Consumer Market of Agricultural Products and Agricultural Policy in Georgia
The article discusses the consumer market of agricultural products and agricultural policy in Georgia. It is noted that development of the strategic areas of the agricultural sector needs a special support. These strategic areas should create the country's major export potential. It is important to develop strategies to access to the international markets, form extensive marketing network etc., which will become the basis for the promotion and revenue growth of the country. The Georgian agricultural sector, with the right state policy and support, can achieve success and gain access to the world market with competitive agricultural products. The paper discusses the current condition of agriculture, export and import of agricultural products and agricultural policy in Georgia. The conducted research concludes the information that there is an increasing demand on the green goods in the world market. Natural and climatic conditions of Georgia give a serious possibility of implementing it. The research presents an agricultural development strategy in Georgia and the findings and based on them recommendations are proposed.
Innovation Policy and Development of Creative Industries: Case Study of Lithuanian Animation Industry
The objective of this study is to identify and explore how adequate is modern innovation support mechanism to developed creative industries. We argue that current development and support strategy for creative industries, although acknowledge high correlation between innovation and creativity, do not seek to improve conditions to promote systematic innovation development in the creative sector. Using the Lithuanian animation industry as a case study, this paper will examine innovation contribution to creativity and, for that matter, the competitiveness of animation enterprises. This paper proposes insights that contribute to theoretical and practical discussions on how creative profile companies build national and international competitiveness through innovations. The conclusions suggest that development of creative industries could greatly benefit if policymakers would implement tools that would encourage creative profile enterprises to invest in to development of innovation at a constant rate.
Electric Vehicle Market Penetration Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Policy-Making: A Case Study of United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates is clearly facing a multitude of challenges in curbing its greenhouse gas emissions to meet its pre-allotted framework of Kyoto protocol and COP21 targets due to its hunger for modernization, industrialization, infrastructure growth, soaring population and oil and gas activity. In this work, we focus on the bonafide zero emission electric vehicles market penetration in the country’s transport industry for emission reduction. We study the global electric vehicle market trends, the complementary battery technologies and the trends by manufacturers, emission standards across borders and prioritized advancements which will ultimately dictate the terms of future conditions for the United Arab Emirate transport industry. Based on our findings and analysis at every stage of current viability and state-of-transport-affairs, we postulate policy recommendations to local governmental entities from a supply and demand perspective covering aspects of technology, infrastructure requirements, change in power dynamics, end user incentives program, market regulators behavior and communications amongst key stakeholders.
A Settlement Strategy for Health Facilities in Emerging Countries: A Case Study in Brazil
A settlement strategy is to anticipate and respond the needs of existing and future communities through the provision of primary health care facilities in marginalized areas. Access to a health care network is important to improving healthcare coverage, often lacking, in developing countries. The study explores that a good sanitary system strategy of rural contexts brings advantages to an existing settlement: improving transport, communication, water and social facilities. The objective of this paper is to define a possible methodology to implement primary health care facilities in disadvantaged areas of emerging countries. In this research, we analyze the case study of Lauro de Freitas, a municipality in the Brazilian state of Bahia, part of the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, with an area of 57,662 km²
and 194.641 inhabitants. The health localization system in Lauro de Freitas is an integrated process that involves not only geographical aspects, but also a set of factors: population density, epidemiological data, allocation of services, road networks, and more. Data were collected also using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to the local population. Synthesized data suggest that moving away from the coast where there is the greatest concentration of population and services, a network of primary health care facilities is able to improve the living conditions of small-dispersed communities. Based on the health service needs of populations, we have developed a methodological approach that is particularly useful in rural and remote contexts in emerging countries.
