A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application
It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.
Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode
Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a
structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are
manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the
transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal
of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of
1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum
of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed.
Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in
transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of
relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude
of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations
in parameters of the diode lead to occurrence of 1/f noise in the
output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the
mixer to the value of received signal.
Thermal Property of Multi-Walled-Carbon-Nanotube Reinforced Epoxy Composites
In this study, epoxy composite specimens reinforced
with multi-walled carbon nanotube filler were fabricated using shear
mixer and ultra-sonication processor. The mechanical and thermal
properties of the fabricated specimens were measured and evaluated.
From the electron microscope images and the results from the
measurements of tensile strengths, the specimens having 0.6 wt%
nanotube content show better dispersion and higher strength than those
of the other specimens. The Young’s moduli of the specimens
increased as the contents of the nanotube filler in the matrix were
increased. The specimen having a 0.6 wt% nanotube filler content
showed higher thermal conductivity than that of the other specimens.
While, in the measurement of thermal expansion, specimens having
0.4 and 0.6 wt% filler contents showed a lower value of thermal
expansion than that of the other specimens. On the basis of the
measured and evaluated properties of the composites, we believe that
the simple and time-saving fabrication process used in this study was
sufficient to obtain improved properties of the specimens.
An Active Mixer with Vertical Flow Placement via a Series of Inlets for Micromixing
Flows in a microchannel are laminar, which means that mixing depends on only inter-diffusion. A micromixer plays an important role in obtaining fast diagnosis results in the fields of m-TAS (total analysis system), Bio-MEMS and LOC (lab-on-a-chip).
In this paper, we propose a new active mixer with vertical flow placement via a series of inlets for micromixing. This has two inlets on the same axis, one of which is located before the other. The sample input by the first inlet flows into the down-position, while the other sample by the second inlet flows into the up-position. In the experiment, the samples were located vertically in up-down positions in a micro chamber. PZT was attached below a chamber, and ultrasonic waves were radiated in the down to up direction towards the samples in the micro chamber in order to accelerate the mixing. The mixing process was measured by the change of color in a micro chamber using phenolphthalein and NaOH. The results of the experiment showed that the samples in the microchamber were efficiently mixed and that our new active mixer was superior to the horizontal type of active mixers in view of the grey levels and the standard deviation.
Wideband Tunable RF Filters for Channel Selection in Crowded Spectral Bands
It is very effective way to utilize a very wide tunable filter in co-existing multi-standards wireless communications environment. Especially, as the long term evolution (LTE) communication era has come, the multi-band coverage is one of the important features required for the RF components. In this paper, we present the frequency conversion technique, and so generate two types of RF filters which are specially designed for the superb tunable ability to support multiple wireless communication standards. With the help of a complex mixing structure, the inherent image signal is suppressed. The RF band-pass filter (BPF) and notch filter achieve 1.8dB and 1.6dB insertion losses and 18 dB and 17 dB attenuations, respectively. The quality factor show greater than 30.
Numerical Investigation into Mixing Performance of Electrokinetically-Driven Power-Law Fluids in Microchannel with Patterned Trapezoid Blocks
The study investigates the mixing performance of
electrokinetically-driven power-law fluids in a microchannel
containing patterned trapezoid blocks. The effects of the geometry
parameters of the patterned trapezoid blocks and the flow behavior
index in the power-law model on the mixing efficiency within the
microchannel are explored. The results show that the mixing efficiency
can be improved by increasing the width of the blocks and extending
the length of upper surface of the blocks. In addition, the results show
that the mixing efficiency increases with an increasing flow behavior
index. Furthermore, it is shown that a heterogeneous patterning of the
zeta potential on the upper surfaces of the trapezoid blocks prompts
the formation of local flow recirculations, and therefore improves the
mixing efficiency. Consequently, it is shown that the mixing
performance improves with an increasing magnitude of the
heterogeneous surface zeta potential.
Influence of Electrolytes and High Viscosity on Liquid-Liquid Separation
Liquid-liquid extraction is a process using two immiscible
liquids to extract compounds from one phase without high
temperature requirement. Mostly, the technical implementation of
this process is carried out in mixer-settlers or extraction columns. In
real chemical processes, chemicals may have high viscosity and
contain impurities. These impurities may change the settling behavior
of the process without measurably changing the physical properties
of the phases. In the current study, the settling behavior and the affected
parameters in a high-viscosity system were observed. Batchsettling
experiments were performed to experimentally quantify the
settling behavior and the mixer-settler model of Henschke  was
used to evaluate the behavior of the toluene + water system. The
viscosity of the system was increased by adding polyethylene glycol
4000 to the aqueous phase. NaCl and Na2SO4 were used to study the
influence of electrolytes. The results from this study show that increasing
the viscosity of water has a higher influence on the settling
behavior in comparison to the effects of the electrolytes. It can be
seen from the experiments that at high salt concentrations, there was
no effect on the settling behavior.
