicate H. pylori in Brazilian patients with functional dyspepsia.

23
10000772
The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand
Abstract:

The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

22
9999389
Consumption Habits of Low-Fat Plant Sterol-Enriched Yoghurt Enriched with Phytosterols
Abstract:

The increasing interest in plant sterol enriched foods is due to the fact that they reduce blood cholesterol concentrations without adverse side effects. In this context, enriched foods with phytosterols may be helpful in protecting population against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate in a population of Viseu, Portugal, the consumption habits low-fat, plant sterol-enriched yoghurt. For this study, 577 inquiries were made and the sample was randomly selected for people shopping in various supermarkets. The preliminary results showed that the biggest consumers of these products were women aged 45 to 65 years old. Most of the people who claimed to buy these products consumed them once a day. Also, most of the consumers under antidyslipidemic therapeutics noticed positive effects on hypercholesterolemia.

21
9999852
Influence of Probiotics on Dairy Cows Diet
Abstract:

The main goal of this paper was evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of probiotic on performance and milk composition of lactating cows. Eight Holstein cows were distributed in two 4x4 Latin square. The diets were based on corn silage, concentrate and the treatment (0, 3, 6 or 9 grams of probiotic/animal/day). It was evaluated the dry matter intake of nutrients, milk yield and composition. The use of probiotics did not affect the nutrient intake (p>0.05) neither the daily milk production or corrected to 4% fat (p>0.05). However, it was observed that there was a significant fall in milk composition with higher levels of probiotics supplementation. These results emphasize the need of further studies with different experimental designs or improve the number of Latin square with longer periods of adaptation.

20
9998193
Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity and overrun, but a decrease in hardness, melting rate, lightness (l*) and redness (a*). However, there was no significant difference among all formulations on any sensory attributes. The results also showed that the ice cream with replacement of coconut pulp contained less fat and protein than those of the regular ice cream. The findings suggested that green coconut pulp can be used as alternative ingredient to replace fat, milk stabilizer and emulsifier even in a high carbohydrate ice cream formulation.

19
9997103
Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin
Abstract:

Soymilk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soymilk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soymilk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soymilk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soymilk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92%protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soymilk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soymilk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

18
16137
The Impact of Copper and Zinc Deficiency on Milk Production Performances of Intensively Grazed Dairy Cows on the North-East of Romania
Abstract:

The influence of copper and zinc supplements on milk production performances and health indicators was tested in a 20- week feeding trial, with 40 Holstein-Friesian lactating cows, devided in four groups (copper, zinc, copper-zinc and control). Correlations of the Cu and Zn plasma values with some animal performance criteria of health (body condition score and somatic cell counts) and production (milk yield, peak milk yield, fat and crude protein content) were done. During the 140 days of the experiment, the two added minerals caused a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of their plasma values after the peak of the cows’ lactations. It was also observed that subjects that have received copper and zinc supplements had the lowest number of somatic cell counts in milk. The Pearson correlation test showed a positive corellation (p = 0.007, r = + 0.851) between the plasma Zn and the milk production. The improvement of the nutritional status improved the milk production performances of the cows as well as their health performances.

