An IM-COH Algorithm Neural Network Optimization with Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Time Series Samples
Back propagation algorithm (BP) is a widely used
technique in artificial neural network and has been used as a tool
for solving the time series problems, such as decreasing training
time, maximizing the ability to fall into local minima, and optimizing
sensitivity of the initial weights and bias. This paper proposes an
improvement of a BP technique which is called IM-COH algorithm
(IM-COH). By combining IM-COH algorithm with cuckoo search
algorithm (CS), the result is cuckoo search improved control output
hidden layer algorithm (CS-IM-COH). This new algorithm has a
better ability in optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias
than the original BP algorithm. In this research, the algorithm of
CS-IM-COH is compared with the original BP, the IM-COH, and the
original BP with CS (CS-BP). Furthermore, the selected benchmarks,
four time series samples, are shown in this research for illustration.
The research shows that the CS-IM-COH algorithm give the best
forecasting results compared with the selected samples.
Investigation of Improved Chaotic Signal Tracking by Echo State Neural Networks and Multilayer Perceptron via Training of Extended Kalman Filter Approach
This paper presents a prediction performance of
feedforward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Echo State Networks
(ESN) trained with extended Kalman filter. Feedforward neural
networks and ESN are powerful neural networks which can track and
predict nonlinear signals. However, their tracking performance
depends on the specific signals or data sets, having the risk of
instability accompanied by large error. In this study we explore this
process by applying different network size and leaking rate for
prediction of nonlinear or chaotic signals in MLP neural networks.
Major problems of ESN training such as the problem of initialization
of the network and improvement in the prediction performance are
tackled. The influence of coefficient of activation function in the
hidden layer and other key parameters are investigated by simulation
results. Extended Kalman filter is employed in order to improve the
sequential and regulation learning rate of the feedforward neural
networks. This training approach has vital features in the training of
the network when signals have chaotic or non-stationary sequential
pattern. Minimization of the variance in each step of the computation
and hence smoothing of tracking were obtained by examining the
results, indicating satisfactory tracking characteristics for certain
conditions. In addition, simulation results confirmed satisfactory
performance of both of the two neural networks with modified
parameterization in tracking of the nonlinear signals.
Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM
Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and
important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect
the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders
that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper
demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and
grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and
artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the
cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients.
The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet
transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of
120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the
image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A
comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector
machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for
the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave
better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8%
accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.
Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem
High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.
Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks
This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.
Tools for Analysis and Optimization of Standalone Green Microgrids
Green microgrids using mostly renewable energy (RE) for generation, are complex systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics. Among a variety of different optimization tools there are only a few ones that adequately consider this complexity. This paper evaluates applicability of two somewhat similar optimization tools tailored for standalone RE microgrids and also assesses a machine learning tool for performance prediction that can enhance the reliability of any chosen optimization tool. It shows that one of these microgrid optimization tools has certain advantages over another and presents a detailed routine of preparing input data to simulate RE microgrid behavior. The paper also shows how neural-network-based predictive modeling can be used to validate and forecast solar power generation based on weather time series data, which improves the overall quality of standalone RE microgrid analysis.
Electricity Price Forecasting: A Comparative Analysis with Shallow-ANN and DNN
Electricity prices have sophisticated features such as
high volatility, nonlinearity and high frequency that make forecasting
quite difficult. Electricity price has a volatile and non-random
character so that, it is possible to identify the patterns based on the
historical data. Intelligent decision-making requires accurate price
forecasting for market traders, retailers, and generation companies.
So far, many shallow-ANN (artificial neural networks) models have
been published in the literature and showed adequate forecasting
results. During the last years, neural networks with many hidden
layers, which are referred to as DNN (deep neural networks) have
been using in the machine learning community. The goal of this
study is to investigate electricity price forecasting performance of the
shallow-ANN and DNN models for the Turkish day-ahead electricity
market. The forecasting accuracy of the models has been evaluated
with publicly available data from the Turkish day-ahead electricity
market. Both shallow-ANN and DNN approach would give successful
result in forecasting problems. Historical load, price and weather
temperature data are used as the input variables for the models.
The data set includes power consumption measurements gathered
between January 2016 and December 2017 with one-hour resolution.
