Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 39

Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals

Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).

Basket Option Pricing under Jump Diffusion Models
Pricing financial contracts on several underlying assets received more and more interest as a demand for complex derivatives. The option pricing under asset price involving jump diffusion processes leads to the partial integral differential equation (PIDEs), which is an extension of the Black-Scholes PDE with a new integral term. The aim of this paper is to show how basket option prices in the jump diffusion models, mainly on the Merton model, can be computed using RBF based approximation methods. For a test problem, the RBF-PU method is applied for numerical solution of partial integral differential equation arising from the two-asset European vanilla put options. The numerical result shows the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.
Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.

Evaluation of Ensemble Classifiers for Intrusion Detection
One of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. In this research work, new ensemble classification methods are proposed with homogeneous ensemble classifier using bagging and heterogeneous ensemble classifier using arcing and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as base classifiers. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of standard datasets of intrusion detection. The main originality of the proposed approach is based on three main parts: preprocessing phase, classification phase, and combining phase. A wide range of comparative experiments is conducted for standard datasets of intrusion detection. The performance of the proposed homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble classifiers are compared to the performance of other standard homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble methods. The standard homogeneous ensemble methods include Error correcting output codes, Dagging and heterogeneous ensemble methods include majority voting, stacking. The proposed ensemble methods provide significant improvement of accuracy compared to individual classifiers and the proposed bagged RBF and SVM performs significantly better than ECOC and Dagging and the proposed hybrid RBF-SVM performs significantly better than voting and stacking. Also heterogeneous models exhibit better results than homogeneous models for standard datasets of intrusion detection. 
A Prediction Model for Dynamic Responses of Building from Earthquake Based on Evolutionary Learning

The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to prevent seismic damage. Structural seismic damage of building is caused by the instantaneous stress concentration which is related with dynamic characteristic of earthquake. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the dynamic responses of building demands significantly high computational cost. To prevent the failure of structural members from the characteristic of the earthquake and the significantly high computational cost for seismic response analysis, this paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for dynamic responses of building considering specific time length. Through the measured dynamic responses, input and output node of the ANN are formed by the length of specific time, and adopted for the training. In the model, evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN), that radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with evolutionary optimization algorithm to find variables in RBF, is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through an analytical study applying responses from dynamic analysis for multi-degree of freedom system to training data in ERBFNN.

Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems

For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.

Performance of Neural Networks vs. Radial Basis Functions When Forming a Metamodel for Residential Buildings
Average temperatures worldwide are expected to continue to rise. At the same time, major cities in developing countries are becoming increasingly populated and polluted. Governments are tasked with the problem of overheating and air quality in residential buildings. This paper presents the development of a model, which is able to estimate the occupant exposure to extreme temperatures and high air pollution within domestic buildings. Building physics simulations were performed using the EnergyPlus building physics software. An accurate metamodel is then formed by randomly sampling building input parameters and training on the outputs of EnergyPlus simulations. Metamodels are used to vastly reduce the amount of computation time required when performing optimisation and sensitivity analyses. Neural Networks (NNs) have been compared to a Radial Basis Function (RBF) algorithm when forming a metamodel. These techniques were implemented using the PyBrain and scikit-learn python libraries, respectively. NNs are shown to perform around 15% better than RBFs when estimating overheating and air pollution metrics modelled by EnergyPlus.
Performance and Emission Prediction in a Biodiesel Engine Fuelled with Honge Methyl Ester Using RBF Neural Networks
In the present study, RBF neural networks were used for predicting the performance and emission parameters of a biodiesel engine. Engine experiments were carried out in a 4 stroke diesel engine using blends of diesel and Honge methyl ester as the fuel. Performance parameters like BTE, BSEC, Tex and emissions from the engine were measured. These experimental results were used for ANN modeling. RBF center initialization was done by random selection and by using Clustered techniques. Network was trained by using fixed and varying widths for the RBF units. It was observed that RBF results were having a good agreement with the experimental results. Networks trained by using clustering technique gave better results than using random selection of centers in terms of reduced MRE and increased prediction accuracy. The average MRE for the performance parameters was 3.25% with the prediction accuracy of 98% and for emissions it was 10.4% with a prediction accuracy of 80%.
A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm of Neural Network for Medical Diseases Problems

This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm for solving multi-objective optimization problems-based artificial neural network (ANN). The multi-objective evolutionary algorithm used in this study is genetic algorithm while ANN used is radial basis function network (RBFN). The proposed algorithm named memetic elitist Pareto non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-based RBFN (MEPGAN). The proposed algorithm is implemented on medical diseases problems. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is viable, and provides an effective means to design multi-objective RBFNs with good generalization capability and compact network structure. This study shows that MEPGAN generates RBFNs coming with an appropriate balance between accuracy and simplicity, comparing to the other algorithms found in literature.