17
15910
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk
Abstract:
The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point of product. There are different substances, which can be added to milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk, skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances (formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have significant influence on freezing point of it.
16
11633
The Effect of Goat Milk Fractions Supplementation on Serum IgE Response and Leukocytes Count in Dinitrochlorobenzene Sensitized Rat
Abstract:
In Indonesia, goat milk is often consumed and believed as anti-allergy. The objective of this research was to study the effect of goat milk and their fractions (casein and whey) supplementation on total serum IgE concentrations and leukocytes count in rat sensitized with contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female Wistar rats 6-8 weeks old were divided into four groups: 1) whey, 2) casein, 3) whole milk supplementation and 4) phosphate-buffered saline/PBS (control). The results showed that supplementation of goat milk on rats did not affects on total serum IgE concentrations and number of leukocytes. After sensitized with DNCB, the monocyte percentage in rats was higher (P
15
3997
The Effects of Feeding Dried Fermented Cassava Peel on Milk Production and Composition of Etawah Crossedbred Goat
Abstract:
Twelve lactating Etawah Crossedbred goats were used in this study. Goat feed consisted of Cally andra callothyrsus, Pennisetum purpureum, wheat bran and dried fermented cassava peel. The cassava peels were fermented with a traditional culture called “ragi tape" (mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae, Aspergillus sp, Candida, Hasnula and Acetobacter). The goats were divided into 2 groups (Control and Treated) of six does. The experimental diet of the Control group consisted of 70% of roughage (fresh Callyandra callothyrsus and Pennisetum purpureum 60:40) and 30% of wheat bran on dry matter (DM) base. In the Treated group 30% of wheat bran was replaced with dried fermented cassava peels. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance followed SPSS program. The concentration of HCN in fermented cassava peel decreased to non toxic level. Nutrient composition of dried fermented cassava peel consisted of 85.75% dry matter; 5.80% crude protein and 82.51% total digestible nutrien (TDN). Substitution of 30% of wheat bran with dried fermented cassava peel in the diet had no effect on dry matter and organic matter intake but significantly (P< 0.05) decreased crude protein and TDN consumption as well as milk yields and milk composition. The study recommended to reduced the level of substitution to less than 30% of concentrates in the diet in order to avoid low nutrient intake and milk production of goats.
14
7886
Energy Evaluation and Utilization of Cassava Peel for Lactating Dairy Cows
Abstract:
The experiment was then conducted to investigate the effect of cassava peel addition in the concentrate on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 12.2+2.1 kg of milk, 119+45 days in milk, 44.1+6.2 months old and 449+33 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The first, second and third groups were fed concentrates containing the respective cassava peel, 0, 20 and 40%. All cows were fed ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Dry matter intake, 4%FCM, milk composition and body weight change were affected (P
13
10915
The Influence of Heat Treatment on Antimicrobial Proteins in Milk
Abstract:

the obligatory step during immunoglobulin and lysozyme concentration process is thermal treatment. The combination of temperature and time used in processing can affect the structure of the proteins and involve unfolding and aggregation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the heat stability of total Igs, the particular immunoglobulin classes and lysozyme in milk. Milk samples were obtained from conventional dairy herd in Latvia. Raw milk samples were pasteurized in different regimes: 63 °C 30 min, 72 °C 15-20 s, 78 °C 15-20 s, 85 °C 15-20 s, 95 °C 15-20 s. The concentrations of Igs (IgA, IgG, IgM) and lysozyme were determined by turbodimetric method. During research was established, that activity of antimicrobial proteins decreases differently. Less concentration reduce was established in a case of lysozyme.