Experimental and CFD Investigation of Nozzle Angle in Jet Mixer
In this work, the results of mixing study by a jet mixer in a tank have been investigated in the laboratory scale. The tank dimensions are H/D=1 and the jet entrance have been considered in
the center of upper surface of tank. RNG-k-ε model is used as the
turbulent model for the prediction of the pattern of turbulent flow
inside the tank. For this purpose, a tank with volume of 110 liter is
simulated and it has been divided into 410,000 tetrahedral control
cells for performing the calculations. The grids at the vicinity of the
nozzle and suction pare are finer to get more accurate results. The
experimental results showed that in a vertical jet, the lowest mixing
time takes place at 35 degree. In addition, mixing time decreased by
increasing the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the CFD simulation
predicted the items as well a flow patterns precisely that validates the
Port Positions on the Mixing Efficiency of a Rotor-Type Mixer – A Numerical Study
The purpose of this study was to explore the complex
flow structure a novel active-type micromixer that based on concept of
Wankle-type rotor. The characteristics of this micromixer are two
folds; a rapid mixing of reagents in a limited space due to the
generation of multiple vortices and a graduate increment in dynamic
pressure as the mixed reagents is delivered to the output ports.
Present micro-mixer is consisted of a rotor with shape of triangle
column, a blending chamber and several inlet and outlet ports. The
geometry of blending chamber is designed to make the rotor can be
freely internal rotated with a constant eccentricity ratio. When the
shape of the blending chamber and the rotor are fixed, the effects of
rotating speed of rotor and the relative locations of ports on the mixing
efficiency are numerical studied. The governing equations are
unsteady, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation
and the working fluid is the water. The species concentration equation
is also solved to reveal the mass transfer process of reagents in various
regions then to evaluate the mixing efficiency.
The dynamic mesh technique was implemented to model the
dynamic volume shrinkage and expansion of three individual
sub-regions of blending chamber when the rotor conducted a complete
rotating cycle. Six types of ports configuration on the mixing
efficiency are considered in a range of Reynolds number from 10 to
300. The rapid mixing process was accomplished with the multiple
vortex structures within a tiny space due to the equilibrium of shear
force, viscous force and inertial force. Results showed that the highest
mixing efficiency could be attained in the following conditions: two
inlet and two outlet ports configuration, that is an included angle of 60
degrees between two inlets and an included angle of 120 degrees
between inlet and outlet ports when Re=10.
A Low Power High Frequency CMOS RF Four Quadrant Analog Mixer
This paper describes a CMOS four-quadrant
multiplier intended for use in the front-end receiver by utilizing the
square-law characteristic of the MOS transistor in the saturation
region. The circuit is based on 0.35 um CMOS technology simulated
using HSPICE software. The mixer has a third-order inter the power
consumption is 271uW from a single 1.2V power supply. One of the
features of the proposed design is using two MOS transistors
limitation to reduce the supply voltage, which leads to reduce the
power consumption. This technique provides a GHz bandwidth
response and low power consumption.
Design of a Low Power Compensated 90nm RF Multiplier with Improved Isolation Characteristics for a Transmitted Reference Receiver Front End
In this paper, a double balanced radio frequency multiplier
is presented which is customized for transmitted reference
ultra wideband (UWB) receivers. The multiplier uses 90nm model
parameters and exploits compensating transistors to provide controllable
gain for a Gilbert core. After performing periodic and quasiperiodic
non linear analyses the RF mixer (multiplier) achieves a
voltage conversion gain of 16 dB and a DSB noise figure of 8.253
dB with very low power consumption. A high degree of LO to RF
isolation (in the range of -94dB), RF to IF isolation (in the range of
-95dB) and LO to IF isolation (in the range of -143dB) is expected
for this design with an input-referred IP3 point of -1.93 dBm and an
input referred 1 dB compression point of -10.67dBm. The amount of
noise at the output is 7.7 nV/√Hz when the LO input is driven by
a 10dBm signal. The mixer manifests better results when compared
with other reported multiplier circuits and its Zero-IF performance
ensures its applicability as TR-UWB multipliers.
Computational Investigation of Air-Gas Venturi Mixer for Powered Bi-Fuel Diesel Engine
In a bi-fuel diesel engine, the carburetor plays a vital
role in switching from fuel gas to petrol mode operation and viceversa.
The carburetor is the most important part of the fuel system of
a diesel engine. All diesel engines carry variable venturi mixer
carburetors. The basic operation of the carburetor mainly depends on
the restriction barrel called the venturi. When air flows through the
venturi, its speed increases and its pressure decreases. The main
challenge focuses on designing a mixing device which mixes the
supplied gas is the incoming air at an optimum ratio. In order to
surmount the identified problems, the way fuel gas and air flow in
the mixer have to be analyzed. In this case, the Computational Fluid
Dynamics or CFD approach is applied in design of the prototype
mixer. The present work is aimed at further understanding of the air
and fuel flow structure by performing CFD studies using a software
code. In this study for mixing air and gas in the condition that has
been mentioned in continuance, some mixers have been designed.
