Electrode Engineering for On-Chip Liquid Driving by Using Electrokinetic Effect
High lamination in microchannel is one of the main challenges in on-chip components like micro total analyzer systems and lab-on-a-chips. Electro-osmotic force is highly effective in chip-scale. This research proposes a microfluidic-based micropump for low ionic strength solutions. Narrow microchannels are designed to generate an efficient electroosmotic flow near the walls. Microelectrodes are embedded in the lateral sides and actuated by low electric potential to generate pumping effect inside the channel. Based on the simulation study, the fluid velocity increases by increasing the electric potential amplitude. We achieve a net flow velocity of 100 µm/s, by applying +/- 2 V to the electrode structures. Our proposed low voltage design is of interest in conventional lab-on-a-chip applications.
Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of a LaNi5 Water Pumping System
Metal hydride water pumping system uses hydrogen as working fluid to pump water for low head and high discharge. The principal operation of this pump is based on the desorption of hydrogen at high pressure and its absorption at low pressure by a metal hydride. This work is devoted to study a concept of the dynamic behavior of a metal hydride pump using unsteady model and LaNi5 as hydriding alloy. This study shows that with MHP, it is possible to pump 340l/kg-cycle of water in 15 000s using 1 Kg of LaNi5 at a desorption temperature of 360 K, a pumping head equal to 5 m and a desorption gear ratio equal to 33. This study reveals also that the error given by the steady model, using LaNi5 is about 2%.A dimensional mathematical model and the governing equations of the pump were presented to predict the coupled heat and mass transfer within the MHP. Then, a numerical simulation is carried out to present the time evolution of the specific water discharge and to test the effect of different parameters (desorption temperature, absorption temperature, desorption gear ratio) on the performance of the water pumping system (specific water discharge, pumping efficiency and pumping time). In addition, a comparison between results obtained with steady and unsteady model is performed with different hydride mass. Finally, a geometric configuration of the reactor is simulated to optimize the pumping time.
Optimum Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application
The solar power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The implementation of these systems allows to protect the environment and reduce the CO2 gas emission compared to systems trained by diesel generators. This paper presents a comparative study between the photovoltaic pumping system driven by DC motor, and AC motor to define the optimum design of this application. The studied system consists of PV array, DC-DC Boost Converter, inverter, motor-pump set and storage tank. The comparison was carried out to define the characteristics and the performance of each system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB/ Simulink. The results show the efficiency of the proposed technique.
Optimal Operation of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Drive Water Pumping System
The performance characteristics of a photovoltaic induction motor drive water pumping system with and without maximum power tracker is analyzed and presented. The analysis is done through determination and assessment of critical loss components in the system using computer aided design (CAD) tools for optimal operation of the system. The results can be used to formulate a well-calibrated computer aided design package of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on the induction motor drive. The results allow the design engineer to pre-determine the flow rate and efficiency of the system to suit particular application.
Assessing Water Quality Using GIS: The Case of Northern Lebanon Miocene Aquifer
This research focuses on assessing the ground water quality of Northern Lebanon affected by saline water intrusion. The chemical, physical and microbiological parameters were collected in various seasons spanning over the period of two years. Results were assessed using Geographic Information System (GIS) due to its visual capabilities in presenting the pollution extent in the studied region. Future projections of the excessive pumping were also simulated using GIS in order to assess the extent of the problem of saline intrusion in the near future.
A Variable Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Applied to Photovoltaic Water Pumping System
The use of solar energy as a source for pumping water
is one of the promising areas in the photovoltaic (PV) application.
The energy of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) can be widely
improved by employing an MPPT algorithm. This will lead
consequently to maximize the electrical motor speed of the system.
This paper presents a modified incremental conductance (IncCond)
MPPT algorithm with direct control method applied to a standalone
PV pumping system. The influence of the algorithm parameters on
system behavior is investigated and compared with the traditional
(INC) method. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC
boost converter, and a PMDC motor-pump. The simulation of the
system by MATLAB-SIMULINK is carried out. Simulation results
found are satisfactory.
Developing New Algorithm and Its Application on Optimal Control of Pumps in Water Distribution Network
In recent years, new techniques for solving complex
problems in engineering are proposed. One of these techniques is
JPSO algorithm. With innovative changes in the nature of the jump
algorithm JPSO, it is possible to construct a graph-based solution
with a new algorithm called G-JPSO. In this paper, a new algorithm
to solve the optimal control problem Fletcher-Powell and optimal
control of pumps in water distribution network was evaluated.
Optimal control of pumps comprise of optimum timetable operation
(status on and off) for each of the pumps at the desired time interval.
Maximum number of status on and off for each pumps imposed to the
objective function as another constraint. To determine the optimal
operation of pumps, a model-based optimization-simulation
algorithm was developed based on G-JPSO and JPSO algorithms.
