Introduce Applicability of Multi-Layer Perceptron to Predict the Behaviour of Semi-Interlocking Masonry Panel
The Semi Interlocking Masonry (SIM) system has been developed in Masonry Research Group at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The main purpose of this system is to enhance the seismic resistance of framed structures with masonry panels. In this system, SIM panels dissipate energy through the sliding friction between rows of SIM units during earthquake excitation. This paper aimed to find the applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the displacement behaviour of the SIM panel under out-of-plane loading. The general concept of ANN needs to be trained by related force-displacement data of SIM panel. The overall data to train and test the network are 70 increments of force-displacement from three tests, which comprise of none input nodes. The input data contain height and length of panels, height, length and width of the brick and friction and geometry angle of brick along the compressive strength of the brick with the lateral load applied to the panel. The aim of designed network is prediction displacement of the SIM panel by Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). The mean square error (MSE) of network was 0.00042 and the coefficient of determination (R2) values showed the 0.91. The result revealed that the ANN has significant agreement to predict the SIM panel behaviour.
Analysis of Linguistic Disfluencies in Bilingual Children’s Discourse
Speech disfluencies are common in spontaneous speech. The primary purpose of this study was to distinguish linguistic disfluencies from stuttering disfluencies in bilingual Tamil–English (TE) speaking children. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluencies are mediated by native language dominance and/or on an early onset of developmental stuttering at childhood. A detailed study was carried out to identify the prosodic and acoustic features that uniquely represent the disfluent regions of speech. This paper focuses on statistical modeling of repetitions, prolongations, pauses and interjections in the speech corpus encompassing bilingual spontaneous utterances from school going children – English and Tamil. Two classifiers including Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), which is a class of feed-forward artificial neural network, were compared in the classification of disfluencies. The results of the classifiers document the patterns of disfluency in spontaneous speech samples of school-aged children to distinguish between Children Who Stutter (CWS) and Children with Language Impairment CLI). The ability of the models in classifying the disfluencies was measured in terms of F-measure, Recall, and Precision.
Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals
Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).
Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.
The Design of a Vehicle Traffic Flow Prediction Model for a Gauteng Freeway Based on an Ensemble of Multi-Layer Perceptron
The cities of Johannesburg and Pretoria both located in the Gauteng province are separated by a distance of 58 km. The traffic queues on the Ben Schoeman freeway which connects these two cities can stretch for almost 1.5 km. Vehicle traffic congestion impacts negatively on the business and the commuter’s quality of life. The goal of this paper is to identify variables that influence the flow of traffic and to design a vehicle traffic prediction model, which will predict the traffic flow pattern in advance. The model will unable motorist to be able to make appropriate travel decisions ahead of time. The data used was collected by Mikro’s Traffic Monitoring (MTM). Multi-Layer perceptron (MLP) was used individually to construct the model and the MLP was also combined with Bagging ensemble method to training the data. The cross—validation method was used for evaluating the models. The results obtained from the techniques were compared using predictive and prediction costs. The cost was computed using combination of the loss matrix and the confusion matrix. The predicted models designed shows that the status of the traffic flow on the freeway can be predicted using the following parameters travel time, average speed, traffic volume and day of month. The implications of this work is that commuters will be able to spend less time travelling on the route and spend time with their families. The logistics industry will save more than twice what they are currently spending.
Detecting Earnings Management via Statistical and Neural Network Techniques
Predicting earnings management is vital for the capital
market participants, financial analysts and managers. The aim of this
research is attempting to respond to this query: Is there a significant
difference between the regression model and neural networks’
models in predicting earnings management, and which one leads to a
superior prediction of it? In approaching this question, a Linear
Regression (LR) model was compared with two neural networks
including Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and Generalized
Regression Neural Network (GRNN). The population of this study
includes 94 listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)
market from 2003 to 2011. After the results of all models were
acquired, ANOVA was exerted to test the hypotheses. In general, the
summary of statistical results showed that the precision of GRNN did
not exhibit a significant difference in comparison with MLP. In
addition, the mean square error of the MLP and GRNN showed a
significant difference with the multi variable LR model. These
findings support the notion of nonlinear behavior of the earnings
management. Therefore, it is more appropriate for capital market
participants to analyze earnings management based upon neural
networks techniques, and not to adopt linear regression models.
Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network Classifier with Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Based Feature Selection for Brain-Computer Interfaces
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) measure brain
signals activity, intentionally and unintentionally induced by users,
and provides a communication channel without depending on the
brain’s normal peripheral nerves and muscles output pathway.
Feature Selection (FS) is a global optimization machine learning
problem that reduces features, removes irrelevant and noisy data
resulting in acceptable recognition accuracy. It is a vital step
affecting pattern recognition system performance. This study presents
a new Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) based feature
selection algorithm. Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network
(MLPNN) classifier with backpropagation training algorithm and
Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm classify selected features.