In this regard, forecasting studies have been carried out comparatively
with shallow-ANN and DNN models for Turkish electricity markets
in the related time period. The main contribution of this study
is the investigation of different shallow-ANN and DNN models
in the field of electricity price forecast. All models are compared
regarding their MAE (Mean Absolute Error) and MSE (Mean Square)
results. DNN models give better forecasting performance compare to
shallow-ANN. Best five MAE results for DNN models are 0.346,
0.372, 0.392, 0,402 and 0.409.
Long Short-Term Memory Based Model for Modeling Nicotine Consumption Using an Electronic Cigarette and Internet of Things Devices
In this paper, we want to determine whether the accurate prediction of nicotine concentration can be obtained by using a network of smart objects and an e-cigarette. The approach consists of, first, the recognition of factors influencing smoking cessation such as physical activity recognition and participant’s behaviors (using both smartphone and smartwatch), then the prediction of the configuration of the e-cigarette (in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance of e-cigarette). The study uses a network of commonly connected objects; a smartwatch, a smartphone, and an e-cigarette transported by the participants during an uncontrolled experiment. The data obtained from sensors carried in the three devices were trained by a Long short-term memory algorithm (LSTM). Results show that our LSTM-based model allows predicting the configuration of the e-cigarette in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance with a root mean square error percentage of 12.9%, 9.15%, and 11.84%, respectively. This study can help to better control consumption of nicotine and offer an intelligent configuration of the e-cigarette to users.
Presentation of a Mix Algorithm for Estimating the Battery State of Charge Using Kalman Filter and Neural Networks
Determination of state of charge (SOC) in today’s world becomes an increasingly important issue in all the applications that include a battery. In fact, estimation of the SOC is a fundamental need for the battery, which is the most important energy storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), smart grid systems, drones, UPS and so on. Regarding those applications, the SOC estimation algorithm is expected to be precise and easy to implement. This paper presents an online method for the estimation of the SOC of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. The proposed method uses the well-known Kalman Filter (KF), and Neural Networks (NNs) and all of the simulations have been done with MATLAB software. The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery discharging process. A generic cell model is used, and the underlying dynamic behavior of the model has used two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), where the SOC determined from the voltage represents the bulk capacitor. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of conventional integration-based SOC estimation methods with a mixed algorithm. Moreover, by containing the effect of temperature, the final result becomes more accurate.
Crude Oil Price Prediction Using LSTM Networks
Crude oil market is an immensely complex and dynamic environment and thus the task of predicting changes in such an environment becomes challenging with regards to its accuracy. A number of approaches have been adopted to take on that challenge and machine learning has been at the core in many of them. There are plenty of examples of algorithms based on machine learning yielding satisfactory results for such type of prediction. In this paper, we have tried to predict crude oil prices using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based recurrent neural networks. We have tried to experiment with different types of models using different epochs, lookbacks and other tuning methods. The results obtained are promising and presented a reasonably accurate prediction for the price of crude oil in near future.
Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of Selected Machine Learning Classification Techniques for Diagnosis of Cancer: A Data Mining Approach
With recent trends in Big Data and advancements
in Information and Communication Technologies, the healthcare
industry is at the stage of its transition from clinician oriented to
technology oriented. Many people around the world die of cancer
because the diagnosis of disease was not done at an early stage.
Nowadays, the computational methods in the form of Machine
Learning (ML) are used to develop automated decision support
systems that can diagnose cancer with high confidence in a timely
manner. This paper aims to carry out the comparative evaluation
of a selected set of ML classifiers on two existing datasets: breast
cancer and cervical cancer. The ML classifiers compared in this study
are Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest
Neighbor (k-NN), Logistic Regression, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) and
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The evaluation is carried out based
on standard evaluation metrics Precision (P), Recall (R), F1-score and
Accuracy. The experimental results based on the evaluation metrics
show that ANN showed the highest-level accuracy (99.4%) when
tested with breast cancer dataset. On the other hand, when these
ML classifiers are tested with the cervical cancer dataset, Ensemble
(Bagged Tree) technique gave better accuracy (93.1%) in comparison
to other classifiers.
Artificial neural networks
, breast cancer
, cervical cancer
, logistic regression
, machine learning
, support vector machine.
