Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 34

34
10007887
Umbrella Wheel: A Stair-Climbing and Obstacle-Handling Wheel Design Concept
Abstract:
This paper presents a design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific situation. Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends stairs is given and the results are analyzed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
33
10006091
Overcoming the Obstacles to Green Campus Implementation in Indonesia
Abstract:

One way that has been aggressively implemented in creating a sustainable environment nowadays is through the implementation of green building concept. In order to ensure the success of its implementation, the support and initiation from educational institutions, especially higher education institutions are indispensable. This research was conducted to figure out the obstacles restraining the success of green campus implementation in Indonesia, as well as to propose strategies to overcome those obstacles. The data presented in this paper are mainly derived from interview and questionnaire distributed randomly to the staffs and students in 10 (ten) major institutions around Jakarta and West Java area. The data were further analyzed using ANOVA and SWOT analysis. According to 182 respondents, it is found that resistance to change, inadequate knowledge, information and understanding, no penalty for any environmental violation, lack of reward for green campus practices, lack of stringent regulations/laws, lack of management commitment, insufficient funds are the obstacles to the green campus movement in Indonesia. In addition, out of 6 criteria considered in UI GreenMetric World Ranking, education was the only criteria that had no significant difference between public and private universities in generating the green campus performance. The work concludes with recommendation of strategies to improve the implementation of green campus in the future.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
32
10006142
Steering Velocity Bounded Mobile Robots in Environments with Partially Known Obstacles
Abstract:
This paper presents a method for steering velocity bounded mobile robots in environments with partially known stationary obstacles. The exact location of obstacles is unknown and only a probability distribution associated with the location of the obstacles is known. Kinematic model of a 2-wheeled differential drive robot is used as the model of mobile robot. The presented control strategy uses the Artificial Potential Field (APF) method for devising a desired direction of movement for the robot at each instant of time while the Constrained Directions Control (CDC) uses the generated direction to produce the control signals required for steering the robot. The location of each obstacle is considered to be the mean value of the 2D probability distribution and similarly, the magnitude of the electric charge in the APF is set as the trace of covariance matrix of the location probability distribution. The method not only captures the challenges of planning the path (i.e. probabilistic nature of the location of unknown obstacles), but it also addresses the output saturation which is considered to be an important issue from the control perspective. Moreover, velocity of the robot can be controlled during the steering. For example, the velocity of robot can be reduced in close vicinity of obstacles and target to ensure safety. Finally, the control strategy is simulated for different scenarios to show how the method can be put into practice.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
31
10005058
Accounting Information Systems of Kuwaiti Companies: Obstacles and Barriers
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the obstacles to the ability of the accounting information systems of Kuwaiti companies to deal with electronic commerce, and then to propose appropriate solutions to overcome the barriers. The study revealed a remarkable decrease in external auditors who have professional certification. The results also showed an agreement regarding the accounting systems and the ability to deal with e-commerce, with a different degree of importance, despite the presence of obstacles to the ability of accounting systems in dealing with different companies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
30
10003886
Learning Algorithms for Fuzzy Inference Systems Composed of Double- and Single-Input Rule Modules
Abstract:
Most of self-tuning fuzzy systems, which are automatically constructed from learning data, are based on the steepest descent method (SDM). However, this approach often requires a large convergence time and gets stuck into a shallow local minimum. One of its solutions is to use fuzzy rule modules with a small number of inputs such as DIRMs (Double-Input Rule Modules) and SIRMs (Single-Input Rule Modules). In this paper, we consider a (generalized) DIRMs model composed of double and single-input rule modules. Further, in order to reduce the redundant modules for the (generalized) DIRMs model, pruning and generative learning algorithms for the model are suggested. In order to show the effectiveness of them, numerical simulations for function approximation, Box-Jenkins and obstacle avoidance problems are performed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
29
10002886
Three-Dimensional Off-Line Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of offline path planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in complex threedimensional environment with obstacles, which is modelled by 3D Cartesian grid system. Path planning for UAVs require the computational intelligence methods to move aerial vehicles along the flight path effectively to target while avoiding obstacles. In this paper Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm is applied to generate the optimal collision free 3D flight path for UAV. The simulations results clearly demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in guiding UAV to the final destination by providing optimal feasible path quickly and effectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
28
10005948
An Intelligent Transportation System for Safety and Integrated Management of Railway Crossings
Abstract:

Railway crossings are complex entities whose optimal management cannot be addressed unless with the help of an intelligent transportation system integrating information both on train and vehicular flows. In this paper, we propose an integrated system named SIMPLE (Railway Safety and Infrastructure for Mobility applied at level crossings) that, while providing unparalleled safety in railway level crossings, collects data on rail and road traffic and provides value-added services to citizens and commuters. Such services include for example alerts, via variable message signs to drivers and suggestions for alternative routes, towards a more sustainable, eco-friendly and efficient urban mobility. To achieve these goals, SIMPLE is organized as a System of Systems (SoS), with a modular architecture whose components range from specially-designed radar sensors for obstacle detection to smart ETSI M2M-compliant camera networks for urban traffic monitoring. Computational unit for performing forecast according to adaptive models of train and vehicular traffic are also included. The proposed system has been tested and validated during an extensive trial held in the mid-sized Italian town of Montecatini, a paradigmatic case where the rail network is inextricably linked with the fabric of the city. Results of the tests are reported and discussed.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
27
10000927
Hybrid Control Mode Based On Multi-Sensor Information by Fuzzy Approach for Navigation Task of Autonomous Mobile Robot
Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of the autonomous mobile robot (AMR) navigation task based on the hybrid control modes. The novel hybrid control mode, based on multi-sensors information by using the fuzzy approach, has been presented in this research. The system operates in real time, is robust, enables the robot to operate with imprecise knowledge, and takes into account the physical limitations of the environment in which the robot moves, obtaining satisfactory responses for a large number of different situations. An experiment is simulated and carried out with a pioneer mobile robot. From the experimental results, the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed AMR obstacle avoidance and navigation scheme are confirmed. The experimental results show the feasibility, and the control system has improved the navigation accuracy. The implementation of the controller is robust, has a low execution time, and allows an easy design and tuning of the fuzzy knowledge base.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
26
10000465
Real Time Adaptive Obstacle Avoidance in Dynamic Environments with Different D-S
Abstract:

In this paper a real-time obstacle avoidance approach for both autonomous and non-autonomous dynamical systems (DS) is presented. In this approach the original dynamics of the controller which allow us to determine safety margin can be modulated. Different common types of DS increase the robot’s reactiveness in the face of uncertainty in the localization of the obstacle especially when robot moves very fast in changeable complex environments. The method is validated by simulation and influence of different autonomous and non-autonomous DS such as important characteristics of limit cycles and unstable DS. Furthermore, the position of different obstacles in complex environment is explained. Finally, the verification of avoidance trajectories is described through different parameters such as safety factor.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
25
9999297
Optimization Based Obstacle Avoidance
Abstract:

Based on a non-linear single track model which describes the dynamics of vehicle, an optimal path planning strategy is developed. Real time optimization is used to generate reference control values to allow leading the vehicle alongside a calculated lane which is optimal for different objectives such as energy consumption, run time, safety or comfort characteristics. Strict mathematic formulation of the autonomous driving allows taking decision on undefined situation such as lane change or obstacle avoidance. Based on position of the vehicle, lane situation and obstacle position, the optimization problem is reformulated in real-time to avoid the obstacle and any car crash.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
24
9999089
Obstacle Classification Method Based On 2D LIDAR Database
Abstract:

We propose obstacle classification method based on 2D LIDAR Database. The existing obstacle classification method based on 2D LIDAR, has an advantage in terms of accuracy and shorter calculation time. However, it was difficult to classifier the type of obstacle and therefore accurate path planning was not possible. In order to overcome this problem, a method of classifying obstacle type based on width data of obstacle was proposed. However, width data was not sufficient to improve accuracy. In this paper, database was established by width and intensity data; the first classification was processed by the width data; the second classification was processed by the intensity data; classification was processed by comparing to database; result of obstacle classification was determined by finding the one with highest similarity values. An experiment using an actual autonomous vehicle under real environment shows that calculation time declined in comparison to 3D LIDAR and it was possible to classify obstacle using single 2D LIDAR.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
23
9998932
Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line Following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers
Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
22
9997936
Intelligent Swarm-Finding in Formation Control of Multi-Robots to Track a Moving Target
Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach to control robots, which can quickly find their swarm while tracking a moving target through the obstacles of the environment. In this approach, an artificial potential field is generated between each free-robot and the virtual attractive point of the swarm. This artificial potential field will lead free-robots to their swarm. The swarm-finding of these free-robots dose not influence the general motion of their swarm and nor other robots. When one singular robot approaches the swarm then its swarm-search will finish, and it will further participate with its swarm to reach the position of the target. The connections between member-robots with their neighbors are controlled by the artificial attractive/repulsive force field between them to avoid collisions and keep the constant distances between them in ordered formation. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified in simulations.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
21
9997995
LIDAR Obstacle Warning and Avoidance System for Unmanned Aircraft
Abstract:

The availability of powerful eye-safe laser sources and the recent advancements in electro-optical and mechanical beam-steering components have allowed laser-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) to become a promising technology for obstacle warning and avoidance in a variety of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. LIDAR outstanding angular resolution and accuracy characteristics are coupled to its good detection performance in a wide range of incidence angles and weather conditions, providing an ideal obstacle avoidance solution, which is especially attractive in low-level flying platforms such as helicopters and small-to-medium size Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The Laser Obstacle Avoidance Marconi (LOAM) system is one of such systems, which was jointly developed and tested by SELEX-ES and the Italian Air Force Research and Flight Test Centre. The system was originally conceived for military rotorcraft platforms and, in this paper, we briefly review the previous work and discuss in more details some of the key development activities required for integration of LOAM on UA platforms. The main hardware and software design features of this LOAM variant are presented, including a brief description of the system interfaces and sensor characteristics, together with the system performance models and data processing algorithms for obstacle detection, classification and avoidance. In particular, the paper focuses on the algorithm proposed for optimal avoidance trajectory generation in UA applications.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
20
9997733
Trial Development the Evaluation Method of Quantification the Feeling of Preventing Visibility by Front A Pillar
Abstract:

There are many drivers who feel right A pillar of Japanese right-hand-drive car preventing visibility on turning right or left at intersection. On the other hand, there is a report that almost pedestrian accident is caused by the delay of finding pedestrian by drivers and this is found by drivers’ eye movement. Thus, we developed the evaluation method of quantification using drivers’ eye movement data by least squares estimation and we applied this method to commercial vehicle and evaluation the visibility. It is suggested that visibility of vehicle can be quantified and estimated by linear model obtained from experimental eye fixation data and information of vehicle dimensions.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
19
11413
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Flow and Heat Transfer of a Semi-Cylindrical Obstacle Located in a Channel
Abstract:
In this study, a semi-cylinder obstacle placed in a channel is handled to determine the effect of flow and heat transfer around the obstacle. Both faces of the semi-cylinder are used in the numerical analysis. First, the front face of the semi-cylinder is stated perpendicular to flow, than the rear face is placed. The study is carried out numerically, by using commercial software ANSYS 11.0. The well-known κ-ε model is applied as the turbulence model. Reynolds number is in the range of 104 to 105 and air is assumed as the flowing fluid. The results showed that, heat transfer increased approximately 15 % in the front faze case, while it enhanced up to 28 % in the rear face case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
18
14348
Problems and Obstacles to Value Creation of Thai Monk-s Bowls: The Case Study of Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok
Abstract:
This research aims to study value-creation process of producing monk-s bowls, Thai traditional handicrafts, which is facing problems in adapting to the changing society. It also aims to identify problems and obstacles to value creation. This research is based on a case study of monk-s bowl manufactures from Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok. The conceptual framework is based on the model of value chain to analyze the process. The research methodology is qualitative. This research found that the value-creation process of monk-s bowls consists of eight activities contributing to adding value to the products and increasing profits to the producers in return. Five major problems and obstacles are found. The research suggests that these problems and obstacles limit the manufacturers- potential for creating more valued product and lead to business stagnation. These problems should be addressed and solved with collaboration among the government, the private sector and the manufacturers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
17
1256
Motion Control of a 2-link Revolute Manipulator in an Obstacle-Ridden Workspace
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a solution to the motion control problem of a 2-link revolute manipulator arm. We require the end-effector of the arm to move safely to its designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed circular obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. Firstly a unique velocity algorithm is used to move the end-effector to its target. Secondly, for obstacle avoidance a turning angle is designed, which when incorporated into the control laws ensures that the entire robot arm avoids any number of fixed obstacles along its path enroute the target. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensure that the equilibrium point of the system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations of the proposed technique are presented.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
16
3487
Obstacles as Switches between Different Cardiac Arrhythmias
Abstract:
Ventricular fibrillation is a very important health problem as is the cause of most of the sudden deaths in the world. Waves of electrical activity are sent by the SA node, propagate through the cardiac tissue and activate the mechanisms of cell contraction, and therefore are responsible to pump blood to the body harmonically. A spiral wave is an abnormal auto sustainable wave that is responsible of certain types of arrhythmias. When these waves break up, give rise to the fibrillation regime, in which there is a complete loss in the coordination of the contraction of the heart muscle. Interaction of spiral waves and obstacles is also of great importance as it is believed that the attachment of a spiral wave to an obstacle can provide with a transition of two different arrhythmias. An obstacle can be partially excitable or non excitable. In this talk, we present a numerical study of the interaction of meandering spiral waves with partially and non excitable obstacles and focus on the problem where the obstacle plays a fundamental role in the switch between different spiral regimes, which represent different arrhythmic regimes. Particularly, we study the phenomenon of destabilization of spiral waves due to the presence of obstacles, a phenomenon not completely understood (This work will appear as a Chapter in a Book named Cardiac Arrhytmias by INTECH under the name "Spiral Waves, Obstacles and Cardiac Arrhythmias", ISBN 979-953-307-050-5.).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
15
9750
A Study on the Location and Range of Obstacle Region in Robot's Point Placement Task based on the Vision Control Algorithm
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the application of the vision control algorithm for robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory caused by obstacle. The presented vision control algorithm consists of four models, which are the robot kinematic model, vision system model, parameters estimation model, and robot joint angle estimation model.When the robot moves toward a target along discontinuous trajectory, several types of obstacles appear in two obstacle regions. Then, this study is to investigate how these changes will affect the presented vision control algorithm.Thus, the practicality of the vision control algorithm is demonstrated experimentally by performing the robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory by obstacle.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
14
4784
Adaptive Path Planning for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance
Abstract:
Generally speaking, the mobile robot is capable of sensing its surrounding environment, interpreting the sensed information to obtain the knowledge of its location and the environment, planning a real-time trajectory to reach the object. In this process, the issue of obstacle avoidance is a fundamental topic to be challenged. Thus, an adaptive path-planning control scheme is designed without detailed environmental information, large memory size and heavy computation burden in this study for the obstacle avoidance of a mobile robot. In this scheme, the robot can gradually approach its object according to the motion tracking mode, obstacle avoidance mode, self-rotation mode, and robot state selection. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive path-planning control scheme is verified by numerical simulations of a differential-driving mobile robot under the possible occurrence of obstacle shapes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
13
1600
An Experimental Multi-Agent Robot System for Operating in Hazardous Environments
Abstract:

In this paper, a multi-agent robot system is presented. The system consists of four robots. The developed robots are able to automatically enter and patrol a harmful environment, such as the building infected with virus or the factory with leaking hazardous gas. Further, every robot is able to perform obstacle avoidance and search for the victims. Several operation modes are designed: remote control, obstacle avoidance, automatic searching, and so on.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
12
3641
Analysis of Socio-Cultural Obstacles for Dissemination of Nanotechnology from Iran's Agricultural Experts Perspective
Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to analyze Socio-Cultural obstacles of disseminating of nanotechnology in Iran's agricultural section. One hundred twenty eight out of a total of 190 researchers with different levels of expertise in and familiarity with nanotechnology were randomly selected and questionnaires completed by them. Face validity have been done by expert's suggestion and correction, reliability by using Cronbakh-Alpha formula. The results of a factor analysis showed variation for different factors. For cultural factors 19/475 percent, for management 13/139 percent, information factor 11/277 percent, production factor 9/703 percent, social factor 9/267 percent, and for attitude factor it became 8/947 percent. Also results indicated that socio-cultural factors were the most important obstacle for nanotechnology dissemination in agricultural section in Iran.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
11
2677
Recognition of Obstacles and Providing Different Guidelines and Promotion of Electronic Government in Iran
Abstract:
Electronic Government is one of the special concepts which has been performed successfully within recent decades. Electronic government is a digital, wall-free government with a virtual organization for presenting of online governmental services and further cooperation in different political/social activities. In order to have a successful implementation of electronic government strategy and benefiting from its complete potential and benefits and generally for establishment and applying of electronic government, it is necessary to have different infrastructures as the basics of electronic government with lack of which it is impossible to benefit from mentioned services. For this purpose, in this paper we have managed to recognize relevant obstacles for establishment of electronic government in Iran. All required data for recognition of obstacles were collected from statistical society of involved specialists of Ministry of Communications & Information Technology of Iran and Information Technology Organization of Tehran Municipality through questionnaire. Then by considering of five-point Likert scope and μ =3 as the index of relevant factors of proposed model, we could specify current obstacles against electronic government in Iran along with some guidelines and proposal in this regard. According to the results, mentioned obstacles for applying of electronic government in Iran are as follows: Technical & technological problems, Legal, judicial & safety problems, Economic problems and Humanistic Problems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
10
7396
An Advanced Stereo Vision Based Obstacle Detection with a Robust Shadow Removal Technique
Abstract:

This paper presents a robust method to detect obstacles in stereo images using shadow removal technique and color information. Stereo vision based obstacle detection is an algorithm that aims to detect and compute obstacle depth using stereo matching and disparity map. The proposed advanced method is divided into three phases, the first phase is detecting obstacles and removing shadows, the second one is matching and the last phase is depth computing. We propose a robust method for detecting obstacles in stereo images using a shadow removal technique based on color information in HIS space, at the first phase. In this paper we use Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) function matching with a 5 × 5 window and prepare an empty matching table τ and start growing disparity components by drawing a seed s from S which is computed using canny edge detector, and adding it to τ. In this way we achieve higher performance than the previous works [2,17]. A fast stereo matching algorithm is proposed that visits only a small fraction of disparity space in order to find a semi-dense disparity map. It works by growing from a small set of correspondence seeds. The obstacle identified in phase one which appears in the disparity map of phase two enters to the third phase of depth computing. Finally, experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
9
1945
An Efficient Obstacle Detection Algorithm Using Colour and Texture
Abstract:

This paper presents a new classification algorithm using colour and texture for obstacle detection. Colour information is computationally cheap to learn and process. However in many cases, colour alone does not provide enough information for classification. Texture information can improve classification performance but usually comes at an expensive cost. Our algorithm uses both colour and texture features but texture is only needed when colour is unreliable. During the training stage, texture features are learned specifically to improve the performance of a colour classifier. The algorithm learns a set of simple texture features and only the most effective features are used in the classification stage. Therefore our algorithm has a very good classification rate while is still fast enough to run on a limited computer platform. The proposed algorithm was tested with a challenging outdoor image set. Test result shows the algorithm achieves a much better trade-off between classification performance and efficiency than a typical colour classifier.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
8
8452
Development of Autonomous Line-Following Soccer Robots
Abstract:
The main objective of this project is to build an autonomous microcontroller-based mobile robot for a local robot soccer competition. The black competition field is equipped with white lines to serve as the guidance path for competing robots. Two prototypes of soccer robot embedded with the Basic Stamp II microcontroller have been developed. Two servo motors are used as the drive train for the first prototype whereas the second prototype uses two DC motors as its drive train. To sense the lines, lightdependent resistors (LDRs) supply the analog inputs for the microcontroller. The performances of both prototypes are evaluated. The DC motor-driven robot has produced better trajectory control over the one using servo motors and has brought the team into the final round.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
7
1642
Non-Polynomial Spline Solution of Fourth-Order Obstacle Boundary-Value Problems
Abstract:
In this paper we use quintic non-polynomial spline functions to develop numerical methods for approximation to the solution of a system of fourth-order boundaryvalue problems associated with obstacle, unilateral and contact problems. The convergence analysis of the methods has been discussed and shown that the given approximations are better than collocation and finite difference methods. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the applications of these methods, and to compare the computed results with other known methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
6
819
A Real Time Collision Avoidance Algorithm for Mobile Robot based on Elastic Force
Abstract:
This present paper proposes the modified Elastic Strip method for mobile robot to avoid obstacles with a real time system in an uncertain environment. The method deals with the problem of robot in driving from an initial position to a target position based on elastic force and potential field force. To avoid the obstacles, the robot has to modify the trajectory based on signal received from the sensor system in the sampling times. It was evident that with the combination of Modification Elastic strip and Pseudomedian filter to process the nonlinear data from sensor uncertainties in the data received from the sensor system can be reduced. The simulations and experiments of these methods were carried out.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
5
14501
A 7DOF Manipulator Control in an Unknown Environment based on an Exact Algorithm
Abstract:
An exact algorithm for a n-link manipulator movement amidst arbitrary unknown static obstacles is presented. The algorithm guarantees the reaching of a target configuration of the manipulator in a finite number of steps. The algorithm is reduced to a finite number of calls of a subroutine for planning a trajectory in the presence of known forbidden states. The polynomial approximation algorithm which is used as the subroutine is presented. The results of the exact algorithm implementation for the control of a seven link (7 degrees of freedom, 7DOF) manipulator are given.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
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