Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles
This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.
Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.
A Mathematical Investigation of the Turkevich Organizer Theory in the Citrate Method for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles
Gold nanoparticles are commonly synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with sodium citrate. This method, referred to as the citrate method, can produce spherical gold nanoparticles (NPs) in the size range 10-150 nm. Gold NPs of this size are useful in many applications. However, the NPs are usually polydisperse and irreproducible. A better understanding of the synthesis mechanisms is thus required. This work thoroughly investigated the only model that describes the synthesis. This model combines mass and population balance equations, describing the NPs synthesis through a sequence of chemical reactions. Chloroauric acid reacts with sodium citrate to form aurous chloride and dicarboxy acetone. The latter organizes aurous chloride in a nucleation step and concurrently degrades into acetone. The unconsumed precursor then grows the formed nuclei. However, depending on the pH, both the precursor and the reducing agent react differently thus affecting the synthesis. In this work, we investigated the model for different conditions of pH, temperature and initial reactant concentrations. To solve the model, we used Parsival, a commercial numerical code, whilst to test it, we considered various conditions studied experimentally by different researchers, for which results are available in the literature. The model poorly predicted the experimental data. We believe that this is because the model does not account for the acid-base properties of both chloroauric acid and sodium citrate.
Comparison of Regime Transition between Ellipsoidal and Spherical Particle Assemblies in a Model Shear Cell
This paper presents a numerical investigation of regime transition of flow of ellipsoidal particles and a comparison with that of spherical particle assembly. Particle assemblies constituting spherical and ellipsoidal particle of 2.5:1 aspect ratio are examined at separate instances in similar flow conditions in a shear cell model that is numerically developed based on the discrete element method. Correlations among elastically scaled stress, kinetically scaled stress, coordination number and volume fraction are investigated, and show important similarities and differences for the spherical and ellipsoidal particle assemblies. In particular, volume fractions at points of regime transition are identified for both types of particles. It is found that compared with spherical particle assembly, ellipsoidal particle assembly has higher volume fraction for the quasistatic to intermediate regime transition and lower volume fraction for the intermediate to inertial regime transition. Finally, the relationship between coordination number and volume fraction shows strikingly distinct features for the two cases, suggesting that different from spherical particles, the effect of the shear rate on the coordination number is not significant for ellipsoidal particles. This work provides a glimpse of currently running work on one of the most attractive scopes of research in this field and has a wide prospect in understanding rheology of more complex shaped particles in light of the strong basis of simpler spherical particle rheology.
Beijerinckia indica Extracellular Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Clinical Pathogens
This work investigated the use of Beijerinckia indica extracellular extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by different methods, such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, and TEM analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by the change in color from light yellow to dark brown. The absorbance peak obtained at 430 nm confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The XRD analysis showed the cubic crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR revealed the presence of groups that acts as stabilizing and reducing agents for silver nanoparticles formation. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by TEM analysis. These nanoparticles were found to inhibit pathogenic bacterial strains. This work proved that the bacterial extract is a potential eco-friendly candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with promising antibacterial and antioxidant properties.
Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles
The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.
Eu+3 Ion as a Luminescent Probe in ZrO2: Gd+3 Co-Doped Nanophosphor
Well-defined 2D Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2: Gd+3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solution combustion technique for luminescent applications. The present investigation reports the rapid and effective method for the synthesis of the Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2:Gd+3 nanoparticles and study of the luminescence behavior of Eu+3 ion in ZrO2:Gd+3 nanostructures. The optical properties of the prepared nanostructures were investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra. The phase formation and the morphology of the nanoplatelets were studied by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM. The average grain size was found to be 45-50 nm. The presence of Gd3+ ion increases the crystallinity of the material and hence acts as a good nucleating agent. The ZrO2:Gd3+ co-doped with Eu+3 nanoplatelets gives an emission at 607 nm, a strong red emission under the excitation wavelength of 255 nm.