Handwriting Velocity Modeling by Artificial Neural Networks

The handwriting is a physical demonstration of a complex cognitive process learnt by man since his childhood. People with disabilities or suffering from various neurological diseases are facing so many difficulties resulting from problems located at the muscle stimuli (EMG) or signals from the brain (EEG) and which arise at the stage of writing. The handwriting velocity of the same writer or different writers varies according to different criteria: age, attitude, mood, writing surface, etc. Therefore, it is interesting to reconstruct an experimental basis records taking, as primary reference, the writing speed for different writers which would allow studying the global system during handwriting process. This paper deals with a new approach of the handwriting system modeling based on the velocity criterion through the concepts of artificial neural networks, precisely the Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks. The obtained simulation results show a satisfactory agreement between responses of the developed neural model and the experimental data for various letters and forms then the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Evaluation of Short-Term Load Forecasting Techniques Applied for Smart Micro Grids

Load Forecasting plays a key role in making today's and future's Smart Energy Grids sustainable and reliable. Accurate power consumption prediction allows utilities to organize in advance their resources or to execute Demand Response strategies more effectively, which enables several features such as higher sustainability, better quality of service, and affordable electricity tariffs. It is easy yet effective to apply Load Forecasting at larger geographic scale, i.e. Smart Micro Grids, wherein the lower available grid flexibility makes accurate prediction more critical in Demand Response applications. This paper analyses the application of short-term load forecasting in a concrete scenario, proposed within the EU-funded GreenCom project, which collect load data from single loads and households belonging to a Smart Micro Grid. Three short-term load forecasting techniques, i.e. linear regression, artificial neural networks, and radial basis function network, are considered, compared, and evaluated through absolute forecast errors and training time. The influence of weather conditions in Load Forecasting is also evaluated. A new definition of Gain is introduced in this paper, which innovatively serves as an indicator of short-term prediction capabilities of time spam consistency. Two models, 24- and 1-hour-ahead forecasting, are built to comprehensively compare these three techniques.

Function Approximation with Radial Basis Function Neural Networks via FIR Filter

Recent experimental evidences have shown that because of a fast convergence and a nice accuracy, neural networks training via extended kalman filter (EKF) method is widely applied. However, as to an uncertainty of the system dynamics or modeling error, the performance of the method is unreliable. In order to overcome this problem in this paper, a new finite impulse response (FIR) filter based learning algorithm is proposed to train radial basis function neural networks (RBFN) for nonlinear function approximation. Compared to the EKF training method, the proposed FIR filter training method is more robust to those environmental conditions. Furthermore , the number of centers will be considered since it affects the performance of approximation.

An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN

The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.

Software Effort Estimation Models Using Radial Basis Function Network

Software Effort Estimation is the process of estimating the effort required to develop software. By estimating the effort, the cost and schedule required to estimate the software can be determined. Accurate Estimate helps the developer to allocate the resource accordingly in order to avoid cost overrun and schedule overrun. Several methods are available in order to estimate the effort among which soft computing based method plays a prominent role. Software cost estimation deals with lot of uncertainty among all soft computing methods neural network is good in handling uncertainty. In this paper Radial Basis Function Network is compared with the back propagation network and the results are validated using six data sets and it is found that RBFN is best suitable to estimate the effort. The Results are validated using two tests the error test and the statistical test.

Adaptive Shape Parameter (ASP) Technique for Local Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) and Their Application for Solution of Navier Strokes Equations

The concept of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) has been presented for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations using mesh-free local Radial Basis Functions (RBF). The aim is to avoid ill-conditioning of coefficient matrices of RBF weights and inaccuracies in RBF interpolation resulting from non-optimized shape of basis functions for the cases where data points (or nodes) are not distributed uniformly throughout the domain. Unlike conventional approaches which assume globally similar values of RBF shape parameters, the presented ASP technique suggests that shape parameter be calculated exclusively for each data point (or node) based on the distribution of data points within its own influence domain. This will ensure interpolation accuracy while still maintaining well conditioned system of equations for RBF weights. Performance and accuracy of ASP technique has been tested by evaluating derivatives and laplacian of a known function using RBF in Finite difference mode (RBFFD), with and without the use of adaptivity in shape parameters. Application of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations has been presented by solving lid driven cavity flow problem on mesh-free domain using RBF-FD. The results have been compared for fixed and adaptive shape parameters. Improved accuracy has been achieved with the use of ASP in RBF-FD especially at regions where larger gradients of field variables exist.