12
1797
Interaction Effect of DGAT1 and Composite Genotype of Beta-Kappa Casein on Economic Milk Production Traits in Crossbred Holstein
Abstract:
The objective was to determine the single gene and interaction effect of composite genotype of beta-kappa casein and DGAT1 gene on milk yield (MY) and milk composition, content of milk fat (%FAT), milk protein (%PRO), solid not fat (%SNF), and total solid (%TS) in crossbred Holstein cows. Two hundred and thirty- one cows were genotyped with PCR-RFLP for DGAT1 and composite genotype data of beta-kappa casein from previous work were used. Two model, (1), and (2), was used to estimate single gene effect, and interaction effect on the traits, respectively. The significance of interaction effects on all traits were detected. Most traits have consistent pattern of significant when model (1), and (2) were compared, except the effect of composite genotype of betakappa casein on %FAT, and the effect of DGAT1 on MY, which the significant difference was detected in only model (1).The results suggested that when the optimum of all traits was necessary, interaction effect should be concerned.
11
1333
Effects of Feeding Glycerol to Lactating Dairy Cows on Milk Production and Composition
Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding glycerol on dairy cows performance. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in early lactation; averaging 13+2.4 kg of milk, 64+45 days in milk, 55+16 months old and 325+26 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. All cows were fed approximate 8 kg of concentrate together with ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Nil or 150 and 300g of glycerol were supplemented to the cows according to treatment groups. All cows consumed similar concentrate, corn silage and total DM and NELP. There were no significant differences in DM intake, CP intake, NELP intake, milk and milk composition yields. All cows had similar fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat and total solid percentage. All cows gain similar live weight. The present study indicated that, supplementation of glycerol did not enhance milk yield, milk composition and live weight change.
10
510
Leukocytes Count and Lymphocyte Proliferation of Dinitrochlorobenzene Sensitized Rat Supplemented with Fermented Goat Milk
Abstract:
Goat milk has an hypoallergenic effects, and allergic diseases related to abnormal of intestinal flora. Probiotic microorganisms do exert an activity on the immune system in the skin of the individual.The purpose of this study are to determine the number of leukocyte and lymphocyte proliferation in rat supplemented with fermented goat milk (acidophilus milk and kefir) and sensitized with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female Wistar rats 6-8 weeks olds were divided into 3 treatment groups. The first group supplemented goat milk kefir, second group acidophilus goat milk, and third group as control. During 28-day experiment, on day 15 rat sensitized with allergen DNCB on the dorsal of the body, and on day 24 was challenged with DNCB on the ear. Sampling of blood and tissue of intestinal Peyer'patch (PP) were performed on day 14 (before DNCB sensitized) and on day 28 (after DNCB sensitized). The results showed the number of neutrophils in rats supplemented with acidophilus milk was higher (P
9
13949
Bioactive Component in Milk and Dairy Product
Abstract:
Recent research has shown that milk proteins can yield bioactive peptides with opioid, mineral binding, cytomodulatory, antihypertensive, immunostimulating, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity in the human body. Bioactive peptides are encrypted in milk proteins and are only released by enzymatic hydrolysis in vivo during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing or by microbial enzymes in fermented products. At present significant research is being undertaken on the health effects of bioactive peptides. A variety of naturally formed bioactive peptides have been found in fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, sour milk and cheese. In particular, antihypertensive peptides have been identified in fermented milks, whey and ripened cheese. Some of these peptides have been commercialized in the form of fermented milks. Bioactive peptides have the potential to be used in the formulation of health-enhancing nutraceuticals, and as potent drugs with well defined pharmacological effects.
8
15184
Heat-treated or Raw Sunflower Seeds in Lactating Dairy Cows Diets: Effects on Milk Fatty Acids Profile and Milk Production
Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with raw or heat-treated sunflower oil seed with two levels of 7.5% or 15% on unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat and performances of high-yielding lactating cows. Twenty early lactating Holstein cows were used in a complete randomized design. Treatments included: 1) CON, control (without sunflower oil seed). 2) LS-UT, 7.5% raw sunflower oil seed. 3) LS-HT, 7.5% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. 4) HS-UT, 15% raw sunflower oil seed. 5) HS-HT, 15% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. Experimental period lasted for 4 wk, with first 2 wk used for adaptation to the diets. Supplementation with 7.5% raw sunflower seed (LS-UT) tended to decrease milk yield, with 28.37 kg/d compared with the control (34.75 kg/d). Milk fat percentage was increased with the HS-UT treatment that obtained 3.71% compared with CON that was 3.39% and without significant different. Milk protein percent was decreased high level sunflower oil seed treatments (15%) with 3.18% whereas CON treatment is caused 3.40% protein. The cows fed added low sunflower heat-treated (LS-HT) produced milk with the highest content of total unsaturated fatty acid with 32.59 g/100g of milk fat compared with the HS-UT with 23.59 g/100g of milk fat. Content of C18 unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat increased from 21.68 g/100g of fat in the HS-UT to 22.50, 23.98, 27.39 and 30.30 g/100g of fat from the cow fed HS-HT, CON, LS-UT and LS-HT treatments, respectively. C18:2 isomers of fatty acid in milk were greater by LSHT supplementation with significant effect (P < 0.05). Total of C18 unsaturated fatty acids content was significantly higher in milk of animal fed added low heat-treated sunflower (7.5%) than those fed with high sunflower. In all, results of this study showed that diet cow's supplementation with sunflower oil seed tended to reduce milk production of lactating cows but can improve C18 UFA (Unsaturated Fatty Acid) content in milk fat. 7.5% level of sunflower oil seed that heated seemed to be the optimal source to increase UFA production.