A Comparative Analysis of Artificial Neural Network and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model on Modeling and Forecasting Exchange Rate
This paper examines the forecasting performance of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models with the published exchange rate obtained from South African Reserve Bank (SARB). ARIMA is one of the popular linear models in time series forecasting for the past decades. ARIMA and ANN models are often compared and literature revealed mixed results in terms of forecasting performance. The study used the MSE and MAE to measure the forecasting performance of the models. The empirical results obtained reveal the superiority of ARIMA model over ANN model. The findings further resolve and clarify the contradiction reported in literature over the superiority of ARIMA and ANN models.
Input Data Balancing in a Neural Network PM-10 Forecasting System
Recently PM-10 has become a social and global issue. It is one of major air pollutants which affect human health. Therefore, it needs to be forecasted rapidly and precisely. However, PM-10 comes from various emission sources, and its level of concentration is largely dependent on meteorological and geographical factors of local and global region, so the forecasting of PM-10 concentration is very difficult. Neural network model can be used in the case. But, there are few cases of high concentration PM-10. It makes the learning of the neural network model difficult. In this paper, we suggest a simple input balancing method when the data distribution is uneven. It is based on the probability of appearance of the data. Experimental results show that the input balancing makes the neural networks’ learning easy and improves the forecasting rates.
Neural Network Based Approach of Software Maintenance Prediction for Laboratory Information System
Software maintenance phase is started once a software project has been developed and delivered. After that, any modification to it corresponds to maintenance. Software maintenance involves modifications to keep a software project usable in a changed or a changing environment, to correct discovered faults, and modifications, and to improve performance or maintainability. Software maintenance and management of software maintenance are recognized as two most important and most expensive processes in a life of a software product. This research is basing the prediction of maintenance, on risks and time evaluation, and using them as data sets for working with neural networks. The aim of this paper is to provide support to project maintenance managers. They will be able to pass the issues planned for the next software-service-patch to the experts, for risk and working time evaluation, and afterward to put all data to neural networks in order to get software maintenance prediction. This process will lead to the more accurate prediction of the working hours needed for the software-service-patch, which will eventually lead to better planning of budget for the software maintenance projects.
Causal Relation Identification Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Features
Causal relation identification is a crucial task in information extraction and knowledge discovery. In this work, we present two approaches to causal relation identification. The first is a classification model trained on a set of knowledge-based features. The second is a deep learning based approach training a model using convolutional neural networks to classify causal relations. We experiment with several different convolutional neural networks (CNN) models based on previous work on relation extraction as well as our own research. Our models are able to identify both explicit and implicit causal relations as well as the direction of the causal relation. The results of our experiments show a higher accuracy than previously achieved for causal relation identification tasks.
A Distributed Mobile Agent Based on Intrusion Detection System for MANET
This study is about an algorithmic dependence of Artificial Neural Network on Multilayer Perceptron (MPL) pertaining to the classification and clustering presentations for Mobile Adhoc Network vulnerabilities. Moreover, mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is ubiquitous intelligent internetworking devices in which it has the ability to detect their environment using an autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Security affairs are the most important subject in MANET due to the easy penetrative scenarios occurred in such an auto configuration network. One of the powerful techniques used for inspecting the network packets is Intrusion Detection System (IDS); in this article, we are going to show the effectiveness of artificial neural networks used as a machine learning along with stochastic approach (information gain) to classify the malicious behaviors in simulated network with respect to different IDS techniques. The monitoring agent is responsible for detection inference engine, the audit data is collected from collecting agent by simulating the node attack and contrasted outputs with normal behaviors of the framework, whenever. In the event that there is any deviation from the ordinary behaviors then the monitoring agent is considered this event as an attack , in this article we are going to demonstrate the signature-based IDS approach in a MANET by implementing the back propagation algorithm over ensemble-based Traffic Table (TT), thus the signature of malicious behaviors or undesirable activities are often significantly prognosticated and efficiently figured out, by increasing the parametric set-up of Back propagation algorithm during the experimental results which empirically shown its effectiveness for the ratio of detection index up to 98.6 percentage. Consequently it is proved in empirical results in this article, the performance matrices are also being included in this article with Xgraph screen show by different through puts like Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Through Put(TP), and Average Delay(AD).
A Neuro-Automata Decision Support System for the Control of Late Blight in Tomato Crops
The use of decision support systems in agriculture may help monitoring large fields of crops by automatically detecting the symptoms of foliage diseases. In our work, we designed and implemented a decision support system for small tomatoes producers. This work investigates ways to recognize the late blight disease from the analysis of digital images of tomatoes, using a pair of multilayer perceptron neural networks. The networks outputs are used to generate repainted tomato images in which the injuries on the plant are highlighted, and to calculate the damage level of each plant. Those levels are then used to construct a situation map of a farm where a cellular automata simulates the outbreak evolution over the fields. The simulator can test different pesticides actions, helping in the decision on when to start the spraying and in the analysis of losses and gains of each choice of action.