Predicting Global Solar Radiation Using Recurrent Neural Networks and Climatological Parameters
Several meteorological parameters were used for the
prediction of monthly average daily global solar radiation on
horizontal using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Climatological
data and measures, mainly air temperature, humidity, sunshine
duration, and wind speed between 1995 and 2007 were used to design
and validate a feed forward and recurrent neural network based
prediction systems. In this paper we present our reference system
based on a feed-forward multilayer perceptron (MLP) as well as the
proposed approach based on an RNN model. The obtained results
were promising and comparable to those obtained by other existing
empirical and neural models. The experimental results showed the
advantage of RNNs over simple MLPs when we deal with time series
solar radiation predictions based on daily climatological data.
Artificial Intelligent Approach for Machining Titanium Alloy in a Nonconventional Process
Artificial neural networks (ANN) are used in distinct researching fields and professions, and are prepared by cooperation of scientists in different fields such as computer engineering, electronic, structure, biology and so many different branches of science. Many models are built correlating the parameters and the outputs in electrical discharge machining (EDM) concern for different types of materials. Up till now model for Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy in the case of electrical discharge machining performance characteristics has not been developed. Therefore, in the present work, it is attempted to generate a model of material removal rate (MRR) for Ti-5Al-2.5Sn material by means of Artificial Neural Network. The experimentation is performed according to the design of experiment (DOE) of response surface methodology (RSM). To generate the DOE four parameters such as peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time and servo voltage and one output as MRR are considered. Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy is machined with positive polarity of copper electrode. Finally the developed model is tested with confirmation test. The confirmation test yields an error as within the agreeable limit. To investigate the effect of the parameters on performance sensitivity analysis is also carried out which reveals that the peak current having more effect on EDM performance.
Daily Global Solar Radiation Modeling Using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Networks
Predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) based on meteorological variables, using Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks is the main objective of this study. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, wind speed, and soil temperature values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32° 16' N, 48° 25' E), are used in this study. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data.
A Complexity-Based Approach in Image Compression using Neural Networks
In this paper we present an adaptive method for image
compression that is based on complexity level of the image. The
basic compressor/de-compressor structure of this method is a multilayer
perceptron artificial neural network. In adaptive approach
different Back-Propagation artificial neural networks are used as
compressor and de-compressor and this is done by dividing the
image into blocks, computing the complexity of each block and then
selecting one network for each block according to its complexity
value. Three complexity measure methods, called Entropy, Activity
and Pattern-based are used to determine the level of complexity in
image blocks and their ability in complexity estimation are evaluated
and compared. In training and evaluation, each image block is
assigned to a network based on its complexity value. Best-SNR is
another alternative in selecting compressor network for image blocks
in evolution phase which chooses one of the trained networks such
that results best SNR in compressing the input image block. In our
evaluations, best results are obtained when overlapping the blocks is
allowed and choosing the networks in compressor is based on the
Best-SNR. In this case, the results demonstrate superiority of this
method comparing with previous similar works and JPEG standard
Hand Written Digit Recognition by Multiple Classifier Fusion based on Decision Templates Approach
Classifier fusion may generate more accurate
classification than each of the basic classifiers. Fusion is often based
on fixed combination rules like the product, average etc. This paper
presents decision templates as classifier fusion method for the
recognition of the handwritten English and Farsi numerals (1-9).
The process involves extracting a feature vector on well-known
image databases. The extracted feature vector is fed to multiple
classifier fusion. A set of experiments were conducted to compare
decision templates (DTs) with some combination rules. Results from
decision templates conclude 97.99% and 97.28% for Farsi and
English handwritten digits.
Prediction of a Human Facial Image by ANN using Image Data and its Content on Web Pages
Choosing the right metadata is a critical, as good
information (metadata) attached to an image will facilitate its
visibility from a pile of other images. The image-s value is enhanced
not only by the quality of attached metadata but also by the technique
of the search. This study proposes a technique that is simple but
efficient to predict a single human image from a website using the
basic image data and the embedded metadata of the image-s content
appearing on web pages. The result is very encouraging with the
prediction accuracy of 95%. This technique may become a great
assist to librarians, researchers and many others for automatically and
efficiently identifying a set of human images out of a greater set of
An Extension of Multi-Layer Perceptron Based on Layer-Topology
There are a lot of extensions made to the classic model of multi-layer perceptron (MLP). A notable amount of them has been designed to hasten the learning process without considering the quality of generalization. The paper proposes a new MLP extension based on exploiting topology of the input layer of the network. Experimental results show the extended model to improve upon generalization capability in certain cases. The new model requires additional computational resources to compare to the classic model, nevertheless the loss in efficiency isn-t regarded to be significant.
Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Temperature Forecasting
In this paper, the application of neural networks to study the design of short-term temperature forecasting (STTF) Systems for Kermanshah city, west of Iran was explored. One important architecture of neural networks named Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) to model STTF systems is used. Our study based on MLP was trained and tested using ten years (1996-2006) meteorological data. The results show that MLP network has the minimum forecasting error and can be considered as a good method to model the STTF systems.