Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics
Recently, crystal growth technologies have made
progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials.
To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces
is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study,
a control method based on model predictive control using thermal
inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor
materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered
here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass
transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal
fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind
of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over
a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a
moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study
is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth
dynamics of semiconductor materials.
Mean-Variance Optimization of Portfolios with Return of Premium Clauses in a DC Pension Plan with Multiple Contributors under Constant Elasticity of Variance Model
In this paper, mean-variance optimization of portfolios with the return of premium clauses in a defined contribution (DC) pension plan with multiple contributors under constant elasticity of variance (CEV) model is studied. The return clauses which permit death members to claim their accumulated wealth are considered, the remaining wealth is not equally distributed by the remaining members as in literature. We assume that before investment, the surplus which includes funds of members who died after retirement adds to the total wealth. Next, we consider investments in a risk-free asset and a risky asset to meet up the expected returns of the remaining members and obtain an optimized problem with the help of extended Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation. We obtained the optimal investment strategies for the two assets and the efficient frontier of the members by using a stochastic optimal control technique. Furthermore, we studied the effect of the various parameters of the optimal investment strategies and the effect of the risk-averse level on the efficient frontier. We observed that the optimal investment strategy is the same as in literature, secondly, we observed that the surplus decreases the proportion of the wealth invested in the risky asset.
Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization
Recently, feedback control systems using random dither
quantizers have been proposed for linear discrete-time systems.
However, the constraints imposed on state and control variables
have not yet been taken into account for the design of feedback
control systems with random dither quantization. Model predictive
control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control
performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance
index that has a moving initial and terminal time. An important
advantage of model predictive control is its ability to handle
constraints imposed on state and control variables. Based on the
model predictive control approach, the objective of this paper is to
present a control method that satisfies probabilistic state constraints
for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither
quantization. In other words, this paper provides a method for
solving the optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state
constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with
random dither quantization.
Optimal Tuning of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Using a Particle Swarm Optimization for Two-Rotor Aerodynamical System
This paper presents an optimal state feedback controller based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a two-rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS). TRAS is a highly nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with two degrees of freedom and cross coupling. There are two parameters that define the behavior of LQR controller: state weighting matrix and control weighting matrix. The two parameters influence the performance of LQR. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to optimally tune weighting matrices of LQR. The major concern of using LQR controller is to stabilize the TRAS by making the beam move quickly and accurately for tracking a trajectory or to reach a desired altitude. The simulation results were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The system is decoupled into two single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Comparing the performance of the optimized proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller provided by INTECO, results depict that LQR controller gives a better performance in terms of both transient and steady state responses when PSO is performed.
Stability of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Schrödinger Equation with Finite Approximation
Recent technological advance has prompted significant
interest in developing the control theory of quantum systems.
Following the increasing interest in the control of quantum
dynamics, this paper examines the control problem of Schrödinger
equation because quantum dynamics is basically governed by
Schrödinger equation. From the practical point of view, stochastic
disturbances cannot be avoided in the implementation of control
method for quantum systems. Thus, we consider here the robust
stabilization problem of Schrödinger equation against stochastic
disturbances. In this paper, we adopt model predictive control method
in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with
a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time.
The objective of this study is to derive the stability criterion for
model predictive control of Schrödinger equation under stochastic
Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities
Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic
constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although
probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems,
several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints.
In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic
constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines
a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic
constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.
Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems
Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Conservativeness of Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Method for Unknown Probability Distribution
In recent decades, probabilistic constrained optimal
control problems have attracted much attention in many research
fields. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable
in an optimization problem, several tractable methods haven been
proposed to handle probabilistic constraints. In most methods,
probabilistic constraints are reduced to deterministic constraints
that are tractable in an optimization problem. However, there is a
gap between the transformed deterministic constraints in case of
known and unknown probability distribution. This paper examines
the conservativeness of probabilistic constrained optimization method
for unknown probability distribution. The objective of this paper is
to provide a quantitative assessment of the conservatism for tractable
constraints in probabilistic constrained optimization with unknown
Computational Simulations on Stability of Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-time Stochastic Systems
Model predictive control is a kind of optimal feedback
control in which control performance over a finite future is optimized
with a performance index that has a moving initial time and a moving
terminal time. This paper examines the stability of model predictive
control for linear discrete-time systems with additive stochastic
disturbances. A sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop
system with model predictive control is derived by means of a linear
matrix inequality. The objective of this paper is to show the results
of computational simulations in order to verify the effectiveness of
the obtained stability condition.
