Innovative Design Considerations for Adaptive Spacecraft
Space technologies have changed the way we live in the present day society and manage many aspects of our daily affairs through Remote sensing, Navigation & Communications. Further, defense and military usage of spacecraft has increased tremendously along with civilian purposes. The number of satellites deployed in space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and the Geostationary Orbit (GEO) has gone up. The dependency on remote sensing and operational capabilities are most invariably to be exploited more and more in future. Every country is acquiring spacecraft in one way or other for their daily needs, and spacecraft numbers are likely to increase significantly and create spacecraft traffic problems. The aim of this research paper is to propose innovative design concepts for adaptive spacecraft. The main idea here is to improve existing design methods of spacecraft design and development to further improve upon design considerations for futuristic adaptive spacecraft with inbuilt features for automatic adaptability and self-protection. In other words, the innovative design considerations proposed here are to have future spacecraft with self-organizing capabilities for orbital control and protection from anti-satellite weapons (ASAT). Here, an attempt is made to propose design and develop futuristic spacecraft for 2030 and beyond due to tremendous advancements in VVLSI, miniaturization, and nano antenna array technologies, including nano technologies are expected.
, low earth orbit
, medium earth orbit
, geostationary earth orbit
, self-organizing control system
, anti-satellite weapons
, orbital control
, radar warning receiver
, missile warning receiver
, laser warning receiver
, attitude and orbit control systems
, command and data handling.
A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application
It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.
Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System
A solar receiver is designed for operation under
extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud
transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and
even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity
on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local
Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This
study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling
using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and
economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary
receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when
oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is
negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that
when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient
increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a
reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition,
the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows
toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect
on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.
Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm
Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women
are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements.
Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and
right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are
statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat
content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone
mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for dominant arm.
With the post-menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant
arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified
osteopenic and osteoporic population around lumbar spine, is
statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine
osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve
of the characteristic frequency is 0.830, suggesting that the Cole-Cole
plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter
when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis.
Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by
monitoring frequency driven angular behavior of the dominant arm
without performing any complex calculation.
Improved Rake Receiver Based On the Signal Sign Separation in Maximal Ratio Combining Technique for Ultra-Wideband Wireless Communication Systems
At receiving high data rate in ultra wideband (UWB) technology for many users, there are multiple user interference and inter-symbol interference as obstacles in the multi-path reception technique. Since the rake receivers were designed to collect many resolvable paths, even more than hundred of paths. Rake receiver implementation structures have been proposed towards increasing the complexity for getting better performances in indoor or outdoor multi-path receivers by reducing the bit error rate (BER). So several rake structures were proposed in the past to reduce the number of combining and estimating of resolvable paths. To this aim, we suggested two improved rake receivers based on signal sign separation in the maximal ratio combiner (MRC), called positive-negative MRC selective rake (P-N/MRC-S-rake) and positive-negative MRC partial rake (P-N/MRC-S-rake) receivers. These receivers were introduced to reduce the complexity with less number of fingers and improving the performance with low BER. Before decision circuit, there is a comparator to compare between positive quantity and negative quantity to decide whether the transmitted bit is 1 or 0. The BER was driven by MATLAB simulation with multi-path environments for impulse radio time-hopping binary phase shift keying (TH-BPSK) modulation and the results were compared with those of conventional rake receivers.
The Suitability of GPS Receivers Update Rates for Navigation Applications
Navigation is the processes of monitoring and
controlling the movement of an object from one place to another.
Currently, Global Positioning System (GPS) is the main navigation
system used all over the world for navigation applications. GPS
receiver receives signals from at least three satellites to locate and
display itself. Displayed positioning information is updated
continuously. Update rate is the number of times per second that a
display is illuminated. The speed of update is governed by receiver
update rate. A higher update rate decreases display lag time and
improves distance measurements and tracking especially when
moving on a curvy route. The majority of GPS receivers used
nowadays are updated every second continuously. This period is
considered reasonable for some applications while it is long relatively
for high speed applications. In this paper, the suitability and
feasibility of GPS receiver with different update rates will be
evaluated for various applications according to the level of speed and
update rate needed for particular applications.