7
14048
Effects of Dry Period Length on, Milk Production and Composition, Blood Metabolites and Complete Blood Count in Subsequent Lactation of Holstein Dairy Cows
Abstract:

Twenty - nine Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effects of different dry period (DP) lengths on milk yield and composition, some blood metabolites, and complete blood count (CBC). Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: 1) 60-d dry period, 2) 35-d DP. Milk yield, from calving to 60 days, was not different for cows on the treatments (p =0.130). Cows in the 35-d DP produced more milk protein and SNF compare with cows in treatment 1 (p ≤ 0.05). Serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. The results of this study demonstrated we can reduce the dry period length to 35 days with no problems.

6
11841
Nutrient Modelling to Fabricate Dairy Milk Constituents: Let Milk Serve More Than a Food Item
Abstract:

Dietary macro and micro nutrients in their respective proportion and fractions present a practical potential tool to fabricate milk constituents since cells of lactating mammary glands obtain about 80 % of milk synthesis nutrients from blood, reflecting the existence of an isotonic equilibrium between blood and milk. Diverting milk biosynthetic activities through manipulation of nutrients towards producing milk not only keeping in view its significance as natural food but also as food item which prevents or dilutes the adverse effects of some diseases (like cardiovascular problem by saturated milk fat intake) has been area of interest in the last decade. Nutritional modification / supplementation has been reported to enhance conjugated linoleic acid, fatty acid type and concentration, essential fatty acid concentration, vitamin B12& C, Se, Cu, I and Fe which are involved to counter the health threats to human well being. Synchronizing dietary nutrients aimed to modify rumen dynamics towards synthesis of nutrients or their precursors to make their drive towards formulated milk constituents presents a practical option. Formulating dietary constituents to design milk constituents will let the farmers, consumers and investors know about the real potential and profit margins associated with this enterprise. This article briefly recapitulates the ways and means to modify milk constituents keeping an eye on human health and well being issues, which allows milk to serve more than a food item.

5
11321
Comparison of Nutritional and Chemical Parameters of Soymilk and Cow milk
Abstract:
Cow milk, is a product of the mammary gland and soymilk is a beverage made from soybeans; it is the liquid that remains after soybeans are soaked. In this research effort, we compared nutritional parameters of this two kind milk such as total fat, fiber, protein, minerals (Ca, Fe and P), fatty acids, carbohydrate, lactose, water, total solids, ash, pH, acidity and calories content in one cup (245 g). Results showed soymilk contains 4.67 grams of fat, 0.52 of fatty acids, 3.18 of fiber, 6.73 of protein, 4.43 of carbohydrate, 0.00 of lactose, 228.51 of water, 10.40 of total solids and 0.66 of ash, also 9.80 milligrams of Ca, 1.42 of Fe, and 120.05 of P, 79 Kcal of calories, pH=6.74 and acidity was 0.24%. Cow milk contains 8.15 grams of fat, 5.07 of fatty acids, 0.00 of fiber, 8.02 of protein, 11.37 of carbohydrate, ´Çá4.27 of lactose, 214.69 of water, 12.90 of total solids, 1.75 of ash, 290.36 milligrams of Ca, 0.12 of Fe, and 226.92 of P, 150 Kcal of calories, pH=6.90 and acidity was 0.21% . Soy milk is one of plant-based complete proteins and cow milk is a rich source of nutrients as well. Cow milk is containing near twice as much fat as and ten times more fatty acids do soymilk. Cow milk contains greater amounts of mineral (except Fe) it contain more than three hundred times the amount of Ca and nearly twice the amount of P as does soymilk but soymilk contains more Fe (ten time more) than does cow milk. Cow milk and soy milk contain nearly identical amounts of protein and water and fiber is a big plus, dairy has none. Although what we choose to drink is really a mater of personal preference and our health objectives but looking at the comparison, soy looks like healthier choices.
4
3525
Improvement of Milk Production with Half Day Milking; a Case Study of Communal Goat Housing in Sukorejo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Abstract:

The case study was conducted to show the effect of  milking method in goat called half day milking on the milk production and the growth of kids. Data were collected by  interviewing farmers and investigating goat production in the  communal goat housing from June 2008 to May 2009. The interview  was conducted to collect data about goat management. The  observations were conducted on 10 goats, which were selected based  on the uniformity of age, number of kid born/goat and the milking method in practice. The samples were divided into two groups; those  were full 3 months nursing and half day milked goats (in this group the kids were separated from goat during the previous night milking  and then the kids were allowed to suck the goat during the day). The result showed that the communal goat housing had 138 goats and 25% of the farmers milked the goat. The implementation of half day milking increased the milk production significantly (P<0.05) and it did not affect the kids’ growth. It was concluded that half day milking was beneficial to increase milk production. In the communal goat housing was possible to implement the result of this innovation to all members of the farmer group as a method in increasing goat milk production.