The Characteristics of Transformation of Institutional Changes and Georgia
The analysis of transformation of institutional changes outlines two important characteristics. These are: the speed of the changes and their sequence. Successful transformation must be carried out in three different stages; On the first stage, macroeconomic stabilization must be achieved with the help of fiscal and monetary tools. Two-tier banking system should be established and the active functions of central bank should be replaced by the passive ones (reserve requirements and refinancing rate), together with the involvement growth of private sector. Fiscal policy by itself here means the creation of tax system which must replace previously existing direct state revenues; the share of subsidies in the state expenses must be reduced also. The second stage begins after reaching the macroeconomic stabilization at a time of change of formal institutes which must stimulate the private business. Corporate legislation creates a competitive environment at the market and the privatization of state companies takes place. Bankruptcy and contract law is created. he third stage is the most extended one, which means the formation of all state structures that is necessary for the further proper functioning of a market economy. These three stages about the cycle period of political and social transformation and the hierarchy of changes can also be grouped by the different methodology: on the first and the most short-term stage the transfer of power takes place. On the second stage institutions corresponding to new goal are created. The last phase of transformation is extended in time and it includes the infrastructural, socio-cultural and socio-structural changes. The main goal of this research is to explore and identify the features of such kind of models.
The Effects of an Immigration Policy on the Economic Integration of Migrants and on Natives’ Attitudes: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Turkey
Turkey’s immigration policy is a controversial issue considering its legal, economic, social, and political and human rights dimensions. Formulation of an immigration policy goes hand in hand with political processes, where natives’ attitudes play a significant role. On the other hand, as was the case in Turkey, radical changes made in immigration policy or policies lacking transparency may cause severe reactions by the host society. The underlying discussion paper aims to analyze quantitatively the effects of the existing ‘open door’ immigration policy on the economic integration of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and on the perception of the native population of refugees. For the analysis, semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group interviews have been conducted. After the introduction, a literature review is provided, followed by theoretical background on the explanation of natives’ attitudes towards immigrants. In the next section, a qualitative analysis of natives’ attitudes towards Syrian refugees is presented with the subtopics of (i) awareness, general opinions and expectations, (ii) open-door policy and management of the migration process, (iii) perception of positive and negative impacts of immigration, (iv) economic integration, and (v) cultural similarity. Results indicate that, natives concurrently have social, economic and security concerns regarding refugees, while difficulties regarding security and economic integration of refugees stand out. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, such as the educational level and employment status, are not sufficient to explain the overall attitudes towards refugees, while they can be used to explain the awareness of the respondents and the priority of the concerns felt.
Competitiveness and Pricing Policy Assessment for Resilience Surface Access System at Airports
Considering a worldwide tendency, air transports are growing very fast and many changes have taken place in planning, management and decision making process. Given the complexity of airport operation, the best use of existing capacity is the key driver of efficiency and productivity. This paper deals with the evaluation framework for the ground access at airports, by using a set of mode choice indicators providing key messages towards airport’s ground access performance. The application presents results for a sample of 12 European airports, illustrating recommendations to define policy and improve service for the air transport access chain.
Perceptions of Cybersecurity in Government Organizations: Case Study of Bhutan
Bhutan is becoming increasingly dependent on Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), especially the Internet for performing the daily activities of governments, businesses, and individuals. Consequently, information systems and networks are becoming more exposed and vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. This paper highlights the findings of the survey study carried out to understand the perceptions of cybersecurity implementation among government organizations in Bhutan. About 280 ICT personnel were surveyed about the effectiveness of cybersecurity implementation in their organizations. A questionnaire based on a 5 point Likert scale was used to assess the perceptions of respondents. The questions were asked on cybersecurity practices such as cybersecurity policies, awareness and training, and risk management. The survey results show that less than 50% of respondents believe that the cybersecurity implementation is effective: cybersecurity policy (40%), risk management (23%), training and awareness (28%), system development life cycle (34%); incident management (26%), and communications and operational management (40%). The findings suggest that many of the cybersecurity practices are inadequately implemented and therefore, there exist a gap in achieving a required cybersecurity posture. This study recommends government organizations to establish a comprehensive cybersecurity program with emphasis on cybersecurity policy, risk management, and awareness and training. In addition, the research study has practical implications to both government and private organizations for implementing and managing cybersecurity.