ROC Analysis of PVC Detection Algorithm using ECG and Vector-ECG Charateristics
ECG analysis method was developed using ROC
analysis of PVC detecting algorithm. ECG signal of MIT-BIH
arrhythmia database was analyzed by MATLAB. First of all, the
baseline was removed by median filter to preprocess the ECG signal.
R peaks were detected for ECG analysis method, and normal VCG
was extracted for VCG analysis method. Four PVC detecting
algorithm was analyzed by ROC curve, which parameters are
maximum amplitude of QRS complex, width of QRS complex, r-r
interval and geometric mean of VCG. To set cut-off value of
parameters, ROC curve was estimated by true-positive rate
(sensitivity) and false-positive rate. sensitivity and false negative rate
(specificity) of ROC curve calculated, and ECG was analyzed using
cut-off value which was estimated from ROC curve. As a result, PVC
detecting algorithm of VCG geometric mean have high availability,
and PVC could be detected more accurately with amplitude and width
of QRS complex.
Coherent PON for NG-PON2: 40Gbps Downstream Transmission with 40dB Power Margin using Commercial DFB Lasers and no Optical Amplification
We demonstrate a 40Gbps downstream PON
transmission based on PM-QPSK modulation using commercial DFB
lasers without optical amplifier in the ODN, obtaining 40dB power
budget. We discuss this solution within NG-PON2 architectures.
Hi-Fi Traffic Clearance Technique for Life Saving Vehicles using Differential GPS System
This paper may be considered as combination of both pervasive computing and Differential GPS (global positioning satellite) which relates to control automatic traffic signals in such a
way as to pre-empt normal signal operation and permit lifesaving vehicles. Before knowing the arrival of the lifesaving vehicles from
the signal there is a chance of clearing the traffic. Traffic signal
preemption system includes a vehicle equipped with onboard computer system capable of capturing diagnostic information and
estimated location of the lifesaving vehicle using the information provided by GPS receiver connected to the onboard computer system
and transmitting the information-s using a wireless transmitter via a
wireless network. The fleet management system connected to a
wireless receiver is capable of receiving the information transmitted
by the lifesaving vehicle .A computer is also located at the
intersection uses corrected vehicle position, speed & direction
measurements, in conjunction with previously recorded data defining
approach routes to the intersection, to determine the optimum time to
switch a traffic light controller to preemption mode so that lifesaving
vehicles can pass safely. In case when the ambulance need to take a
“U" turn in a heavy traffic area we suggest a solution. Now we are
going to make use of computerized median which uses LINKED
BLOCKS (removable) to solve the above problem.
Analysis of MAC Protocols with Correlation Receiver for OCDMA Networks - Part II
In this paper optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) packet network is considered, which offers inherent security in the access networks. Two types of random access protocols are proposed for packet transmission. In protocol 1, all distinct codes and in protocol 2, distinct codes as well as shifted versions of all these codes are used. O-CDMA network performance using optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) 1-D and two-dimensional (2-D) wavelength/time single-pulse-per-row (W/T SPR) codes are analyzed. The main advantage of using 2-D codes instead of onedimensional (1-D) codes is to reduce the errors due to multiple access interference among different users. In this paper, correlation receiver is considered in the analysis. Using analytical model, we compute and compare packet-success probability for 1-D and 2-D codes in an O-CDMA network and the analysis shows improved performance with 2-D codes as compared to 1-D codes.
Tri-Axis Receiver for Wireless Micro-Power Transmission
An innovative tri-axes micro-power receiver is
proposed. The tri-axes micro-power receiver consists of two sets 3-D
micro-solenoids and one set planar micro-coils in which iron core is
embedded. The three sets of micro-coils are designed to be orthogonal
to each other. Therefore, no matter which direction the flux is present
along, the magnetic energy can be harvested and transformed into
electric power. Not only dead space of receiving power is mostly
reduced, but also transformation efficiency of electromagnetic energy
to electric power can be efficiently raised. By employing commercial
software, Ansoft Maxwell, the preliminary simulation results verify
that the proposed micro-power receiver can efficiently pick up the
energy transmitted by magnetic power source.