3
13185
Study The Effects of Conventional and Low Input Production System on Energy Efficiency of Silybum marianum L.
Abstract:

Medicinal plants are most suitable crops for ecological production systems because of their role in human health and the aim of sustainable agriculture to improve ecosystem efficiency and its products quality. Calculations include energy output (contents of energy in seed) and energy inputs (consumption of fertilizers, pesticides, labor, machines, fuel and electricity). The ratio of output of the production to inputs is called the energy outputs / inputs ratio or energy efficiency. One way to quantify essential parts of agricultural development is the energy flow method. The output / input energy ratio is proposed as the most comprehensive single factor in pursuing the objective of sustainability. Sylibum marianum L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and has effective role on health of growing population in Iran. The objective of this investigation was to find out energy efficiency in conventional and low input production system of Milk thistle. This investigation was carried out in the spring of 2005 – 2007 in the Research Station of Rangelands in Hamand - Damavand region of IRAN. This experiment was done in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments were 2 production systems (Conventional and Low input system) in the main plots, 3 planting time (25 of March, 4 and 14 of April) in the sub plots and 2 seed types (Improved and Native of Khoozestan) in the sub-sub plots. Results showed that in conventional production system energy efficiency, because of higher inputs and less seed yield, was less than low input production system. Seed yield was 1199.5 and 1888 kg/ha in conventional and low input systems, respectively. Total energy inputs and out puts for conventional system was 10068544.5 and 7060515.9 kcal. These amounts for low input system were 9533885.6 and 11113191.8 kcal. Results showed that energy efficiency for seed production in conventional and low input system was 0.7 and 1.16, respectively. So, milk thistle seed production in low input system has 39.6 percent higher energy efficiency than conventional production system. Also, higher energy efficiency were found in sooner planting time (25 of March) and native seed of Khoozestan.

2
15170
Production of Milk Clotting Protease by Rhizopus Stolonifer through Optimization of Culture Conditions
Abstract:
The present study describes the biosynthesis of a milkclotting protease by solid state fermentation (SSF) of a locally isolated mould, Rhizopus stolonifer. The production medium was prepared using wheat bran at 50% (w/v). The production conditions are optimized by varying 7 parameters: carbon and nitrogen sources, medium moisture, temperature, pH, fermentation time and inoculum-s size. The maximum enzyme synthesis was measured after 96 h of incubation time at temperature of 28°C. The optimum pH determined was 6 and the inoculum size was 3.106spores/ml. The optimum initial moisture content is comprised between 50 to 70%. The formation of milk clotting protease is enhanced when galactose and peptone are used at 10% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) concentrations respectively. The maximum production of milk clotting protease is 120 US/ml.
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Effects of Skim Milk Powder Supplementation to Soy Yogurts on Biotransformation of Isoflavone Glycosides to Biologically Active Forms during Storage
Abstract:
Three batches of yogurts were made with soy protein isolate (SPI) supplemented with 2% (S2), 4% (S4) or 6% (S6) of skim milk powder (SMP). The fourth batch (control; S0) was prepared from SPI without SMP supplementation. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (Lb 11842) and Streptococcus thermophilus ST 1342 (ST 1342) were used as the starter culture. Biotransformation of the inactive forms, isoflavone glycosides (IG) to biologically active forms, isoflavone aglycones (IA), was determined during 28 d storage. The viability of both microorganisms was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in S2, S4, and S6 than that in S0. The ratio of lactic acid/acetic acid in S0 was in the range of 15.53 – 22.31 compared to 7.24 – 12.81 in S2, S4 and S6. The biotransformation of IG to IA in S2, S4 and S6 was also enhanced by 9.9 -13.3% compared to S0.
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