An Integrated Planning Framework for Sustainable Tourism: Case Study of Tunisia
Tourism sector in Tunisia faces several problems that range from economic challenges to environmental degradation and social instability. These problems have been intensified because of the increased competition in the tourism market, the political instability, financial crises, and recently terrorism problems have aggravated the situation. As a consequence, a new framework that promotes sustainable tourism in the country and increases its competitiveness is urgently needed. Planning for sustainable tourism sector requires the integration of complex interactions between economic, social and environmental aspects. Sustainable tourism principles can be implemented with the help of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process, which ensures the full integration of economic, social and environmental considerations while planning for the tourism sector in Tunisia. Results of the paper have broad implications for policy makers and tourism professionals.
Economic Policy of Tourism and the Development Tendencies of Medical Wellness Resorts in Georgia
This paper discusses the current condition of tourism and its economic policy in Georgia. It analyzes and studies wellness tourism, as one of the directions of tourism; the newest niche in the wellness industry – triggering wellness resorts with medical ideology. The paper discusses the development tendencies of medical wellness resorts in Georgia and its main economic preferences. The main finding of the research is that Georgia is a unique place in the world according to the variety of medical recourses. This makes the opportunity to create and successfully operate medical wellness resorts, as well as develop it as a brand for Georgia in the world. The research represents the development strategies of tourism and its medical wellness resorts in Georgia, and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.
The New Educators: The Reasons for Saudi Arabia to Invest More in Student Counseling Programs
Student counseling programs can provide many benefits to students in schools all around the world. In theory, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) has committed itself to school counseling programs in educational institutions throughout the country. Student counselors face a number of burdens and obstacles that impact student counseling programs. It is also widely known that Saudi Arabia has extremely high prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression, and diabetes in children. It has also been demonstrated that teachers and staff are inadequately prepared when dealing with health issues relating to diabetes in schools in Saudi Arabia. This study will clearly demonstrate how student counselors in Saudi Arabia could become 'New Educators' in Saudi schools in relation to these health issues. This would allow them to leverage their position as student counselor to improve the management of these health issues in Saudi schools, to improve the quality of care provided to school children, and to overcome burdens and obstacles that are currently negatively affecting student counseling in Saudi schools.
The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach
The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.
Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem
The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.
Ramification of Oil Prices on Renewable Energy Deployment
This paper contributes to the literature by updating the analysis of the impact of the recent oil prices fall on the renewable energy (RE) industry and deployment. The research analysis uses the Renewable Energy Industrial Index (RENIXX), which tracks the world’s 30 largest publicly traded companies and oil prices daily data from January 2003 to March 2016. RENIXX represents RE industries developing solar, wind, geothermal, bioenergy, hydropower and fuel cells technologies. This paper tests the hypothesis that claims high oil prices encourage the substitution of alternate energy sources for conventional energy sources. Furthermore, it discusses RENIXX performance behavior with respect to the governments’ policies factor that investors should take into account. Moreover, the paper proposes a theoretical model that relates RE industry progress with oil prices and policies through the fuzzy logic system.
Wind Power Assessment for Turkey and Evaluation by APLUS Code
Energy is a fundamental component in economic development and energy consumption is an index of prosperity and the standard of living. The consumption of energy per capita has increased significantly over the last decades, as the standard of living has improved. Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. Information such as installation capacity of wind power plants in installation, under construction and license stages in the country are reported in detail. Some suggestions are presented in order to increase the wind power installation capacity of Turkey. Turkey’s economic and social development has led to a massive increase in demand for electricity over the last decades. Since the Turkey has no major oil or gas reserves, it is highly dependent on energy imports and is exposed to energy insecurity in the future. But Turkey does have huge potential for renewable energy utilization. There has been a huge growth in the construction of wind power plants and small hydropower plants in recent years. To meet the growing energy demand, the Turkish Government has adopted incentives for investments in renewable energy production. Wind energy investments evaluated the impact of feed-in tariffs (FIT) based on three scenarios that are optimistic, realistic and pessimistic with APLUS software that is developed for rational evaluation for energy market. Results of the three scenarios are evaluated in the view of electricity market for Turkey.
