Cascaded H-Bridge Five Level Inverter Based Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation for Harmonic Elimination
In this paper, selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation technique is employed to eliminate lower order harmonics like third by determination of solving non-linear equations. The cascaded H-bridge five level inverter is driven by the Peripheral Interface Controlled (PIC) Microcontroller 16F877A. The performance of single phase cascaded H-bridge five level inverter with relevant to harmonics and a variety of switches with solar cell as its input source is simulated by employing MATLAB/Simulink. A hardware model is developed to verify the performance of the developed system.
Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network
Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.
Comparison of Different Discontinuous PWM Technique for Switching Losses Reduction in Modular Multilevel Converters
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the advanced topologies for medium and high-voltage applications. In high-power, high-voltage MMC, a large number of switching power devices are required. These switching power devices (IGBT) considerable switching losses. This paper analyzes the performance of different discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) techniques and compares the results against a conventional carrier based pulse width modulation method, in order to reduce the switching losses of an MMC. The DPWM reference wave can be generated by adding the zero-sequence component to the original (sine) reference modulation signal. The result of the addition gives the reference signal of DPWM techniques. To minimize the switching losses of the MMC, the clamping period is controlled according to the absolute value of the output load current. No switching is generated in the clamping period so overall switching of the power device is reduced. The simulation result of the different DPWM techniques is compared with conventional carrier-based pulse-width modulation technique.
A Thirteen-Level Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Single Phase Inverter
This paper presents a thirteen-level asymmetrical
cascaded H-bridge single phase inverter. In this configuration, the
desired output voltage level is achieved by connecting the DC sources in
different combinations by triggering the switches. The modes of
operation are explained well for positive level generations. Moreover, a
comparison is made with conventional topologies of diode clamped,
flying capacitors and cascaded-H-bridge and some recently proposed
topologies to show the significance of the proposed topology in terms of
reduced part counts. The simulation work has been carried out in
MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental work is also carried
out for lower rating to verify the performance and feasibility of the
proposed topology. Further the results are presented for different loading
Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation
The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.
Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor
The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.
Bipolar PWM and LCL Filter Configuration to Reduce Leakage Currents in Transformerless PV System Connected to Utility Grid
This paper presents PV system without considering transformer connected to electric grid. This is considered more economic compared to present PV system. The problem that occurs when transformer is not considered appears with a leakage current near capacitor connected to ground. Bipolar Pulse Width Modulation (BPWM) technique along with filter L-C-L configuration in the circuit is modeled to shrink the leakage current in the circuit. The DC/AC inverter is modeled using H-bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module which is controlled using proposed Bipolar PWM control technique. To extract maximum power, Maximum Power Point Technique (MPPT) controller is used in this model. Voltage and current regulators are used to determine the reference voltage for the inverter from active and reactive current where reactive current is set to zero. The PLL is modeled to synchronize the measurements. The model is designed with MATLAB Simulation blocks and compared with the methods available in literature survey to show its effectiveness.
Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor
The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.
Experimental Investigation of Indirect Field Oriented Control of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive
This paper analyzes the experimental investigation of indirect field oriented control of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based five-phase induction motor drive. A detailed d-q modeling and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) technique of 5-phase drive is elaborated in this paper. In the proposed work, the prototype model of 1 hp 5-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed drive is implemented in hardware. SVPWM pulses are generated in FPGA platform through Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) coding. The experimental results are observed under different loading conditions and compared with simulation results to validate the simulation model.
A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter
Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.
Experimental Implementation of Model Predictive Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Fast speed drives for Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Motor (PMSM) is a crucial performance for the electric traction
systems. In this paper, PMSM is derived with a Model-based
Predictive Control (MPC) technique. Fast speed tracking is achieved
through optimization of the DC source utilization using MPC. The
technique is based on predicting the optimum voltage vector applied
to the driver. Control technique is investigated by comparing to the
cascaded PI control based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation
(SVPWM). MPC and SVPWM-based FOC are implemented with the
TMS320F2812 DSP and its power driver circuits. The designed MPC
for a PMSM drive is experimentally validated on a laboratory test
bench. The performances are compared with those obtained by a
conventional PI-based system in order to highlight the improvements,
especially regarding speed tracking response.
Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter
This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source
Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for
two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic
distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV
system. To improve the performance of the system the number of
voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This
paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z
source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width
Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison
are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total
harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical
results are verified using MATLAB.
Comparative Review of Modulation Techniques for Harmonic Minimization in Multilevel Inverter
This paper proposed the comparison made between
Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Sinusoidal Pulse Width
Modulation and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width
Modulation technique for minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion
in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. In Multicarrier Pulse
Width Modulation method by using Alternate Position of Disposition
scheme for switching pulse generation to Multi-Level Inverter.
Another carrier based approach; Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
method is also implemented to define the switching pulse generation
system in the multi-level inverter. In Selective Harmonic Elimination
method using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization
algorithm for define the required switching angles to eliminate low
order harmonics from the inverter output voltage waveform and
reduce the total harmonic distortion value. So, the results validate that
the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation method
does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and
minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage
waveform in compared with Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation
method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method. In this paper,
comparison of simulation results shows that the Selective Harmonic
Elimination method can attain optimal harmonic minimization
solution better than Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method,
Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method.
Design and Analysis of Highly Efficient and Reliable Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Systems
Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.
A Novel Three Phase Hybrid Unidirectional Rectifier for High Power Factor Applications
This paper presents a hybrid three phase rectifier for
high power factor application. This rectifier is composed by zero
voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current transition (ZCT) boost
converter with three phase diode bridge rectifier, in parallel with a six
pulse three phase pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled rectifier.
The proposed topology is capable of high power factor with DC
output voltage regulation by providing sinusoidal input. Also, it
increases the overall efficiency of the new hybrid rectifier to 94.56%
and the total harmonic distortion of the hybrid structure varies from
0% to 16% at nominal output power. This topology was simulated in
MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the output waveforms
presented with experimental result.
A Low Cost and High Quality Duty-Cycle Modulation Scheme and Applications
In this paper, a low cost duty-cycle modulation scheme is studied in depth and compared to the standard pulse width modulation technique. Using a mix of analytical reasoning and electronics simulation tools, it is shown that under the same operating conditions, most characteristics of the proposed duty-cycle modulation scheme are better than those provided by a standard pulse width modulation technique. The simulation results obtained when testing both modulation control policies on prototyping systems, indicate that the proposed duty-cycle modulation approach, appears to be a high quality control policy in a wide variety of application areas, including A/D and D/A conversion, signal transmission and switching control in power electronics.
Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques
This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-frequency pulse width modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel sinusoidal-modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase opposition disposition (APOD), Phase shifted carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.
Design and Study of a DC/DC Converter for High Power, 14.4 V and 300 A for Automotive Applications
The shortage of the automotive market in relation
to options for sources of high power car audio systems, led to
development of this work. Thus, we developed a source with stabilized
voltage with 4320 W effective power. Designed to the voltage of
14.4 V and a choice of two currents: 30 A load option in battery
banks and 300 A at full load. This source can also be considered as
a source of general use dedicated commercial with a simple control
circuit in analog form based on discrete components. The assembly of
power circuit uses a methodology for higher power than the initially
Fuzzy Logic Based Cascaded H-Bridge Eleven Level Inverter for Photovoltaic System Using Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Technique
Multilevel inverter is a promising inverter topology for high voltage and high power applications. This inverter synthesizes several different levels of DC voltages to produce a stepped AC output that approaches the pure sine waveform. The three different topologies, diode-clamped inverter, capacitor-clamped inverter and cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter are widely used in these multilevel inverters. Among the three topologies, cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter is more suitable for photovoltaic applications since each PV array can act as a separate dc source for each h-bridge module. This research especially focus on photovoltaic power source as input to the system and shows the potential of a Single Phase Cascaded H-bridge Eleven level inverter governed by the fuzzy logic controller to improve the power quality by reducing the total harmonic distortion at the output voltage. Hence the efficiency of the system will be improved. Simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK has been done to verify the performance of cascaded h-bridge eleven level inverter using sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique. The simulated output shows very favorable result.
