Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 9

9
10006573
On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit
Abstract:

In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.

8
10005350
Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation
Abstract:

Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. No drying gas is required, so the present technique should not be confused with spray dying. Resulting nanothermites, insensitive explosives or propellants and compositions are foreseen to replace toxic (according to REACH) and very sensitive matter in military and civil applications. Diverse examples are given in detail: nano-RDX (n-Cyclotrimethylentrinitramin) and nano-aluminum based systems, mixtures (n-RDX/n-TNT - trinitrotoluene) or even cocrystalline matter like n-CL-20/HMX (Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane/ Cyclotetra-methylentetranitramin). These nanomaterials show reduced sensitivity by trend without losing effectiveness and performance. An analytical study for material characterization was performed by using Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and combined techniques as well as spectroscopic methods. As a matter of course, sensitivity tests regarding electrostatic discharge, impact, and friction are provided.

7
10002399
Nonlinear Absorption and Scattering in Wide Band Gap Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Colloid and Their Effects on the Optical Limiting
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the optical nonlinearities of Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanostructures dispersed in the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under exposure to 532 nm, 15 nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser irradiation. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the obtained nanocrystal samples. The band gap energy of colloid is determined by analyzing the UV–Vis absorption spectra of the Ag2S NPs using the band theory of semiconductors. Z-scan technique is used to characterize the optical nonlinear properties of the Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs). Large enhancement of two photon absorption effect is observed with increase in concentration of the Ag2S nanoparticles using open Zscan measurements in the ns laser regime. The values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients are determined based on the local nonlinear responses including two photon absorption. The observed aperture dependence of the Ag2S NP limiting performance indicates that the nonlinear scattering plays an important role in the limiting action of the sample. The concentration dependence of the optical liming is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that the optical limiting threshold decreases with increasing the silver sulfide NPs in DMSO.
6
16429
Combining Molecular Statics with Heat Transfer Finite Difference Method for Analysis of Nanoscale Orthogonal Cutting of Single-Crystal Silicon Temperature Field
Abstract:

This paper uses quasi-steady molecular statics model and diamond tool to carry out simulation temperature rise of nanoscale orthogonal cutting single-crystal silicon. It further qualitatively analyzes temperature field of silicon workpiece without considering heat transfer and considering heat transfer. This paper supposes that the temperature rise of workpiece is mainly caused by two heat sources: plastic deformation heat and friction heat. Then, this paper develops a theoretical model about production of the plastic deformation heat and friction heat during nanoscale orthogonal cutting. After the increased temperature produced by these two heat sources are added up, the acquired total temperature rise at each atom of the workpiece is substituted in heat transfer finite difference equation to carry out heat transfer and calculates the temperature field in each step and makes related analysis.

5
3271
Torsional Statics of Circular Nanostructures: Numerical Approach
Abstract:
Based on the standard finite element method, a new finite element method which is known as nonlocal finite element method (NL-FEM) is numerically implemented in this article to study the nonlocal effects for solving 1D nonlocal elastic problem. An Eringen-type nonlocal elastic model is considered. In this model, the constitutive stress-strain law is expressed interms of integral equation which governs the nonlocal material behavior. The new NL-FEM is adopted in such a way that the postulated nonlocal elastic behavior of material is captured by a finite element endowed with a set of (cross-stiffness) element itself by the other elements in mesh. An example with their analytical solutions and the relevant numerical findings for various load and boundary conditions are presented and discussed in details. It is observed from the numerical solutions that the torsional deformation angle decreases with increasing nonlocal nanoscale parameter. It is also noted that the analytical solution fails to capture the nonlocal effect in some cases where numerical solutions handle those situation effectively which prove the reliability and effectiveness of numerical techniques.
4
17367
A Comparative Study of Electrical Transport Phenomena in Ultrathin vs. Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs Devices
Abstract:

Ultrathin (UTD) and Nanoscale (NSD) SOI-MOSFET devices, sharing a similar W/L but with a channel thickness of 46nm and 1.6nm respectively, were fabricated using a selective “gate recessed” process on the same silicon wafer. The electrical transport characterization at room temperature has shown a large difference between the two kinds of devices and has been interpreted in terms of a huge unexpected series resistance. Electrical characteristics of the Nanoscale device, taken in the linear region, can be analytically derived from the ultrathin device ones. A comparison of the structure and composition of the layers, using advanced techniques such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and High Resolution TEM (HRTEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), contributes an explanation as to the difference of transport between the devices.

3
841
Effects of Dopant Concentrations on Radiative Properties of Nanoscale Multilayer with Coherent Formulation for Visible Wavelengths
Abstract:

Semiconductor materials with coatings have a wide range of applications in MEMS and NEMS. This work uses transfermatrix method for calculating the radiative properties. Dopped silicon is used and the coherent formulation is applied. The Drude model for the optical constants of doped silicon is employed. Results showed that for the visible wavelengths, more emittance occurs in greater concentrations and the reflectance decreases as the concentration increases. In these wavelengths, transmittance is negligible. Donars and acceptors act similar in visible wavelengths. The effect of wave interference can be understood by plotting the spectral properties such as reflectance or transmittance of a thin dielectric film versus the film thickness and analyzing the oscillations of properties due to constructive and destructive interferences. But this effect has not been shown at visible wavelengths. At room temperature, the scattering process is dominated by lattice scattering for lightly doped silicon, and the impurity scattering becomes important for heavily doped silicon when the dopant concentration exceeds1018cm-3 .

2
191
Nanosize Structure Phase States in the Titanium Surface Layers after Electroexplosive Carburizing and Subsequent Electron Beam Treatment
Abstract:
The peculiarities of the nanoscale structure-phase states formed after electroexplosive carburizing and subsequent electron-beam treatment of technically pure titanium surface in different regimes are established by methods of transmission electron diffraction microscopy and physical mechanisms are discussed. Electroexplosive carburizing leads to surface layer formation (40 m thickness) with increased (in 3.5 times) microhardness. It consists of β-titanium, graphite (monocrystals 100-150 nm, polycrystals 5-10 nm, amorphous particles 3-5nm), TiC (5-10 nm), β-Ti02 (2-20nm). After electron-beam treatment additionally increasing the microhardness the surface layer consists of TiC.
1
5404
Decolorization of Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 198 using Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron
Abstract:

Residual dye contents in textile dyeing wastewater have complex aromatic structures that are resistant to degrade in biological wastewater treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Red 198 (RR198) in synthesized wastewater and to investigate the effects of the iron particle size, iron dosage and solution pHs on the destruction of RB5 and RR198. Synthesized NZVI was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The removal kinetic rates (kobs) of RB5 (0.0109 min-1) and RR198 (0.0111 min-1) by 0.5% NZVI were many times higher than those of microscale zerovalent iron (ZVI) (0.0007 min-1 and 0.0008 min-1, respectively). The iron dosage increment exponentially increased the removal efficiencies of both RB5 and RR198. Additionally, lowering pH from 9 to 5 increased the decolorization kinetic rates of both RB5 and RR198 by NZVI. The destruction of azo bond (N=N) in the chromophore of both reactive dyes led to decolorization of dye solutions.

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