Optimal Control of Volterra Integro-Differential Systems Based On Legendre Wavelets and Collocation Method
In this paper, the numerical solution of optimal control problem (OCP) for systems governed by Volterra integro-differential
(VID) equation is considered. The method is developed by means
of the Legendre wavelet approximation and collocation method. The
properties of Legendre wavelet together with Gaussian integration
method are utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear
programming one. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the
accuracy and ease of implementation of the method.
An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN
The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.
Adaptive Dynamic Time Warping for Variable Structure Pattern Recognition
Pattern discovery from time series is of fundamental importance. Particularly, when information about the structure of a pattern is not complete, an algorithm to discover specific patterns or shapes automatically from the time series data is necessary. The dynamic time warping is a technique that allows local flexibility in aligning time series. Because of this, it is widely used in many fields such as science, medicine, industry, finance and others. However, a major problem of the dynamic time warping is that it is not able to work with structural changes of a pattern. This problem arises when the structure is influenced by noise, which is a common thing in practice for almost every application. This paper addresses this problem by means of developing a novel technique called adaptive dynamic time warping.
A Direct Probabilistic Optimization Method for Constrained Optimal Control Problem
A new stochastic algorithm called Probabilistic Global Search Johor (PGSJ) has recently been established for global optimization of nonconvex real valued problems on finite dimensional Euclidean space. In this paper we present convergence guarantee for this algorithm in probabilistic sense without imposing any more condition. Then, we jointly utilize this algorithm along with control
parameterization technique for the solution of constrained optimal control problem. The numerical simulations are also included to illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the PGSJ algorithm in the solution of control problems.
Optimal Space Vector Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor based on Nonrecursive Riccati Equation
In this paper the optimal control strategy for
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) based drive system
is presented. The designed full optimal control is available for speed
operating range up to base speed. The optimal voltage space-vector
assures input energy reduction and stator loss minimization,
maintaining the output energy in the same limits with the
conventional PMSM electrical drive. The optimal control with three
components is based on the energetically criteria and it is applicable
in numerical version, being a nonrecursive solution. The simulation
results confirm the increased efficiency of the optimal PMSM drive.
The properties of the optimal voltage space vector are shown.
Expert System for Sintering Process Control based on the Information about solid-fuel Flow Composition
Usually, the solid-fuel flow of an iron ore sinter plant
consists of different types of the solid-fuels, which differ from each
other. Information about the composition of the solid-fuel flow
usually comes every 8-24 hours. It can be clearly seen that this
information cannot be used to control the sintering process in real
time. Due to this, we propose an expert system which uses indirect
measurements from the process in order to obtain the composition of
the solid-fuel flow by solving an optimization task. Then this
information can be used to control the sintering process. The
proposed technique can be successfully used to improve sinter
quality and reduce the amount of solid-fuel used by the process.
An Improved Optimal Sliding Mode Control for Structural Stability
In this paper, the modified optimal sliding mode control with a proposed method to design a sliding surface is presented. Because of the inability of the previous approach of the sliding mode method to design a bounded and suitable input, the new variation is proposed in the sliding manifold to obviate problems in a structural system. Although the sliding mode control is a powerful method to reject disturbances and noises, the chattering problem is not good for actuators. To decrease the chattering phenomena, the optimal control is added to the sliding mode control. Not only the proposed method can decline the intense variations in the inputs of the system but also it can produce the efficient responses respect to the sliding mode control and optimal control that are shown by performing some numerical simulations.
Optimal Controller Design for Linear Magnetic Levitation Rail System
In many applications, magnetic suspension systems
are required to operate over large variations in air gap. As a result,
the nonlinearities inherent in most types of suspensions have a
significant impact on performance. Specifically, it may be difficult to
design a linear controller which gives satisfactory performance,
stability, and disturbance rejection over a wide range of operating
points. in this paper an optimal controller based on discontinuous
mathematical model of the system for an electromagnetic suspension
system which is applied in magnetic trains has been designed .