Fault Detection and Isolation using RBF Networks for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

This paper presents a new method of fault detection and isolation (FDI) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) dynamic systems under an open-loop scheme. This method uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to perform fault identification, classification and isolation. The novelty is that the RBF model of independent mode is used to predict the future outputs of the FC stack. One actuator fault, one component fault and three sensor faults have been introduced to the PEMFC systems experience faults between -7% to +10% of fault size in real-time operation. To validate the results, a benchmark model developed by Michigan University is used in the simulation to investigate the effect of these five faults. The developed independent RBF model is tested on MATLAB R2009a/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for FDI under an open-loop condition. By using this method, the RBF networks able to detect and isolate all five faults accordingly and accurately.

Use of Radial Basis Function Neural Network for Bearing Pressure Prediction of Strip Footing on Reinforced Granular Bed Overlying Weak Soil

Earth reinforcing techniques have become useful and economical to solve problems related to difficult grounds and provide satisfactory foundation performance. In this context, this paper uses radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for predicting the bearing pressure of strip footing on reinforced granular bed overlying weak soil. The inputs for the neural network models included plate width, thickness of granular bed and number of layers of reinforcements, settlement ratio, water content, dry density, cohesion and angle of friction. The results indicated that RBFNN model exhibited more than 84 % prediction accuracy, thereby demonstrating its application in a geotechnical problem.

Classification of Initial Stripe Height Patterns using Radial Basis Function Neural Network for Proportional Gain Prediction
This paper aims to improve a fine lapping process of hard disk drive (HDD) lapping machines by removing materials from each slider together with controlling the strip height (SH) variation to minimum value. The standard deviation is the key parameter to evaluate the strip height variation, hence it is minimized. In this paper, a design of experiment (DOE) with factorial analysis by twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA) is adopted to obtain a statistically information. The statistics results reveal that initial stripe height patterns affect the final SH variation. Therefore, initial SH classification using a radial basis function neural network is implemented to achieve the proportional gain prediction.
Predicting Protein Interaction Sites Based on a New Integrated Radial Basis Functional Neural Network
Interactions among proteins are the basis of various life events. So, it is important to recognize and research protein interaction sites. A control set that contains 149 protein molecules were used here. Then 10 features were extracted and 4 sample sets that contained 9 sliding windows were made according to features. These 4 sample sets were calculated by Radial Basis Functional neutral networks which were optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization respectively. Then 4 groups of results were obtained. Finally, these 4 groups of results were integrated by decision fusion (DF) and Genetic Algorithm based Selected Ensemble (GASEN). A better accuracy was got by DF and GASEN. So, the integrated methods were proved to be effective.
Blind Image Deconvolution by Neural Recursive Function Approximation

This work explores blind image deconvolution by recursive function approximation based on supervised learning of neural networks, under the assumption that a degraded image is linear convolution of an original source image through a linear shift-invariant (LSI) blurring matrix. Supervised learning of neural networks of radial basis functions (RBF) is employed to construct an embedded recursive function within a blurring image, try to extract non-deterministic component of an original source image, and use them to estimate hyper parameters of a linear image degradation model. Based on the estimated blurring matrix, reconstruction of an original source image from a blurred image is further resolved by an annealed Hopfield neural network. By numerical simulations, the proposed novel method is shown effective for faithful estimation of an unknown blurring matrix and restoration of an original source image.

A Localized Interpolation Method Using Radial Basis Functions

Finding the interpolation function of a given set of nodes is an important problem in scientific computing. In this work a kind of localization is introduced using the radial basis functions which finds a sufficiently smooth solution without consuming large amount of time and computer memory. Some examples will be presented to show the efficiency of the new method.

Input Variable Selection for RBFN-based Electric Utility's CO2 Emissions Forecasting

This study investigates the performance of radial basis function networks (RBFN) in forecasting the monthly CO2 emissions of an electric power utility. We also propose a method for input variable selection. This method is based on identifying the general relationships between groups of input candidates and the output. The effect that each input has on the forecasting error is examined by removing all inputs except the variable to be investigated from its group, calculating the networks parameter and performing the forecast. Finally, the new forecasting error is compared with the reference model. Eight input variables were identified as the most relevant, which is significantly less than our reference model with 30 input variables. The simulation results demonstrate that the model with the 8 inputs selected using the method introduced in this study performs as accurate as the reference model, while also being the most parsimonious.