Biogas Enhancement Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
Quick development and usage of nanotechnology have resulted to massive use of various nanoparticles, such as iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Thus, this study investigated the role of IONPs and MWCNTs in enhancing bioenergy recovery. Results show that IONPs at a concentration of 750 mg/L and MWCNTs at a concentration of 1500 mg/L induced faster substrate utilization and biogas production rates than the control. IONPs exhibited higher carbon oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency than MWCNTs while on the contrary, MWCNT performance on biogas generation was remarkable than IONPs. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation revealed extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion from AGS had an interaction with nanoparticles. This interaction created a protective barrier to microbial consortia hence reducing their cytotoxicity. Microbial community analyses revealed genus predominance of bacteria of Anaerolineaceae and Longilinea. Their role in biodegradation of the substrate could have highly been boosted by nanoparticles. The archaea predominance of the genus level of Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium enhanced methanation process. The presence of bacteria of genus Geobacter was also reported. Their presence might have significantly contributed to direct interspecies electron transfer in the system. Exposure of AGS to nanoparticles promoted direct interspecies electron transfer among the anaerobic fermenting bacteria and their counterpart methanogens during the anaerobic digestion process. This results provide useful insightful information in understanding the response of microorganisms to IONPs and MWCNTs in the complex natural environment.
Effect of Surface-Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Particles on Their Electrical Conductivity
The present work reports an effect of surface- modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with chemicals on their electronic conductivity properties. Examined chemicals were polyvinyl alcohol (nonionic polymer), poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (cationic polymer), poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) (anionic polymer), (2-aminopropyl) trimethoxy silane (APMS) (silane coupling agent with amino group), and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane (MPS) (silane coupling agent with thiol group). For all the examined chemicals, volume resistivities of surface-modified ITO particles did not increase much when they were aged in air at 80 oC, compared to a volume resistivity of un-surface-modified ITO particles. Increases in volume resistivities of ITO particles surface-modified with the silane coupling agents were smaller than those with the polymers, since hydrolysis of the silane coupling agents and condensation of generated silanol and OH groups on ITO particles took place to provide efficient immobilization of them on particles. The APMS gave an increase in volume resistivity smaller than the MPS, since a larger solubility in water of APMS providing a larger amount of APMS immobilized on particles.
The Performance of PtSn/Al₂O₃ with Cylindrical Particles for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation
Alumina supported PtSn catalysts with cylindrical particles were prepared and characterized by using low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction. Low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption demonstrate that the tableting changed the texture properties of catalysts. XRD pattern indicate that the crystal structure of supports had no change after reaction. The performances over particles of PtSn/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated with regards to reaction temperature, pressure, and H2/AcOH mole ratio. After tableting, the conversion of acetic acid and selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate decreased. High reaction temperature and pressure can improve conversion of acetic acid. H2/AcOH mole ratio of 9.36 showed the best performance on acetic acid hydrogenation. High pressure had benefits for the selectivity of ethanol and other two parameters had no obvious effect on selectivity.
Green Synthesis of Nanosilver-Loaded Hydrogel Nanocomposites for Antibacterial Application
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) or hydrogels with three-dimensional hydrophilic network structure are high-performance water absorbent and retention materials. The in situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles within polymeric network as antibacterial agents for bio-applications is an approach that takes advantage of the existing free-space into networks, which not only acts as a template for nucleation of nanoparticles, but also provides long term stability and reduces their toxicity by delaying their oxidation and release. In this work, SAP/nanosilver nanocomposites were successfully developed by a unique green process at room temperature, which involves in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within hydrogels as a template. The aim of this study is to investigate whether these AgNPs-loaded hydrogels are potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Firstly, the superabsorbents were prepared through radical copolymerization via grafting and crosslinking of acrylamide (AAm) onto chitosan backbone (Cs) using potassium persulfate as initiator and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide as the crosslinker. Then, they were hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. Lastly, the AgNPs were biosynthesized and entrapped into hydrogels through a simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective method using aqueous silver nitrate as a silver precursor and curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The formed superabsorbents nanocomposites (Cs-g-PAAm)/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-visible Spectroscopy, Attenuated Total reﬂectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Microscopic surface structure analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has showed spherical shapes of AgNPs with size in the range of 3-15 nm. The extent of nanosilver loading was decreased by increasing Cs content into network. The silver-loaded hydrogel was thermally more stable than the unloaded dry hydrogel counterpart. The swelling equilibrium degree (Q) and centrifuge retention capacity (CRC) in deionized water were affected by both contents of Cs and the entrapped AgNPs. The nanosilver-embedded hydrogels exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These comprehensive results suggest that the elaborated AgNPs-loaded nanomaterials could be used to produce valuable wound dressing.
Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes
This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.