As to the fabrication process, the isotropic etching technique is
employed to micro-machine the inverse-trapezoid fillister so that the
copper wire can be successfully electroplated. The adhesion between
micro-coils and fillister is much enhanced.
A Robust Reception of IEEE 802.15.4a IR-TH UWB in Dense Multipath and Gaussian Noise
IEEE 802.15.4a impulse radio-time hopping ultra wide
band (IR-TH UWB) physical layer, due to small duty cycle and very
short pulse widths is robust against multipath propagation. However,
scattering and reflections with the large number of obstacles in indoor
channel environments, give rise to dense multipath fading. It imposes
serious problem to optimum Rake receiver architectures, for which
very large number of fingers are needed. Presence of strong noise
also affects the reception of fine pulses having extremely low power
spectral density. A robust SRake receiver for IEEE 802.15.4a IRTH
UWB in dense multipath and additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) is proposed to efficiently recover the weak signals with
much reduced complexity. It adaptively increases the signal to noise
(SNR) by decreasing noise through a recursive least square (RLS)
algorithm. For simulation, dense multipath environment of IEEE
802.15.4a industrial non line of sight (NLOS) is employed. The power
delay profile (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF)
for the respective channel environment are found. Moreover, the error
performance of the proposed architecture is evaluated in comparison
with conventional SRake and AWGN correlation receivers. The
simulation results indicate a substantial performance improvement
with very less number of Rake fingers.
A Simplified Single Correlator Rake Receiver for CDMA Communications
This paper presents a single correlator RAKE receiver for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems. In conventional RAKE receivers, multiple correlators are used to despread the multipath signals and then to align and combine those signals in a later stage before making a bit decision. The simplified receiver structure presented here uses a single correlator and single code sequence generator to recover the multipaths. Modified Walsh- Hadamard codes are used here for data spreading that provides better uncorrelation properties for the multipath signals. The main advantage of this receiver structure is that it requires only a single correlator and a code generator in contrary to the conventional RAKE receiver concept with multiple correlators. It is shown in results that the proposed receiver achieves better bit error rates in comparison with the conventional one for more than one multipaths.
Modulation Identification Algorithm for Adaptive Demodulator in Software Defined Radios Using Wavelet Transform
A generalized Digital Modulation Identification algorithm for adaptive demodulator has been developed and presented in this paper. The algorithm developed is verified using wavelet Transform and histogram computation to identify QPSK and QAM with GMSK and M–ary FSK modulations. It has been found that the histogram peaks simplifies the procedure for identification. The simulated results show that the correct modulation identification is possible to a lower bound of 5 dB and 12 dB for GMSK and QPSK respectively. When SNR is above 5 dB the throughput of the proposed algorithm is more than 97.8%. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) has been computed to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm and the analysis shows that the probability of detection (Pd) drops rapidly when SNR is 5 dB and probability of false alarm (Pf) is smaller than 0.3. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with existing methods and found it will identify all digital modulation schemes with low SNR.
Increasing the Efficiency of Rake Receivers for Ultra-Wideband Applications
In diversity rich environments, such as in Ultra-
Wideband (UWB) applications, the a priori determination of the
number of strong diversity branches is difficult, because of the considerably large number of diversity paths, which are characterized
by a variety of power delay profiles (PDPs). Several
Rake implementations have been proposed in the past, in order to reduce the number of the estimated and combined paths. To this
aim, we introduce two adaptive Rake receivers, which combine
a subset of the resolvable paths considering simultaneously the
quality of both the total combining output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the individual SNR of each path. These schemes achieve
better adaptation to channel conditions compared to other known receivers, without further increasing the complexity. Their performance
is evaluated in different practical UWB channels, whose models are based on extensive propagation measurements. The
proposed receivers compromise between the power consumption,
complexity and performance gain for the additional paths, resulting in important savings in power and computational resources.