Improving RBF Networks Classification Performance by using K-Harmonic Means
In this paper, a clustering algorithm named KHarmonic means (KHM) was employed in the training of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFNs). KHM organized the data in clusters and determined the centres of the basis function. The popular clustering algorithms, namely K-means (KM) and Fuzzy c-means (FCM), are highly dependent on the initial identification of elements that represent the cluster well. In KHM, the problem can be avoided. This leads to improvement in the classification performance when compared to other clustering algorithms. A comparison of the classification accuracy was performed between KM, FCM and KHM. The classification performance is based on the benchmark data sets: Iris Plant, Diabetes and Breast Cancer. RBFN training with the KHM algorithm shows better accuracy in classification problem.
Distance Transmission Line Protection Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network

To determine the presence and location of faults in a transmission by the adaptation of protective distance relay based on the measurement of fixed settings as line impedance is achieved by several different techniques. Moreover, a fast, accurate and robust technique for real-time purposes is required for the modern power systems. The appliance of radial basis function neural network in transmission line protection is demonstrated in this paper. The method applies the power system via voltage and current signals to learn the hidden relationship presented in the input patterns. It is experiential that the proposed technique is competent to identify the particular fault direction more speedily. System simulations studied show that the proposed approach is able to distinguish the direction of a fault on a transmission line swiftly and correctly, therefore suitable for the real-time purposes.

Performance Optimization of Data Mining Application Using Radial Basis Function Classifier
Text data mining is a process of exploratory data analysis. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. This paper describes proposed radial basis function Classifier that performs comparative crossvalidation for existing radial basis function Classifier. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by means of data mining problem: direct Marketing. Direct marketing has become an important application field of data mining. Comparative Cross-validation involves estimation of accuracy by either stratified k-fold cross-validation or equivalent repeated random subsampling. While the proposed method may have high bias; its performance (accuracy estimation in our case) may be poor due to high variance. Thus the accuracy with proposed radial basis function Classifier was less than with the existing radial basis function Classifier. However there is smaller the improvement in runtime and larger improvement in precision and recall. In the proposed method Classification accuracy and prediction accuracy are determined where the prediction accuracy is comparatively high.
Evaluation of the ANN Based Nonlinear System Models in the MSE and CRLB Senses
The System Identification problem looks for a suitably parameterized model, representing a given process. The parameters of the model are adjusted to optimize a performance function based on error between the given process output and identified process output. The linear system identification field is well established with many classical approaches whereas most of those methods cannot be applied for nonlinear systems. The problem becomes tougher if the system is completely unknown with only the output time series is available. It has been reported that the capability of Artificial Neural Network to approximate all linear and nonlinear input-output maps makes it predominantly suitable for the identification of nonlinear systems, where only the output time series is available. [1][2][4][5]. The work reported here is an attempt to implement few of the well known algorithms in the context of modeling of nonlinear systems, and to make a performance comparison to establish the relative merits and demerits.
Detection of Moving Images Using Neural Network

Motion detection is a basic operation in the selection of significant segments of the video signals. For an effective Human Computer Intelligent Interaction, the computer needs to recognize the motion and track the moving object. Here an efficient neural network system is proposed for motion detection from the static background. This method mainly consists of four parts like Frame Separation, Rough Motion Detection, Network Formation and Training, Object Tracking. This paper can be used to verify real time detections in such a way that it can be used in defense applications, bio-medical applications and robotics. This can also be used for obtaining detection information related to the size, location and direction of motion of moving objects for assessment purposes. The time taken for video tracking by this Neural Network is only few seconds.

Artificial Intelligence Techniques Applications for Power Disturbances Classification

Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods are increasingly being used for problem solving. This paper concerns using AI-type learning machines for power quality problem, which is a problem of general interest to power system to provide quality power to all appliances. Electrical power of good quality is essential for proper operation of electronic equipments such as computers and PLCs. Malfunction of such equipment may lead to loss of production or disruption of critical services resulting in huge financial and other losses. It is therefore necessary that critical loads be supplied with electricity of acceptable quality. Recognition of the presence of any disturbance and classifying any existing disturbance into a particular type is the first step in combating the problem. In this work two classes of AI methods for Power quality data mining are studied: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We show that SVMs are superior to ANNs in two critical respects: SVMs train and run an order of magnitude faster; and SVMs give higher classification accuracy.

Affine Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for the Robust Control of Hyperbolic Distributed Parameter Systems

In this work, a radial basis function (RBF) neural network is developed for the identification of hyperbolic distributed parameter systems (DPSs). This empirical model is based only on process input-output data and used for the estimation of the controlled variables at specific locations, without the need of online solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The nonlinear model that is obtained is suitably transformed to a nonlinear state space formulation that also takes into account the model mismatch. A stable robust control law is implemented for the attenuation of external disturbances. The proposed identification and control methodology is applied on a long duct, a common component of thermal systems, for a flow based control of temperature distribution. The closed loop performance is significantly improved in comparison to existing control methodologies.

RBF Based Face Recognition and Expression Analysis
Facial recognition and expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and humancomputer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper skin and non-skin pixels were separated. Face regions were extracted from the detected skin regions. Facial expressions are analyzed from facial images by applying Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on face images. Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network is used to identify the person and to classify the facial expressions. Our method reliably works even with faces, which carry heavy expressions.
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