Speciation, Preconcentration, and Determination of Iron(II) and (III) Using 1,10-Phenanthroline Immobilized on Alumina-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles as a Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent in Pharmaceutical Products
The proposed method for speciation, preconcentration and determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in pharmaceutical products was developed using of alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4/Al2O3 NPs) as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent in magnetic mixed hemimicell solid phase extraction (MMHSPE) technique followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The procedure is based on complexation of Fe(II) with 1, 10-phenanthroline (OP) as complexing reagent for Fe(II) that immobilized on the modified Fe3O4/Al2O3 NPs. The extraction and concentration process for pharmaceutical sample was carried out in a single step by mixing the extraction solvent, magnetic adsorbents under ultrasonic action. Then, the adsorbents were isolated from the complicated matrix easily with an external magnetic field. Fe(III) ions determined after facility reduced to Fe(II) by added a proper reduction agent to sample solutions. Compared with traditional methods, the MMHSPE method simplified the operation procedure and reduced the analysis time. Various influencing parameters on the speciation and preconcentration of trace iron, such as pH, sample volume, amount of sorbent, type and concentration of eluent, were studied. Under the optimized operating conditions, the preconcentration factor of the modified nano magnetite for Fe(II) 167 sample was obtained. The detection limits and linear range of this method for iron were 1.0 and 9.0 - 175 ng.mL−1, respectively. Also the relative standard deviation for five replicate determinations of 30.00 ng.mL-1 Fe2+ was 2.3%.
Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit
Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.
Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms
Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13 nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5 nm size nanoparticles.
A Simple Chemical Precipitation Method of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone as a Capping Agent and Their Characterization
In this paper, a simple chemical precipitation route for the preparation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, synthesized by using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent, is reported. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the samples were recorded and the phase transformation temperature of titanium hydroxide, Ti(OH)4 to titanium oxide, TiO2 was investigated. The as-prepared Ti(OH)4 precipitate was annealed at 800°C to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal, structural, morphological and textural characterizations of the TiO2 nanoparticle samples were carried out by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The as-prepared precipitate was characterized using DSC-TGA and confirmed the mass loss of around 30%. XRD results exhibited no diffraction peaks attributable to anatase phase, for the reaction products, after the solvent removal. The results indicate that the product is purely rutile. The vibrational frequencies of two main absorption bands of prepared samples are discussed from the results of the FTIR analysis. The formation of nanosphere of diameter of the order of 10 nm, has been confirmed by FESEM. The optical band gap was found by using UV-Visible spectrum. From photoluminescence spectra, a strong emission was observed. The obtained results suggest that this method provides a simple, efficient and versatile technique for preparing TiO2 nanoparticles and it has the potential to be applied to other systems for photocatalytic activity.
Preparation, Characterisation, and Measurement of the in vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cytotoxic Pt(II) Oxadiazoline Complexes
Cytotoxic platinum compounds play a major role in the chemotherapy of a large number of human cancers. However, due to the severe side effects for the patient and other problems associated with their use, there is a need for the development of more efficient drugs and new methods for their selective delivery to the tumours. One way to achieve the latter could be in the use of nanoparticular substrates that can adsorb or chemically bind the drug. In the cell, the drug is supposed to be slowly released, either by physical desorption or by dissolution of the particle framework. Ideally, the cytotoxic properties of the platinum drug unfold only then, in the cancer cell and over a longer period of time due to the gradual release. In this paper, we report on our first steps in this direction. The binding properties of a series of cytotoxic Pt(II) oxadiazoline compounds to mesoporous silica particles has been studied by NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy. High loadings were achieved when the Pt(II) compound was relatively polar, and has been dissolved in a relatively nonpolar solvent before the silica was added. Typically, 6-10 hours were required for complete equilibration, suggesting the adsorption did not only occur to the outer surface but also to the interior of the pores. The untreated and Pt(II) loaded particles were characterised by C, H, N combustion analysis, BET/BJH nitrogen sorption, electron microscopy (REM and TEM) and EDX. With the latter methods we were able to demonstrate the homogenous distribution of the Pt(II) compound on and in the silica particles, and no Pt(II) bulk precipitate had formed. The in vitro cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) has been determined for one of the new platinum compounds adsorbed to mesoporous silica particles of different size, and compared with the corresponding compound in solution. The IC50 data are similar in all cases, suggesting that the release of the Pt(II) compound was relatively fast and possibly occurred before the particles reached the cells. Overall, the platinum drug is chemically stable on silica and retained its activity upon prolonged storage.
Optical and Double Folding Model Analysis for Alpha Particles Elastically Scattered from 9Be and 11B Nuclei at Different Energies
Elastic scattering of α-particles from 9Be and 11B
nuclei at different alpha energies have been analyzed. Optical model
parameters (OMPs) of α-particles elastic scattering by these nuclei at
different energies have been obtained. In the present calculations, the
real part of the optical potential are derived by folding of nucleonnucleon
(NN) interaction into nuclear matter density distribution of
the projectile and target nuclei using computer code FRESCO. A
density-dependent version of the M3Y interaction (CDM3Y6), which
is based on the G-matrix elements of the Paris NN potential, has been
used. Volumetric integrals of the real and imaginary potential depth
(JR, JW) have been calculated and found to be energy dependent.