Pose Normalization Network for Object Classification
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have
demonstrated their effectiveness in synthesizing 3D views of object
instances at various viewpoints. Given the problem where one
have limited viewpoints of a particular object for classification, we
present a pose normalization architecture to transform the object to
existing viewpoints in the training dataset before classification to
yield better classification performance. We have demonstrated that
this Pose Normalization Network (PNN) can capture the style of
the target object and is able to re-render it to a desired viewpoint.
Moreover, we have shown that the PNN improves the classification
result for the 3D chairs dataset and ShapeNet airplanes dataset
when given only images at limited viewpoint, as compared to a
A Neural Network Classifier for Estimation of the Degree of Infestation by Late Blight on Tomato Leaves
Foliage diseases in plants can cause a reduction in both quality and quantity of agricultural production. Intelligent detection of plant diseases is an essential research topic as it may help monitoring large fields of crops by automatically detecting the symptoms of foliage diseases. This work investigates ways to recognize the late blight disease from the analysis of tomato digital images, collected directly from the field. A pair of multilayer perceptron neural network analyzes the digital images, using data from both RGB and HSL color models, and classifies each image pixel. One neural network is responsible for the identification of healthy regions of the tomato leaf, while the other identifies the injured regions. The outputs of both networks are combined to generate the final classification of each pixel from the image and the pixel classes are used to repaint the original tomato images by using a color representation that highlights the injuries on the plant. The new images will have only green, red or black pixels, if they came from healthy or injured portions of the leaf, or from the background of the image, respectively. The system presented an accuracy of 97% in detection and estimation of the level of damage on the tomato leaves caused by late blight.
Detecting and Secluding Route Modifiers by Neural Network Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks
In a real world scenario, the viability of the sensor networks has been proved by standardizing the technologies. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to both electronic and physical security breaches because of their deployment in remote, distributed, and inaccessible locations. The compromised sensor nodes send malicious data to the base station, and thus, the total network effectiveness will possibly be compromised. To detect and seclude the Route modifiers, a neural network based Pattern Learning predictor (PLP) is presented. This algorithm senses data at any node on present and previous patterns obtained from the en-route nodes. The eminence of any node is upgraded by their predicted and reported patterns. This paper propounds a solution not only to detect the route modifiers, but also to seclude the malevolent nodes from the network. The simulation result proves the effective performance of the network by the presented methodology in terms of energy level, routing and various network conditions.
Analysis of Multilayer Neural Network Modeling and Long Short-Term Memory
This paper analyzes fundamental ideas and concepts related to neural networks, which provide the reader a theoretical explanation of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks operation classified as Deep Learning Systems, and to explicitly present the mathematical development of Backward Pass equations of the LSTM network model. This mathematical modeling associated with software development will provide the necessary tools to develop an intelligent system capable of predicting the behavior of licensed users in wireless cognitive radio networks.
A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation
In this paper, we present a neural approach for
unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is
based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using
a combination of the texture and the image color information of the
image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are
selected to present the information texture, and the color features
presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train
the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying
probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made
by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our
color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based
methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.
Hybrid Approach for Country’s Performance Evaluation
This paper presents an integrated model, which hybridized data envelopment analysis (DEA) and support vector machine (SVM) together, to class countries according to their efficiency and performance. This model takes into account aspects of multi-dimensional indicators, decision-making hierarchy and relativity of measurement. Starting from a set of indicators of performance as exhaustive as possible, a process of successive aggregations has been developed to attain an overall evaluation of a country’s competitiveness.
Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing
Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.
Prediction of Vapor Liquid Equilibrium for Dilute Solutions of Components in Ionic Liquid by Neural Networks
Ionic liquids are finding a wide range of applications from reaction media to separations and materials processing. In these applications, Vapor–Liquid equilibrium (VLE) is the most important one. VLE for six systems at 353 K and activity coefficients at infinite dilution [(γ)_i^∞] for various solutes (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, aromatics, alcohols, ketones, esters, ethers, and water) in the ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMIM][BTI], 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [BMPYR][BTI]) have been used to train neural networks in the temperature range from (303 to 333) K. Densities of the ionic liquids, Hildebrant constant of substances, and temperature were selected as input of neural networks. The networks with different hidden layers were examined. Networks with seven neurons in one hidden layer have minimum error and good agreement with experimental data.