The proposed algorithm results were compared well with the ant
colony algorithm, genetic and JPSO results. This shows the
robustness of proposed algorithm in finding near optimum solutions
with reasonable computational cost.
Estimation of Aquifer Properties Using Pumping Tests: Case Study of Pydibhimavaram Industrial Area, Srikakulam, India
Adequate and reliable estimates of aquifer parameters
are of utmost importance for proper management of vital
groundwater resources. At present scenario, the ground water is
polluted because of industrial waste disposed over the land and the
contaminants are transported in the aquifer from one area to another
area, which is depending on the characteristics of the aquifer and
contaminants. To know the contaminant transport, the accurate
estimation of aquifer properties is highly needed. Conventionally,
these properties are estimated through pumping tests carried out on
water wells. The occurrence and movement of ground water in the
aquifer are characteristically defined by the aquifer parameters. The
pumping (aquifer) test is the standard technique for estimating
various hydraulic properties of aquifer systems, viz., transmissivity
(T), hydraulic conductivity (K), storage coefficient (S) etc., for which
the graphical method is widely used. The study area for conducting
pumping test is Pydibheemavaram Industrial area near the coastal
belt of Srikulam, AP, India. The main objective of the present work is
to estimate the aquifer properties for developing contaminant
transport model for the study area.
Starting Characteristic Analysis of LSPM for Pumping System Considering Demagnetization
This paper presents the design process of a high
performance 3-phase 3.7 kW 2-pole line start permanent magnet
synchronous motor for pumping system. A method was proposed to
study the starting torque characteristics considering line start with
high inertia load. A d-q model including cage was built to study the
synchronization capability. Time-stepping finite element method
analysis was utilized to accurately predict the dynamic and transient
performance, efficiency, starting current, speed curve and etc.
Considering the load torque of pumps during starting stage, the rotor
bar was designed with minimum demagnetization of permanent
magnet caused by huge starting current.
An Approach to Flatten the Gain of Fiber Raman Amplifiers with Multi-Pumping
The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power
on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are
investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to
achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness
becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths
applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a
spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by
using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval.
The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in
FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets
improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for
higher spans of Raman fiber length.
Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District
The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and
the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater
pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou for sizing and
power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area.
A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed
coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system.
The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged
pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the
theoretical solar radiation is obtained for optimal predictions and
system performance in order to achieve different design and
operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic
module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable
maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a
simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with
its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics
River Analysis System Model for Proposed Weirs at Downstream of Large Dam, Thailand
This research was conducted in the Lower Ping River
Basin downstream of the Bhumibol Dam and the Lower Wang River
Basin in Tak Province, Thailand. Most of the tributary streams of the
Ping can be considered as ungauged catchments. There are 10-
pumping station installation at both river banks of the Ping in Tak
Province. Recently, most of them could not fully operate due to the
water amount in the river below the level that would be pumping,
even though included water from the natural river and released flow
from the Bhumibol Dam. The aim of this research was to increase the
performance of those pumping stations using weir projects in the
Ping. Therefore, the river analysis system model (HEC-RAS) was
applied to study the hydraulic behavior of water surface profiles in
the Ping River with both cases of existing conditions and proposed
weirs during the violent flood in 2011 and severe drought in 2013.
Moreover, the hydrologic modeling system (HMS) was applied to
simulate lateral streamflow hydrograph from ungauged catchments of
the Ping. The results of HEC-RAS model calibration with existing
conditions in 2011 showed best trial roughness coefficient for the
main channel of 0.026. The simulated water surface levels fitted to
observation data with R2 of 0.8175. The model was applied to 3
proposed cascade weirs with 2.35 m in height and found surcharge
water level only 0.27 m higher than the existing condition in 2011.
Moreover, those weirs could maintain river water levels and increase
of those pumping performances during less river flow in 2013.
Development of a Real-Time Energy Models for Photovoltaic Water Pumping System
This purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a
model to accurately predict the cell temperature of a PV module that
adapts to various mounting configurations, mounting locations, and
climates while only requiring readily available data from the module
manufacturer. Results from this model are also compared to results
from published cell temperature models. The models were used to
predict real-time performance from a PV water pumping systems in
the desert of Medenine, south of Tunisia using 60-min intervals of
measured performance data during one complete year. Statistical
analysis of the predicted results and measured data highlight possible
sources of errors and the limitations and/or adequacy of existing
models, to describe the temperature and efficiency of PV-cells and
consequently, the accuracy of performance of PV water pumping
systems prediction models.