Good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical
predictions in the whole angular range. In double folding (DF)
calculations, the obtained normalization coefficient Nr is in the range
Polydopamine Nanoparticle as a Stable and Capacious Nano-Reservoir of Rifampicin
Application of nanoscience in biomedical field has come across as a new era. This study involves the synthesis of nano drug carrier with antibiotic loading. Based on the founding that polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles could be formed via self-polymerization of dopamine at alkaline pH, one-step synthesis of rifampicin coupled polydopamine (PDA-R) nanoparticles was achieved by adding rifampicin into the dopamine solution. The successful yield of PDA nanoparticles with or without the presence of rifampicin during the polymerization process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Drug loading was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and the loading efficiency of rifampicin was calculated to be 76%. Such highly capacious nano-reservoir was found very stable with little drug leakage at pH 3.
Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost
The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration
measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding
surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix
composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%,
and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by
using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify
coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The
parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation,
normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite
with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear
resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an
average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.
A DNA-Based Nanobiosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito
This paper describes the development of a DNA-based
nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using
electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as concentrator and
electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses
two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue
virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the
biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to
the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from
nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field.
Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–
DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin
modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated
capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring
the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results
indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the
EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10
Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of Glass Fibers/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels
Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to
enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries.
Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used
materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low
weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened
composite (GSC) structures, which have been extensively considered
in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the
top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components,
which are used here. Although there are a good number of published
surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little
systematic work has been reported on their material modification to
improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification
using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural
properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silanecoupling
agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was
introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects
on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy
composites were assessed. Based on the Fourier Transform Infrared
Spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS
coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2
nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an
improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and
energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3-
GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning
that in these structures, considerable energy absorption was observed
after the primary failure related to the load peak. In addition, 3-
GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural
behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this
study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a
promising method to improve the flexural properties of the gridstiffened
fibrous composite structures.
Gold Nanoparticle: Synthesis, Characterization, Clinico-Pathological, Pathological, and Bio-Distribution Studies in Rabbits
This study evaluated the acute toxicity and tissue
distribution of intravenously administered gold nanoparticles
(AuNPs) in male rabbits. Rabbits were exposed to single dose of
AuNPs (300 μg/ kg). Toxic effects were assessed via general
behavior, hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters,
and histopathological examination of various rabbits’ organs.
Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used
to determine gold concentrations in tissue samples collected at
predetermined time intervals. After one week, AuNPs exerted no
obvious acute toxicity in rabbits. However, inflammatory reactions
were observed in liver, lungs and kidneys accompanied with mild
absolute neutrophilia and significant monocytosis. The highest gold
levels were found in the spleen and liver followed by lungs, and
kidneys. These results indicated that AuNPs could be distributed
extensively to various tissues in the body, but primarily in the spleen
Ecotoxicity Evaluation and Suggestion of Remediation Method of ZnO Nanoparticles in Aqueous Phase
We investigated ecotoxicity and performed experiment
for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. Short term exposure of
hatching test using fertilized eggs (O. latipes) showed deformity in
5ppm of ZnO nanoparticles solution. And in 10ppm ZnO nanoparticles
solution delayed hatching was observed. Hereine, chemical
precipitation method was suggested for removing ZnO nanoparticles
in water. The precipitated ZnO nanoparticles showed the form of ZnS
after addition of Na2S, and the form of Zn3(PO4)2 for Na2HPO4. The
removal efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in water was closed to 100%
for two cases. In ecotoxicity evaluation of as-precipitated ZnS and
Zn3(PO4)2, they did not cause any acute toxicity for D. magna. It is
noted that this precipitation treatment of ZnO is effective to reduce the
Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Polyacrylic Acid / Ag-Nanoparticles Composite Membranes
Chitosan polyacrylic acid composite membranes were
prepared by a bulk polymerization method in presence of N, N'-
methylene bisacrylamide (crosslinker) and ammonium persulphate as
initiator. Membranes prepared from this copolymer in presence and
absence of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by measuring
mechanical and physical properties, water up-take and antibacterial
properties. The results obtained indicated that the prepared
membranes have antibacterial properties which increase with adding
Mathematical Modeling on Capturing of Magnetic Nanoparticles in an Implant Assisted Channel for Magnetic Drug Targeting
In IA-MDT, the magnetic implants are placed
strategically at the target site to greatly and locally increase the
magnetic force on MDCPs and help to attract and retain the MDCPs
at the targeted region. In the present work, we develop a
mathematical model to study the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles
flowing within a fluid in an implant assisted cylindrical channel
under magnetic field. A coil of ferromagnetic SS-430 has been
implanted inside the cylindrical channel to enhance the capturing of
magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field. The dominant magnetic
and drag forces, which significantly affect the capturing of
nanoparticles, are incorporated in the model. It is observed through
model results that capture efficiency increases as we increase the
magnetic field from 0.1 to 0.5 T, respectively. The increase in capture
efficiency by increase in magnetic field is because as the magnetic
field increases, the magnetization force, which is attractive in nature
and responsible to attract or capture the magnetic particles, increases
and results the capturing of large number of magnetic particles due to
high strength of attractive magnetic force.