Then using of computational fluid dynamics, the optimum mixer has
been selected. The results indicated that mixer with 12 holes can
produce a homogenous mixture than those of 8-holes and 6-holes
mixer. Also the result showed that if inlet convergency was smoother
than outlet divergency, the mixture get more homogenous, the reason
of that is in increasing turbulence in outlet divergency.
An Efficient Passive Planar Micromixer with Finshaped Baffles in the Tee Channel for Wide Reynolds Number Flow Range
A new design of a planar passive T-micromixer with fin-shaped baffles in the mixing channel is presented. The mixing efficiency and the level of pressure loss in the channel have been investigated by numerical simulations in the range of Reynolds number (Re) 1 to 50. A Mixing index (Mi) has been defined to quantify the mixing efficiency, which results over 85% at both ends of the Re range, what demonstrates the micromixer can enhance mixing using the mechanisms of diffusion (lower Re) and convection (higher Re). Three geometric dimensions: radius of baffle, baffles pitch and height of the channel define the design parameters, and the mixing index and pressure loss are the performance parameters used to optimize the micromixer geometry with a multi-criteria optimization method. The Pareto front of designs with the optimum trade-offs, maximum mixing index with minimum pressure loss, is obtained. Experiments for qualitative and quantitative validation have been implemented.
Simulation of the Flow in a Packed-Bed with and without a Static Mixer by Using CFD Technique
The major focus of this work was to characterize hydrodynamics in a packed-bed with and without static mixer by using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The commercial software: COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSTM Version 3.3 was used to simulate flow fields of mixed-gas reactants i.e. CO and H2. The packed-bed was a single tube with the inside diameter of 0.8 cm and the length of 1.2 cm. The static mixer was inserted inside the tube. The number of twisting elements was 1 with 0.8 cm in diameter and 1.2 cm in length. The packed-bed with and without static mixer were both packed with approximately 700 spherical structures representing catalyst pellets. Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were used to model the gas flow inside the beds at steady state condition, in which the inlet Reynolds Number (Re) was 2.31. The results revealed that, with the insertion of static mixer, the gas was forced to flow radially inward and outward between the central portion of the tube and the tube wall. This could help improving the overall performance of the packed-bed, which could be utilized for heterogeneous catalytic reaction such as reforming and Fischer- Tropsch reactions.
A Direct Down-conversion Receiver for Low-power Wireless Sensor Networks
A direct downconversion receiver implemented in 0.13 μm 1P8M process is presented. The circuit is formed by a single-end LNA, an active balun for conversion into balanced mode, a quadrature double-balanced passive switch mixer and a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator. The receiver operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and complies with IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) specifications. The circuit exhibits a very low noise figure of only 2.27 dB and dissipates only 14.6 mW with a 1.2 V supply voltage and is hence suitable for low-power applications.
130 nm CMOS Mixer and VCO for 2.4 GHz Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks
This paper describes a 2.4 GHz passive switch mixer
and a 5/2.5 GHz voltage-controlled negative Gm oscillator (VCO)
with an inversion-mode MOS varactor. Both circuits are implemented
using a 1P8M 0.13 μm process. The switch mixer has an input
referred 1 dB compression point of -3.89 dBm and a conversion
gain of -0.96 dB when the local oscillator power is +2.5 dBm.
The VCO consumes only 1.75 mW, while drawing 1.45 mA from a
1.2 V supply voltage. In order to reduce the passives size, the VCO
natural oscillation frequency is 5 GHz. A clocked CMOS divideby-
two circuit is used for frequency division and quadrature phase
generation. The VCO has a -109 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 MHz
frequency offset and a 2.35-2.5 GHz tuning range (after the frequency
division), thus complying with ZigBee requirements.
A Low Voltage High Linearity CMOS Gilbert Cell Using Charge Injection Method
A 2.4GHz (RF) down conversion Gilbert Cell mixer,
implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology with a 1.8V supply, is
presented. Current bleeding (charge injection) technique has been
used to increase the conversion gain and the linearity of the mixer.
The proposed mixer provides 10.75 dB conversion gain ( C G ) with
14.3mw total power consumption. The IIP3 and 1-dB compression
point of the mixer are 8dbm and -4.6dbm respectively, at 300 MHz
IF frequencies. Comparing the current design against the
conventional mixer design, demonstrates better performance in the
conversion gain, linearity, noise figure and port-to-port isolation.
Design Optimization Methodology of CMOS Active Mixers for Multi-Standard Receivers
A design flow of multi-standard down-conversion
CMOS mixers for three modern standards: Global System Mobile,
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone and Universal Mobile
Telecommunication Systems is presented. Three active mixer-s
structures are studied. The first is based on the Gilbert cell which
gives a tolerable noise figure and linearity with a low conversion
gain. The second and third structures use the current bleeding and
charge injection techniques in order to increase the conversion gain.
An improvement of about 2 dB of the conversion gain is achieved
without a considerable degradation of the other characteristics. The
models used for noise figure, conversion gain and IIP3 used are
studied. This study describes the nature of trade-offs inherent in such
structures and gives insights that help in identifying which structure
is better for given conditions.