Recognition of Tifinagh Characters with Missing Parts Using Neural Network
In this paper, we present an algorithm for reconstruction from incomplete 2D scans for tifinagh characters. This algorithm is based on using correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. This system proposed contains three main parts: pre-processing, features extraction and recognition. In the first step, we construct a database of tifinagh characters. In the second step, we will apply “shape analysis algorithm”. In classification part, we will use Neural Network. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method give good results.
Anomaly Detection with ANN and SVM for Telemedicine Networks
In recent years, a wide variety of applications are developed with Support Vector Machines -SVM- methods and Artificial Neural Networks -ANN-. In general, these methods depend on intrusion knowledge databases such as KDD99, ISCX, and CAIDA among others. New classes of detectors are generated by machine learning techniques, trained and tested over network databases. Thereafter, detectors are employed to detect anomalies in network communication scenarios according to user’s connections behavior. The first detector based on training dataset is deployed in different real-world networks with mobile and non-mobile devices to analyze the performance and accuracy over static detection. The vulnerabilities are based on previous work in telemedicine apps that were developed on the research group. This paper presents the differences on detections results between some network scenarios by applying traditional detectors deployed with artificial neural networks and support vector machines.
A Genetic-Neural-Network Modeling Approach for Self-Heating in GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors
In this paper, a genetic-neural-network (GNN) based large-signal model for GaN HEMTs is presented along with its parameters extraction procedure. The model is easy to construct and implement in CAD software and requires only DC and S-parameter measurements. An improved decomposition technique is used to model self-heating effect. Two GNN models are constructed to simulate isothermal drain current and power dissipation, respectively. The two model are then composed to simulate the drain current. The modeling procedure was applied to a packaged GaN-on-Si HEMT and the developed model is validated by comparing its large-signal simulation with measured data. A very good agreement between the simulation and measurement is obtained.
Massively-Parallel Bit-Serial Neural Networks for Fast Epilepsy Diagnosis: A Feasibility Study
There are about 1% of the world population suffering
from the hidden disability known as epilepsy and major developing
countries are not fully equipped to counter this problem. In order to
reduce the inconvenience and danger of epilepsy, different methods
have been researched by using a artificial neural network (ANN)
classification to distinguish epileptic waveforms from normal brain
waveforms. This paper outlines the aim of achieving massive
ANN parallelization through a dedicated hardware using bit-serial
processing. The design of this bit-serial Neural Processing Element
(NPE) is presented which implements the functionality of a complete
neuron using variable accuracy. The proposed design has been tested
taking into consideration non-idealities of a hardware ANN. The NPE
consists of a bit-serial multiplier which uses only 16 logic elements
on an Altera Cyclone IV FPGA and a bit-serial ALU as well as a
look-up table. Arrays of NPEs can be driven by a single controller
which executes the neural processing algorithm. In conclusion, the
proposed compact NPE design allows the construction of complex
hardware ANNs that can be implemented in a portable equipment
that suits the needs of a single epileptic patient in his or her daily
activities to predict the occurrences of impending tonic conic seizures.
Dynamic Fault Diagnosis for Semi-Batch Reactor under Closed-Loop Control via Independent Radial Basis Function Neural Network
In this paper, a robust fault detection and isolation
(FDI) scheme is developed to monitor a multivariable nonlinear
chemical process called the Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor,
when it is under the cascade PI control. The scheme employs a radial
basis function neural network (RBFNN) in an independent mode to
model the process dynamics, and using the weighted sum-squared
prediction error as the residual. The Recursive Orthogonal Least
Squares algorithm (ROLS) is employed to train the model to
overcome the training difficulty of the independent mode of the
network. Then, another RBFNN is used as a fault classifier to isolate
faults from different features involved in the residual vector. Several
actuator and sensor faults are simulated in a nonlinear simulation of
the reactor in Simulink. The scheme is used to detect and isolate the
faults on-line. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the
scheme even the process is subjected to disturbances and
uncertainties including significant changes in the monomer feed rate,
fouling factor, impurity factor, ambient temperature, and
measurement noise. The simulation results are presented to illustrate
the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.