Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 13

Improvement in Properties of Ni-Cr-Mo-V Steel through Process Control
Although gun barrel steels are an important variety from defense view point, available literatures are very limited. In the present work, an IF grade Ni-Cr-Mo-V high strength low alloy steel is produced in Electric Earth Furnace-ESR Route. Ingot was hot forged to desired dimension with a reduction ratio of 70-75% followed by homogenization, hardening and tempering treatment. Sample chemistry, NMIR, macro and micro structural analyses were done. Mechanical properties which include tensile, impact, and fracture toughness were studied. Ultrasonic testing was done to identify internal flaws. The existing high strength low alloy Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel shows improved properties in modified processing route and heat treatment schedule in comparison to properties noted earlier for manufacturing of gun barrels. The improvement in properties seems to withstand higher explosive loads with the same amount of steel in gun barrel application.
Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Polyacrylic Acid / Ag-Nanoparticles Composite Membranes
Chitosan polyacrylic acid composite membranes were prepared by a bulk polymerization method in presence of N, N'- methylene bisacrylamide (crosslinker) and ammonium persulphate as initiator. Membranes prepared from this copolymer in presence and absence of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by measuring mechanical and physical properties, water up-take and antibacterial properties. The results obtained indicated that the prepared membranes have antibacterial properties which increase with adding Ag nanoparticles.
Determination of Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Pofaki Variety of Pea

In this research the effect of moisture at three levels (47, 57, and 67 w.b.%) on the physical properties of the Pofaki pea variety including, dimensions, geometric mean diameter, volume, sphericity index and the surface area was determined. The influence of different moisture levels (47, 57 and 67 w.b.%), in two loading orientation (longitudinal and transverse) and three loading speed (4,6 and 8 mm min-1) on the mechanical properties of pea such as maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy, toughness and the power to break the pea was investigated. It was observed in the physical properties that moisture changes were affective at 1% on, dimensions, geometric mean diameter, volume, sphericity index and the surface area. It was observed in the mechanical properties that moisture changes were effective at 1% on, maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy, toughness and the power to break. Loading speed was effective on maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy at 1% and it was effective on toughness at 5%. Loading orientation was effective on maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy, toughness at 1% and it was effective on power at 5%. The mutual effect of speed and orientation were effective on rupture energy at 1% and were effective on toughness at 5% probability. The mutual effect of moisture and speed were effective on rupture force and rupture energy at 1% and were effective on toughness 5% probability. The mutual effect of orientation and moisture on rupture energy and toughness were effective at 1%.

Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Properties of Viscose Single Jersey Fabrics
The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate effects of different drying methods (line dry and tumble dry) on viscose single jersey fabrics knitted with ring yarn.
Prediction of California Bearing Ratio from Physical Properties of Fine-Grained Soils

The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) has been acknowledged as an important parameter to characterize the bearing capacity of earth structures, such as earth dams, road embankments, airport runways, bridge abutments and pavements. Technically, the CBR test can be carried out in the laboratory or in the field. The CBR test is time-consuming and is infrequently performed due to the equipment needed and the fact that the field moisture content keeps changing over time. Over the years, many correlations have been developed for the prediction of CBR by various researchers, including the dynamic cone penetrometer, undrained shear strength and Clegg impact hammer. This paper reports and discusses some of the results from a study on the prediction of CBR. In the current study, the CBR test was performed in the laboratory on some finegrained subgrade soils collected from various locations in Victoria. Based on the test results, a satisfactory empirical correlation was found between the CBR and the physical properties of the experimental soils.

Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH, as a sustainable material, instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Effects of Carbonation on the Microstructure and Macro Physical Properties of Cement Mortar
The objective of this work was to examine the changes in the microstructure and macro physical properties caused by the carbonation of normalised CEM II mortar. Samples were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. On the microstructure scale, the evolutions of the cumulative pore volume, pore size distribution, and specific surface area during carbonation were calculated from the adsorption desorption isotherms of nitrogen. We also examined the evolution of macro physical properties such as the porosity accessible to water, the gas permeability, and thermal conductivity. The conflict between the results of nitrogen porosity and water porosity indicated that the porous domains explored using these two techniques are different and help to complementarily evaluate the effects of carbonation. This is a multi-scale study where results on microstructural changes can help to explain the evolution of macro physical properties.
Effects of Geometry of Disk Openers on Seed Slot Properties
Offset Double-Disk Opener (DDO) is a popular furrow opener in conservation tillage. It has some limitations such as negative suction to penetrate in the soil, hair pinning and mixing seed and fertilizer in the slot. Because of importance of separation of seed and fertilizer in the slot, by adding two horizontal mini disks to DDO a modified opener was made (MDO) which placed the fertilizer between and under two rows of seed. To consider performance of novel opener an indoor comparison test between DDO and MDO was performed at soil bin. The experiment was conducted with three working speeds (3, 6 and 8 km h-1), two bulk densities of soil (1.1 and 1.4 Mg m-3) and two levels of residues (1 and 2 ton ha-1). The experimental design consisted in a (3×2×2) complete randomized factorial with three replicates for each test. Moisture of seed furrow, separation of seed and fertilizer, hair pinning and resultant forces acting on the openers were used as assessing indexes. There was no significant difference between soil moisture content in slots created by DDO and MDO at 0-4 cm depth, but at 4-8 cm the in the slot created by MDO moisture content was higher about 9%. Horizontal force for both openers increased with increasing speed and soil bulk density. Vertical force for DDO was negative so it needed additional weight for penetrating in the soil, but vertical force for MDO was positive and, which can solve the challenge of penetration in the soil in DDO. In soft soil with heavy residues some trash was pushed by DDO into seed furrow (hair pinning) but at MDO seed were placed at clean groove. Lateral and vertical separation of seed and fertilizer was performed effectively by MDO (4.5 and 5 cm, respectively) while DDO put seed and fertilizer close to each other. Overall, the Modified Offset Double-disks (MDO) had better performance. So by adapting this opener with no-tillage drillers it would possible to have higher yield in conservation tillage where the most appropriate opener is disk type.
Some Physical Properties of Musk Lime (Citrus Microcarpa)
Some physical properties of musk lime (Citrus microcarpa) were determined in this study. The average moisture content (wet basis) of the fruit was found to be 85.10 (±0.72) %. The mean of length, width and thickness of the fruit was 26.36 (±0.97), 26.40 (±1.04) and 25.26 (±0.94) mm respectively. The average value for geometric mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, mass, surface area, volume, true density, bulk density and porosity was 26.00 (±0.82) mm, 98.67 (±2.04) %, 100.23 (±3.28) %, 10.007 (±0.878) g, 2125.07 (±133.93) mm2, 8800.00 (±731.82) mm3, 1002.87 (±39.16) kgm-3, 501.70 (±22.58) kgm-3 and 49.89 (±3.15) % respectively. The coefficient of static friction on four types of structural surface was found to be varying from 0.238 (±0.025) for glass to 0.247 (±0.024) for steel surface.
Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Russian Olive Fruit
Physical and mechanical properties of Russian olive fruits were measured at moisture content of 14.43% w.b. The results revealed that the mean length, width and thickness of Russian olive fruits were 20.72, 15.73 and 14.69mm, respectively. Mean mass and volume of Russian olive fruits were measured as 1.45 g and 2.55 cm3, respectively. The sphericity, aspect ratio and surface area were calculated as 0.81, 0.72 and 8.96 cm2, respectively, while arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter and equivalent diameter of Russian olive fruits were 17.05, 16.83 and 16.84 mm, respectively. Whole fruit density, bulk density and porosity of jujube fruits were measured and found to be 1.01 g/cm3, 0.29 g/cm3 and 69.5%, respectively. The values of static coefficient of friction on three surfaces of glass, galvanized iron and plywood were 0.35, 0.36 and 0.43, respectively. The skin color (L*, a*, b*) varied from 9.92 to 16.08; 2.04 to 3.91 and 1.12 to 3.83, respectively. The values of rupture force, deformation, energy absorbed and hardness were found to be between 12.14-16.85 N, 2.16-4.25 mm, 3.42-6.99 N mm and 17.1-23.85 N/mm.
Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Jujube Fruit
In this study, some physical and mechanical properties of jujube fruits, were measured and compared at constant moisture content of 15.5% w.b. The results showed that the mean length, width and thickness of jujube fruits were 18.88, 16.79 and 15.9 mm, respectively. The mean projected areas of jujube perpendicular to length, width, and thickness were 147.01, 224.08 and 274.60 mm2, respectively. The mean mass and volume were 1.51 g and 2672.80 mm3, respectively. The arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter and equivalent diameter varied from 14.53 to 20 mm, 14.5 to 19.94 mm, and 14.52 to 19.97 mm, respectively. The sphericity, aspect ratio and surface area of jujube fruits were 0.91, 0.89 and 926.28 mm2, respectively. Whole fruit density, bulk density and porosity of jujube fruits were measured and found to be 1.52 g/cm3, 0.3 g/cm3 and 79.3%, respectively. The angle of repose of jujube fruit was 14.66° (±0.58°). The static coefficient of friction on galvanized iron steel was higher than that on plywood and lower than that on glass surface. The values of rupture force, deformation, hardness and energy absorbed were found to be between 11.13-19.91N, 2.53- 4.82mm, 3.06-5.81N mm and 20.13-39.08 N/mm, respectively.
Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Soil Physical Properties using Neural Networks Model
Saturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the soil hydraulic properties which is widely used in environmental studies especially subsurface ground water. Since, its direct measurement is time consuming and therefore costly, indirect methods such as pedotransfer functions have been developed based on multiple linear regression equations and neural networks model in order to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from readily available soil properties e.g. sand, silt, and clay contents, bulk density, and organic matter. The objective of this study was to develop neural networks (NNs) model to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from available parameters such as sand and clay contents, bulk density, van Genuchten retention model parameters (i.e. r θ , α , and n) as well as effective porosity. We used two methods to calculate effective porosity: : (1) eff s FC φ =θ -θ , and (2) inf φ =θ -θ eff s , in which s θ is saturated water content, FC θ is water content retained at -33 kPa matric potential, and inf θ is water content at the inflection point. Total of 311 soil samples from the UNSODA database was divided into three groups as 187 for the training, 62 for the validation (to avoid over training), and 62 for the test of NNs model. A commercial neural network toolbox of MATLAB software with a multi-layer perceptron model and back propagation algorithm were used for the training procedure. The statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient (R2), and mean square error (MSE) were also used to evaluate the developed NNs model. The best number of neurons in the middle layer of NNs model for methods (1) and (2) were calculated 44 and 6, respectively. The R2 and MSE values of the test phase were determined for method (1), 0.94 and 0.0016, and for method (2), 0.98 and 0.00065, respectively, which shows that method (2) estimates saturated hydraulic conductivity better than method (1).
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