Closed Loop Control of Bridgeless Cuk Converter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for PFC Applications
This paper is based on the bridgeless single-phase Ac–Dc Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters with Fuzzy Logic Controller. High frequency isolated Cuk converters are used as a modular dc-dc converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) of operation of Power Factor Correction. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the Membership Functions (MFs) and to improve the efficiency and to eliminate the power quality problems. The output of Fuzzy controller is compared with High frequency triangular wave to generate PWM gating signals of Cuk converter. The proposed topologies are designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the input current. The Fuzzy Logic Controller gives additional advantages such as accurate result, uncertainty and imprecision and automatic control circuitry. Performance comparisons between the proposed and conventional controllers and circuits are performed based on circuit simulations.
A Comparative Analysis of Modulation Control Strategies for Cascade H-Bridge 11-Level Inverter
The range of the output power is a very important and evident limitation of two-level inverters. In order to overcome this disadvantage, multilevel inverters are introduced. Recently, Cascade H-Bridge inverters have emerged as one of the popular converter topologies used in numerous industrial applications. The modulation switching strategies such as phase shifted carrier based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique and Stair case modulation with Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) PWM technique are generally used. NR method is used to solve highly non linear transcendental equations which are formed by SHEPWM method. Generally NR method has a drawback of requiring good initial guess but in this paper a new approach is implemented for NR method with any random initial guess. A three phase CHB 11-level inverter is chosen for analysis. MATLAB/SIMULINK programming environment and harmonic profiles are compared. Finally this paper presents a method at fundamental switching frequency with least % THDV.
Lower Order Harmonics Minimisation in CHB Inverter Using GA and Decomposition by WT
Nowadays Multilevel inverters are widely using in various applications. Modulation strategy at fundamental switching frequency like, SHEPWM is prominent technique to eliminate lower order of harmonics with less switching losses and better harmonic profile. The equations which are formed by SHE are highly nonlinear transcendental in nature, there may exist single, multiple or even no solutions for a particular MI. However, some loads such as electrical drives, it is required to operate in whole range of MI. In order to solve SHE equations for whole range of MI, intelligent techniques are well suited to solve equations so as to produce lest %THDV. Hence, this paper uses Continuous genetic algorithm for minimising harmonics. This paper also presents wavelet based analysis of harmonics. The developed algorithm is simulated and %THD from FFT analysis and Wavelet analysis are compared. MATLAB programming environment and SIMULINK models are used whenever necessary.
General Purpose Pulse Width Modulation Based Sliding Mode Controller for Buck DC-DC
This paper is a simple and systematic approaches to the design and analysis a pulse width modulation (PWM) based sliding mode controller for buck DC-DC Converters. Various aspects of the design, including the practical problems and the proposed solutions, are detailed. However, these control strategies can't compensate for large load current and input voltage variations. In this paper, a new control strategy by compromising both schemes advantages and avoiding their drawbacks is proposed, analyzed and simulated.
Mathematical Model and Control Strategy on DQ Frame for Shunt Active Power Filters
This paper presents the mathematical model and
control strategy on DQ frame of shunt active power filter. The
structure of the shunt active power filter is the voltage source inverter
(VSI). The pulse width modulation (PWM) with PI controller is used
in the paper. The concept of DQ frame to apply with the shunt active
power filter is described. Moreover, the detail of the PI controller
design for two current loops and one voltage loop are fully explained.
The DQ axis with Fourier (DQF) method is applied to calculate the
reference currents on DQ frame. The simulation results show that the
control strategy and the design method presented in the paper can
provide the good performance of the shunt active power filter.
Moreover, the %THD of the source currents after compensation can
follow the IEEE Std.519-1992.
The Comparison Study of Current Control Techniques for Active Power Filters
This paper presents the comparison study of current control techniques for shunt active power filter. The hysteresis current control, the delta modulation control and the carrier-based PWM control are considered in the paper. The synchronous detection method is used to calculate the reference currents for shunt active power filter. The simulation results show that the carrier-based PWM control technique provides the minimum %THD value of the source currents compared with other comparable techniques after compensation. However, the %THD values of all three techniques can follow the IEEE std.519-1992.
Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Least Correlated Noise
This paper presents a novel sinusoidal modulation
scheme that features least correlated noise and high linearity. The
modulation circuit, which is composed of a quantizer, a resonator, and
a comparator, is capable of eliminating correlated modulation noise
while doing modulation. The proposed modulation scheme combined
with the linear quadratic optimal control is applied to a single-phase
voltage source inverter and validated with the experiment results. The
experiments show that the inverter supplies stable 60Hz 110V AC
power with a total harmonic distortion of less than 1%, under the DC
input variation from 190 V to 300 V and the output power variation
from 0 to 600 W.
Control Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory
This paper presents a method for obtaining the
desired reference current for Voltage Source Converter (VSC) of the Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory. The method relies on the performance of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller for
obtaining the best control performance of the SAPF. To
improve the performance of the PI controller, the feedback
path to the integral term is introduced to compensate the
winding up phenomenon due to integrator. Using Reference
Frame Transformation, reference signals are transformed from
a - b - c stationery frame to 0 - d - q rotating frame.
Using the PI controller, the reference signals in the 0 - d - q rotating frame are controlled to get the desired reference signals for the Pulse Width Modulation. The synchronizer, the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) with PI filter is used for
synchronization, with much emphasis on minimizing delays. The system performance is examined with Shunt Active Power Filter simulation model.
Mathematical Modelling of Single Phase Unity Power Factor Boost Converter
An optimal control strategy based on simple model, a
single phase unity power factor boost converter is presented with an
evaluation of first order differential equations. This paper presents an
evaluation of single phase boost converter having power factor
correction. The simple discrete model of boost converter is formed
and optimal control is obtained, digital PI is adopted to adjust control
error. The method of instantaneous current control is proposed in this
paper for its good tracking performance of dynamic response. The
simulation and experimental results verified our design.
Uniform Overlapped Multi-Carrier PWM for a Six-Level Diode Clamped Inverter
Multi-level voltage source inverters offer several
advantages such as; derivation of a refined output voltage with
reduced total harmonic distortion (THD), reduction of voltage ratings
of the power semiconductor switching devices and also the reduced
electro-magnetic-interference problems etc. In this paper, new
carrier-overlapped phase-disposition or sub-harmonic sinusoidal
pulse width modulation (CO-PD-SPWM) and also the carrieroverlapped
phase-disposition space vector modulation (CO-PDSVPWM)
schemes for a six-level diode-clamped inverter topology
are proposed. The principle of the proposed PWM schemes is similar
to the conventional PD-PWM with a little deviation from it in the
sense that the triangular carriers are all overlapped. The overlapping
of the triangular carriers on one hand results in an increased number
of switchings, on the other hand this facilitates an improved spectral
performance of the output voltage. It is demonstrated through
simulation studies that the six-level diode-clamped inverter with the
use of CO-PD-SPWM and CO-PD-SVPWM proposed in this paper is
capable of generating multiple levels in its output voltage. The
advantages of the proposed PWM schemes can be derived to benefit,
especially at lower modulation indices of the inverter and hence this
aspect of the proposed PWM schemes can be well exploited in high
power applications requiring low speeds of operation of the drive.
Three-Phase High Frequency AC Conversion Circuit with Dual Mode PWM/PDM Control Strategy for High Power IH Applications
This paper presents a novel three-phase utility
frequency to high frequency soft switching power conversion circuit
with dual mode pulse width modulation and pulse density modulation
for high power induction heating applications as melting of steel and
non ferrous metals, annealing of metals, surface hardening of steel
and cast iron work pieces and hot water producers, steamers and
super heated steamers. This high frequency power conversion circuit
can operate from three-phase systems to produce high current for
high power induction heating applications under the principles of
ZVS and it can regulate its ac output power from the rated value to a
low power level. A dual mode modulation control scheme based on
high frequency PWM in synchronization with the utility frequency
positive and negative half cycles for the proposed high frequency
conversion circuit and utility frequency pulse density modulation is
produced to extend its soft switching operating range for wide ac
output power regulation. A dual packs heat exchanger assembly is
designed to be used in consumer and industrial fluid pipeline systems
and it is proved to be suitable for the hot water, steam and super
heated steam producers. Experiment and simulation results are given
in this paper to verify the operation principles of the proposed ac
conversion circuit and to evaluate its power regulation and
conversion efficiency. Also, the paper presents a mutual coupling
model of the induction heating load instead of equivalent transformer