Experimental Study on Capturing of Magnetic Nanoparticles Transported in an Implant Assisted Cylindrical Tube under Magnetic Field
Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering
medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration
of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others.
Targeted drug delivery seeks to concentrate the medication in the
tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the
medication in the remaining tissues. This improves efficacy of the
while reducing side effects. In the present work, we investigate the
effect of magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration on the
capturing of magnetic particles transported in a stent implanted
fluidic channel. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4)
nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The
synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were added in the de-ionized (DI)
water to prepare the Fe3O4 magnetic particle suspended fluid. This
fluid is transported in a cylindrical tube of diameter 8 mm with help
of a peristaltic pump at different flow rate (25-40 ml/min). A
ferromagnetic coil of SS 430 has been implanted inside the
cylindrical tube to enhance the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles
under magnetic field. The capturing of magnetic nanoparticles was
observed at different magnetic magnetic field, flow rate and particle
concentration. It is observed that capture efficiency increases from
47-67% at magnetic field 2-5kG, respectively at particle
concentration 0.6mg/ml and at flow rate 30 ml/min. However, the
capture efficiency decreases from 65 to 44% by increasing the flow
rate from 25 to 40 ml/min, respectively. Furthermore, it is observed
that capture efficiency increases from 51 to 67% by increasing the
particle concentration from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml, respectively.
Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine
An experimental investigation is carried out to
establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition
engine while using cerium oxide nanoparticles as additive in neat
diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends. In the first phase of the
experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel fuel blends
with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles is analyzed. After
series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high
speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the
stability. In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied
using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine
coupled with an electrical dynamometer and a data acquisition
system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and
provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium
oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at
the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar
compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions.
The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as
additive in diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends to improve complete
combustion of the fuel significantly.
Microfluidic Continuous Approaches to Produce Magnetic Nanoparticles with Homogeneous Size Distribution
We present a gas-liquid microfluidic system as a
reactor to obtain magnetite nanoparticles with an excellent degree of
control regarding their crystalline phase, shape and size. Several
types of microflow approaches were selected to prevent nanomaterial
aggregation and to promote homogenous size distribution. The
selected reactor consists of a mixer stage aided by ultrasound waves
and a reaction stage using a N2-liquid segmented flow to prevent
magnetite oxidation to non-magnetic phases. A milli-fluidic reactor
was developed to increase the production rate where a magnetite
throughput close to 450 mg/h in a continuous fashion was obtained.
Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Na-Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction
Synthesis of gold nanoparticles has attracted much
attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity
of supported gold nanoparticles in the reaction of CO oxidation at
low temperature. In this research field, we used Na-montmorillonite
for gold nanoparticles stabilization; various gold loading percentage
1, 2 and 5% were used for gold nanoparticles preparation. The gold
nanoparticles were obtained using chemical reduction method using
NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nanoparticles stabilized
in Na-montmorillonite were used as catalysts for the reduction of 4-
nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room
temperature. The UV-Vis results confirmed directly the gold
nanoparticles formation. The XRD and N2 adsorption results showed
the formation of gold nanoparticles in the pores of montmorillonite
with an average size of 5 nm obtained on samples with 2% gold
loading percentage. The gold particles size increased with the
increase of gold loading percentage. The reduction reaction of 4-
nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au-Namontmorillonite
catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the
reaction was completed within 9 min for 1%Au-Na-montmorillonite
and within 3 min for 2%Au-Na-montmorillonite.