Simulations show that the new controller can adapt well to the
variance of suspension mass and gap, and keep its dynamic
performance, thus it is superior to the classic controller.
Nonlinear Optimal Line-Of-Sight Stabilization with Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling
A nonlinear optimal controller with a fuzzy gain
scheduler has been designed and applied to a Line-Of-Sight (LOS)
stabilization system. Use of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR)
theory is an optimal and simple manner of solving many control
engineering problems. However, this method cannot be utilized
directly for multigimbal LOS systems since they are nonlinear in
nature. To adapt LQ controllers to nonlinear systems at least a
linearization of the model plant is required. When the linearized
model is only valid within the vicinity of an operating point a gain
scheduler is required. Therefore, a Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference
System gain scheduler has been implemented, which keeps the
asymptotic stability performance provided by the optimal feedback
gain approach. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed
controller is capable of overcoming disturbances and maintaining a
satisfactory tracking performance.
Modeling and Simulation of Robotic Arm Movement using Soft Computing
In this research paper we have presented control
architecture for robotic arm movement and trajectory planning using
Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). This architecture is
used to compensate the uncertainties like; movement, friction and
settling time in robotic arm movement. The genetic algorithms and
fuzzy logic is used to meet the objective of optimal control
movement of robotic arm. This proposed technique represents a
general model for redundant structures and may extend to other
structures. Results show optimal angular movement of joints as result
of evolutionary process. This technique has edge over the other
techniques as minimum mathematics complexity used.
A New Approach to the Approximate Solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
We propose a new approach on how to obtain the approximate solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. The process of the approximation consists of two steps. The first step is to transform the HJ equations into the virtual time based HJ equations (VT-HJ) by introducing a new idea of ‘virtual-time’. The second step is to construct the approximate solutions of the HJ equations through a computationally iterative procedure based on the VT-HJ equations. It should be noted that the approximate feedback solutions evolve by themselves as the virtual-time goes by. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approximation approach by means of simulations with linear and nonlinear control problems.
Optimal Control of Piezo-Thermo-Elastic Beams
This paper presents the vibrations suppression of a thermoelastic beam subject to sudden heat input by a distributed piezoelectric actuators. An optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of a quadratic functional in terms of displacement and velocity at a given time and with the least control effort. The solution method is based on a combination of modal expansion and variational approaches. The modal expansion approach is used to convert the optimal control of distributed parameter system into the optimal control of lumped parameter system. By utilizing the variational approach, an explicit optimal control law is derived and the determination of the corresponding displacement and velocity is reduced to solving a set of ordinary differential equations.
An Identification Method of Geological Boundary Using Elastic Waves
This paper focuses on a technique for identifying the geological boundary of the ground strata in front of a tunnel excavation site using the first order adjoint method based on the optimal control theory. The geological boundary is defined as the boundary which is different layers of elastic modulus. At tunnel excavations, it is important to presume the ground situation ahead of the cutting face beforehand. Excavating into weak strata or fault fracture zones may cause extension of the construction work and human suffering. A theory for determining the geological boundary of the ground in a numerical manner is investigated, employing excavating blasts and its vibration waves as the observation references. According to the optimal control theory, the performance function described by the square sum of the residuals between computed and observed velocities is minimized. The boundary layer is determined by minimizing the performance function. The elastic analysis governed by the Navier equation is carried out, assuming the ground as an elastic body with linear viscous damping. To identify the boundary, the gradient of the performance function with respect to the geological boundary can be calculated using the adjoint equation. The weighed gradient method is effectively applied to the minimization algorithm. To solve the governing and adjoint equations, the Galerkin finite element method and the average acceleration method are employed for the spatial and temporal discretizations, respectively. Based on the method presented in this paper, the different boundary of three strata can be identified. For the numerical studies, the Suemune tunnel excavation site is employed. At first, the blasting force is identified in order to perform the accuracy improvement of analysis. We identify the geological boundary after the estimation of blasting force. With this identification procedure, the numerical analysis results which almost correspond with the observation data were provided.