Investigating the Effect of Using Capacitors in the Pumping Station on the Harmonic Contents (Case Study: Kafr El - Shikh Governorate, Egypt)
Power Factor (PF) is one of the most important parameters in the electrical systems, especially in the water pumping station. The low power factor value of the water pumping stations causes penalty for the electrical bill. There are many methods use for power factor improvement. Each one of them uses a capacitor on the electrical power network. The position of the capacitors is varied depends on many factors such as; voltage level and capacitors rating. Adding capacitors on the motor terminals increase the supply power factor from 0.8 to more than 0.9 but these capacitors cause some problems for the electrical grid network, such as increasing the harmonic contents of the grid line voltage. In this paper the effects of using capacitors in the water pumping stations to improve the power factor value on the harmonic contents of the electrical grid network are studied. One of large water pumping stations in Kafr El-Shikh Governorate in Egypt was used, as a case study. The effect of capacitors on the line voltage harmonic contents is measured. The station uses capacitors to improve the PF values at the 1 lkv grid network. The power supply harmonics values are measured by a power quality analyzer at different loading conditions. The results showed that; the capacitors improved the power factor value of the feeder and its value increased than 0.9. But the THD values are increased by adding these capacitors. The harmonic analysis showed that; the 13th, 17th, and 19th harmonics orders are increased also by adding the capacitors.
Investigation of Behavior on the Contact Surface of the Tire and Ground by CFD Simulation
Tread design has evolved over the years to achieve the common tread pattern used in current vehicles. However, to meet safety and comfort requirements, tread design considers more than one design factor. Tread design must consider the grip and drainage, and the manner in which to reduce rolling noise, which is one of the main factors considered by manufacturers. The main objective of this study was the application the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique to simulate the contact surface of the tire and ground. The results demonstrated an air-Pumping and large pressure drop effect in the process of contact surface. The results also revealed that the pressure can be used to analyze sound pressure level (SPL).
Design Considerations of PV Water Pumping and Rural Electricity System (2011) in Lower Myanmar
Photovoltaic (PV) systems provides a viable means of
power generation for applications like powering residential
appliances, electrification of villages in rural areas, refrigeration and
water pumping. Photovoltaic-power generation is reliable. The
operation and maintenance costs are very low. Since Myanmar is a
land of plentiful sunshine, especially in central and southern regions
of the country, the solar energy could hopefully become the final
solution to its energy supply problem in rural area.
Assessing the Problems of Pumping Stations: A Case Study of Boneh Basht Pumping Station
Establishing pumping stations is one of the most common ways of providing water from rivers. There are many issues involved in the design and operation of pumping stations most important of which is the problem of sedimentation. One of the significant issues which must be taken into consideration in designing pumping stations is the operation method and technical matters related to it. Safety and convenience of operation is one of the issues that must be always considered by the designer. Some of the major issues in making decisions regarding the type of design for the station are geographical condition, the location of the station and availability of experts in maintenance and operation of the station. Dimensions of the station must allow free movement for checking and operating pumps after installation of pumps and plumbing system.
A Study of Flow and Sedimentation at the Basins of Khoozestan Province Rivers: A Case Study of Boneh Basht Pumping Station
The present paper is a case study about exploitation of
Kheir Abad river (Khoozestan, Iran) water resources and the
problems caused by river sediments around the pumping stations.
The weak points and strong points of Boneh Basht pumping station
have been studied by experienced experts, work teams, and
consulting engineers and technical and executive solutions have been
suggested. Therefore, the suggestions of this article are based on the
performed studies and are proposed in order to evaluate the logical
Rather complicated processes resulting from the interaction of
water flows and sediments observed at Boneh Basht pumping station
occur at other pumping stations in almost the same way. Therefore,
Boneh Basht pumping station can be selected as a sample (pilot) and
up-to-date theories and experiences can be applied to this station and
the results can be offered to other stations.
Hydrogen Sulphide Removal Using a Novel Biofilter Media
Air emissions from waste treatment plants often
consist of a combination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
and odors. Hydrogen sulfide is one of the major odorous gases
present in the waste emissions coming from municipal wastewater
treatment facilities. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is odorous, highly toxic
and flammable. Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye
irritation, a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in
the lungs. Biofiltration has become a widely accepted technology for
treating air streams containing H2S. When compared with other nonbiological
technologies, biofilter is more cost-effective for treating large
volumes of air containing low concentrations of biodegradable compounds.
Optimization of biofilter media is essential for many reasons such as:
providing a higher surface area for biofilm growth, low pressure drop,
physical stability, and good moisture retention. In this work, a novel
biofilter media is developed and tested at a pumping station of a
municipality located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The
media is found to be very effective (>99%) in removing H2S
concentrations that are expected in pumping stations under steady
state and shock loading conditions.