Small Entrepreneurship Supporting Economic Policy in Georgia
This paper discusses small entrepreneurship development strategy in Georgia and the tools and regulations that will encourage development of small entrepreneurship. The current situation in the small entrepreneurship sector, as well as factors affecting growth and decline in the sector and the priorities of state support, are studied and analyzed. The objective of this research is to assess the current situation of the sector to highlight opportunities and reveal the gaps. State support of small entrepreneurship should become a key priority in the country’s economic policy, as development of the sector will ensure social, economic and political stability. Based on the research, a small entrepreneurship development strategy is presented; corresponding conclusions are made and recommendations are developed.
Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources
This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.
Analysis of the Reasons behind the Deteriorated Standing of Engineering Companies during the Financial Crisis
In this paper, we discuss the deteriorated standing of engineering companies, some of the reasons behind it and the problems facing engineering enterprises during the financial crisis. We show the part that financial analysis plays in the detection of the main factors affecting the standing of a company, classify internal problems and the reasons influencing efficiency thereof. The publication contains the analysis of municipal engineering companies in post-Soviet transitional economies. In the wake of the 2008 world financial crisis the issue became even more poignant. It should be said though that even before the problem had been no less acute for some post-Soviet states caught up in a lengthy transitional period. The paper highlights shortcomings in the management of transportation companies, with new, more appropriate methods suggested. In analyzing the financial stability of a company, three elements need to be considered: current assets, investment policy and structural management of the funding sources leveraging the stability, should be focused on. Inappropriate management of the three may create certain financial problems, with timely and accurate detection thereof being an issue in terms of improved standing of an enterprise. In this connection, the publication contains a diagram reflecting the reasons behind the deteriorated financial standing of a company, as well as a flow chart thereof. The main reasons behind low profitability are also discussed.
Illuminating the Policies Affecting Energy Security in Malaysia’s Electricity Sector
For the past few decades, the Malaysian economy has expanded at an impressive pace, whilst, the Malaysian population has registered a relatively high growth rate. These factors had driven the growth of final energy demand. The ballooning energy demand coupled with the country’s limited indigenous energy resources have resulted in an increased of the country’s net import. Therefore, acknowledging the precarious position of the country’s energy self-sufficiency, this study has identified three main concerns regarding energy security, namely; over-dependence on fossil fuel, increasing energy import dependency, and increasing energy consumption per capita. This paper discusses the recent energy demand and supply trends, highlights the policies that are affecting energy security in Malaysia and suggests strategic options towards achieving energy security. The paper suggested that diversifying energy sources, reducing carbon content of energy, efficient utilization of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries could further enhance the effectiveness of the measures as the introduction of policies and initiatives will be more holistic.
Impact of the Non-Energy Sectors Diversification on the Energy Dependency Mitigation: Visualization by the “IntelSymb” Software Application
This study attempts to consider the linkage between management and computer sciences in order to develop the software named “IntelSymb” as a demo application to prove data analysis of non-energy* fields’ diversification, which will positively influence on energy dependency mitigation of countries. Afterward, we analyzed 18 years of economic fields of development (5 sectors) of 13 countries by identifying which patterns mostly prevailed and which can be dominant in the near future. To make our analysis solid and plausible, as a future work, we suggest developing a gateway or interface, which will be connected to all available on-line data bases (WB, UN, OECD, U.S. EIA) for countries’ analysis by fields. Sample data consists of energy (TPES and energy import indicators) and non-energy industries’ (Main Science and Technology Indicator, Internet user index, and Sales and Production indicators) statistics from 13 OECD countries over 18 years (1995-2012). Our results show that the diversification of non-energy industries can have a positive effect on energy sector dependency (energy consumption and import dependence on crude oil) deceleration. These results can provide empirical and practical support for energy and non-energy industries diversification’ policies, such as the promoting of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), services and innovative technologies efficiency and management, in other OECD and non-OECD member states with similar energy utilization patterns and policies. Industries, including the ICT sector, generate around 4 percent of total GHG, but this is much higher — around 14 percent — if indirect energy use is included. The ICT sector itself (excluding the broadcasting sector) contributes approximately 2 percent of global GHG emissions, at just under 1 gigatonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2eq). Ergo, this can be a good example and lesson for countries which are dependent and independent on energy, and mainly emerging oil-based economies, as well as to motivate non-energy industries diversification in order to be ready to energy crisis and to be able to face any economic crisis as well.
Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan
The overall goal of this paper is to examine the
suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability
and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact
of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a
central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive
housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration.
Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in
the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of
built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally
sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a
framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of
various types of housing development in all zones of the country.
There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing
provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable
housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate
social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to
have their own houses.
Simulation of Lean Principles Impact in a Multi-Product Supply Chain
The market competition is moving from the single
firm to the whole supply chain because of increasing competition and
growing need for operational efficiencies and customer orientation.
Supply chain management allows companies to look beyond their
organizational boundaries to develop and leverage resources and
capabilities of their supply chain partners. This creates competitive
advantages in the marketplace and because of this SCM has acquired
strategic importance. Lean Approach is a management strategy that focuses on reducing
every type of waste present in an organization. This approach is
becoming more and more popular among supply chain managers. The supply chain application of lean approach is not frequent. In
particular, it is not well studied which are the impacts of lean
approach principles in a supply chain context. In literature there are
only few studies aimed at understanding the qualitative impact of the
lean approach in supply chains. Therefore, the goal of this research
work is to study the impacts of lean principles implementation along
a supply chain. To achieve this, a simulation model of a threeechelon
multi-product supply chain has been built. Kanban system (and several priority policies) and setup time
reduction degrees are implemented in the lean-configured supply
chain to apply pull and lot-sizing decrease principles respectively. To
evaluate the benefits of lean approach, lean supply chain is compared
with an EOQ-configured supply chain. The simulation results show
that Kanban system and setup-time reduction improve inventory
stock level. They also show that logistics efforts are affected to lean
implementation degree. The paper concludes describing
performances of lean supply chain in different contexts.
Testing the Performance of Rival Warehousing Policies through Discrete Event Simulation
This research tested the performance of alternative
warehouse designs concerning the picking process. The chosen
performance measures were Travel Distance and Total Fulfilment
Time. An explanatory case study was built up around a model
implemented with SIMUL8. Hypotheses were set by selecting
outcomes from the literature survey matching popular empirical
findings. 17.4% reductions were found for Total Fulfilment Time and
Resource Utilisation. The latter was then used as a proxy for
operational efficiency. Literal replication of theoretical data-patterns
was considered as an internal validity sign. Assessing the estimated
changes benefits ahead of implementation was found to be a
contribution to practice.
Comparison of the Amount of Resources and Expansion Support Policy of Photovoltaic Power Generation: A Case on Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan
Now, the use of renewable energy power generation
has been advanced. In this paper, we compared the usable amount of
resource for photovoltaic power generation which was estimated using
the NEDO formula and the expansion support policy of photovoltaic
power generation which was researched using Internet in the
municipality level in Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan. This
paper will contribute to grasp the current situation especially about the
policy. As a result, there were municipalities which seemed to be no
consideration of fitting the amount of resources. We think it would
need to consider the suitability between the resources and policies.
Trade Policy and Economic Growth of Turkey in Global Economy: New Empirical Evidences
This paper tries to answer to the questions whether or
not trade openness causes economic growth and trade policy changes
are good for Turkey as a developing country in global economy
before and after 1980. We employ Johansen co-integration and
Granger causality tests with error correction modeling based on
vector autoregressive. Using WDI data from the pre-1980 and the
post-1980, we find that trade openness and economic growth are cointegrated
in the second term only. Also the results suggest a lack of
long-run causality between our two variables. These findings may
imply that trade policy of Turkey should concentrate more on extra
complementary economic reforms.
Impact Assessment of Credit Policy and Medical Credit Facility (MCF) on Nigerian Private Sector Health Market: Evidence from Eight Nigerian States
A teeming set of doctors that graduated from various
universities within and outside Nigeria with the hope of practicing in
the country, has their hope shattered because of poor financing, lack
of medical equipments and a very weak healthcare systems. Such
hydra headed challenges, allows room for quackery which
increasingly contributes to the cause of mortality in Nigeria. With a
view of reversing the challenges of healthcare delivery and financing
in Nigeria, African Health Market for Equity (AHME), a project
funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation [With contribution
from Department For International Development (DFID)] and
currently implemented in three African Countries (Nigeria, Kenya
and Ghana) over a Five (5) year period supports the healthcare sector
via Medical credit fund (MCF). The study examines the impact of
credit policy and medical credit funding on Nigerian health market.