A Shape Optimization Method in Viscous Flow Using Acoustic Velocity and Four-step Explicit Scheme
The purpose of this study is to derive optimal shapes of
a body located in viscous flows by the finite element method using the
acoustic velocity and the four-step explicit scheme. The formulation
is based on an optimal control theory in which a performance function
of the fluid force is introduced. The performance function should be
minimized satisfying the state equation. This problem can be transformed
into the minimization problem without constraint conditions
by using the adjoint equation with adjoint variables corresponding to
the state equation. The performance function is defined by the drag
and lift forces acting on the body. The weighted gradient method
is applied as a minimization technique, the Galerkin finite element
method is used as a spatial discretization and the four-step explicit
scheme is used as a temporal discretization to solve the state equation
and the adjoint equation. As the interpolation, the orthogonal basis
bubble function for velocity and the linear function for pressure
are employed. In case that the orthogonal basis bubble function is
used, the mass matrix can be diagonalized without any artificial
centralization. The shape optimization is performed by the presented
Simulation of the Performance of Novel Nonlinear Optimal Control Technique on Two Cart-inverted Pendulum System
The two cart inverted pendulum system is a good
bench mark for testing the performance of system dynamics and
control engineering principles. Devasia introduced this system to
study the asymptotic tracking problem for nonlinear systems. In this
paper the problem of asymptotic tracking of the two-cart with an
inverted-pendulum system to a sinusoidal reference inputs via
introducing a novel method for solving finite-horizon nonlinear
optimal control problems is presented. In this method, an iterative
method applied to state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) to obtain
a reliable algorithm. The superiority of this technique has been shown
by simulation and comparison with the nonlinear approach.
Optimal Control of a Linear Distributed Parameter System via Shifted Legendre Polynomials
The optimal control problem of a linear distributed
parameter system is studied via shifted Legendre polynomials (SLPs)
in this paper. The partial differential equation, representing the
linear distributed parameter system, is decomposed into an n - set
of ordinary differential equations, the optimal control problem is
transformed into a two-point boundary value problem, and the twopoint
boundary value problem is reduced to an initial value problem
by using SLPs. A recursive algorithm for evaluating optimal control
input and output trajectory is developed. The proposed algorithm is
computationally simple. An illustrative example is given to show the
simplicity of the proposed approach.
An Optimal Control Problem for Rigid Body Motions on Lie Group SO(2, 1)
In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimize the integral of the square norm of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.
Planning Rigid Body Motions and Optimal Control Problem on Lie Group SO(2, 1)
In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimizes the integral of the Lorentz inner product of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.
Harmonics Elimination in Multilevel Inverter Using Linear Fuzzy Regression
Multilevel inverters supplied from equal and constant
dc sources almost don-t exist in practical applications. The variation
of the dc sources affects the values of the switching angles required
for each specific harmonic profile, as well as increases the difficulty
of the harmonic elimination-s equations. This paper presents an
extremely fast optimal solution of harmonic elimination of multilevel
inverters with non-equal dc sources using Tanaka's fuzzy linear
regression formulation. A set of mathematical equations describing
the general output waveform of the multilevel inverter with nonequal
dc sources is formulated. Fuzzy linear regression is then
employed to compute the optimal solution set of switching angles.
Two Stage Control Method Using a Disturbance Observer and a Kalman Filter
This paper describes the two stage control using a disturbance observer and a Kalman filter. The system feedback uses the estimated state when it controls the speed. After the change-over point, its feedback uses the controlled plant output when it controls the position. To change the system continually, a change-over point has to be determined pertinently, and the controlled plant input has to be adjusted by the addition of the appropriate value. The proposed method has noise-reduction effect. It changes the system continually, even if the controlled plant identification has the error. Although the conventional method needs a speed sensor, the proposed method does not need it. The proposed method has a superior robustness compared with the conventional two stage control.
Minimum Energy of a Prismatic Joint with out: Actuator: Application on RRP Robot
This research proposes the state of art on how to control or find the trajectory paths of the RRP robot when the prismatic joint is malfunction. According to this situation, the minimum energy of the dynamic optimization is applied. The RRP robot or similar systems have been used in many areas such as fire fighter truck, laboratory equipment and military truck for example a rocket launcher. In order to keep on task that assigned, the trajectory paths must be computed. Here, the open loop control is applied and the result of an example show the reasonable solution which can be applied to the controllable system.