Ordinary least square analysis, correlation and granger causality tests
were employed to measure the extent to which the Nigerian
healthcare market has been influenced. Medical credit fund
significantly and positively influenced average monthly turnover of
private healthcare providers and Commercial bank’s lending rate had
a weak relationship with access to credit/approved loans (13.46%).
The programme has so far made 13.91% progress, which is very
poor, considering the minimum targeted private health care providers
(437.6) and expected number of loan approvals (180.4) for the two
years. Medical credit policy in Nigeria should be revised to include
private healthcare providers in rural area for more positive impact
and increased returns. Good brand advert and sensitization of the
programme to stakeholders and health pressure group, and an
extension of the programme beyond five years is necessary to better
address the issues raised in the study.
The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia
Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as
well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of
its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was
almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in
regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the
system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”.
Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from
Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist
visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The
official statistics on migration published for this period was based on
the administrative system of population registration, were
insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope
of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality
and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going
to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing
immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?
An Optimal Algorithm for Finding (r, Q) Policy in a Price-Dependent Order Quantity Inventory System with Soft Budget Constraint
This paper is concerned with the single-item
continuous review inventory system in which demand is stochastic
and discrete. The budget consumed for purchasing the ordered items
is not restricted but it incurs extra cost when exceeding specific
value. The unit purchasing price depends on the quantity ordered
under the all-units discounts cost structure. In many actual systems,
the budget as a resource which is occupied by the purchased items is
limited and the system is able to confront the resource shortage by
charging more costs. Thus, considering the resource shortage costs as
a part of system costs, especially when the amount of resource
occupied by the purchased item is influenced by quantity discounts,
is well motivated by practical concerns. In this paper, an optimization
problem is formulated for finding the optimal (r, Q) policy, when the
system is influenced by the budget limitation and a discount pricing
simultaneously. Properties of the cost function are investigated and
then an algorithm based on a one-dimensional search procedure is
proposed for finding an optimal (r, Q) policy which minimizes the
expected system costs.
Energy Models for Analyzing the Economic Wide Impact of the Environmental Policies
Different countries have introduced different schemes
and policies to counter global warming. The rationale behind the
proposed policies and the potential barriers to successful
implementation of the policies adopted by the countries were
analyzed and estimated based on different models. It is argued that
these models enhance the transparency and provide a better
understanding to the policy makers. However, these models are
underpinned with several structural and baseline assumptions. These
assumptions, modeling features and future prediction of emission
reductions and other implication such as cost and benefits of a
transition to a low-carbon economy and its economy wide impacts
were discussed. On the other hand, there are potential barriers in the
form political, financial, and cultural and many others that pose a
threat to the mitigation options.
Participatory Democracy to the Contemporary Problems of Polish Social Policy
Socio-economic development, which is seen around
the world today, has contributed to the emergence of new problems
of a social nature. Different political, historical, geographical or
economic conditions cause that, in addition to global issues of social
policy such as an aging population, unemployment, migration,
countries, regions, there are also specific new problems that require
diagnosis, individualized approach and efficient, planned solutions.
These should include, among others, digital addiction, peer violence,
obesity among children, the problem of ‘legal highs’, stress,
depression, diseases associated with environmental pollution etc. The
central authorities, selected most often with the tools specific to
representative democracy, that is, the general election, for many
reasons, inter alia, organizational, communication, are not able to
effectively diagnose their intensity, territorial distribution, and thus to
effectively fight them. This article aims to show how in Poland,
citizens influence solving problems related to the broader social
policy implemented at the local government level and indicates the
possibilities of improving those solutions. The conclusions of
theoretical analysis have been supported by empirical studies, which
tested the use of instruments of participatory democracy in the
planning and creation of communal strategies for solving social
problems in one of the Polish voivodeships.