Joint Microstatistic Multiuser Detection and Cancellation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects for the Uplink of MC-CDMA Systems Using Golay Codes
The study in this paper underlines the importance of
correct joint selection of the spreading codes for uplink of multicarrier
code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) at the transmitter
side and detector at the receiver side in the presence of nonlinear
distortion due to high power amplifier (HPA). The bit error rate
(BER) of system for different spreading sequences (Walsh code, Gold
code, orthogonal Gold code, Golay code and Zadoff-Chu code) and
different kinds of receivers (minimum mean-square error receiver
(MMSE-MUD) and microstatistic multi-user receiver (MSF-MUD))
is compared by means of simulations for MC-CDMA transmission
system. Finally, the results of analysis will show, that the application
of MSF-MUD in combination with Golay codes can outperform
significantly the other tested spreading codes and receivers for all
mostly used models of HPA.
Design and Construction of Microcontroller-Based Telephone Exchange System
This paper demonstrates design and construction of
microcontroller-based telephone exchange system and the aims of
this paper is to study telecommunication, connection with
PIC16F877A and DTMF MT8870D. In microcontroller system, PIC
16F877 microcontroller is used to control the call processing. Dial
tone, busy tone and ring tone are provided during call progress.
Instead of using ready made tone generator IC, oscillator based tone
generator is used. The results of this telephone exchange system are
perfect for homes and small businesses needing the extensions. It
requires the phone operation control system, the analog interface
circuit and the switching circuit. This exchange design will contain
It is the best low cost, good quality telephone exchange for today-s
telecommunication needs. It offers the features available in much
more expensive PBX units without using high-priced phones. It is for
long distance telephone services.
130 nm CMOS Mixer and VCO for 2.4 GHz Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks
This paper describes a 2.4 GHz passive switch mixer
and a 5/2.5 GHz voltage-controlled negative Gm oscillator (VCO)
with an inversion-mode MOS varactor. Both circuits are implemented
using a 1P8M 0.13 μm process. The switch mixer has an input
referred 1 dB compression point of -3.89 dBm and a conversion
gain of -0.96 dB when the local oscillator power is +2.5 dBm.
The VCO consumes only 1.75 mW, while drawing 1.45 mA from a
1.2 V supply voltage. In order to reduce the passives size, the VCO
natural oscillation frequency is 5 GHz. A clocked CMOS divideby-
two circuit is used for frequency division and quadrature phase
generation. The VCO has a -109 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 MHz
frequency offset and a 2.35-2.5 GHz tuning range (after the frequency
division), thus complying with ZigBee requirements.
Design, Development and Implementation of aTemperature Sensor using Zigbee Concepts
This paper deals with the design, development & implementation of a temperature sensor using zigbee. The main aim of the work undertaken in this paper is to sense the temperature and to display the result on the LCD using the zigbee technology. ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands; 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the USA and 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide. The technology is intended to be simpler and cheaper than other WPANs such as Bluetooth. The most capable ZigBee node type is said to require only about 10 % of the software of a typical Bluetooth or Wireless Internet node, while the simplest nodes are about 2 %. However, actual code sizes are much higher, more like 50 % of the Bluetooth code size. ZigBee chip vendors have announced 128-kilobyte devices. In this work undertaken in the design & development of the temperature sensor, it senses the temperature and after amplification is then fed to the micro controller, this is then connected to the zigbee module, which transmits the data and at the other end the zigbee reads the data and displays on to the LCD. The software developed is highly accurate and works at a very high speed. The method developed shows the effectiveness of the scheme employed.
Theoretical Analysis of Capacities in Dynamic Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Systems
In this paper, we investigate the study of techniques
for scheduling users for resource allocation in the case of multiple
input and multiple output (MIMO) packet transmission systems. In
these systems, transmit antennas are assigned to one user or
dynamically to different users using spatial multiplexing. The
allocation of all transmit antennas to one user cannot take full
advantages of multi-user diversity. Therefore, we developed the case
when resources are allocated dynamically. At each time slot users
have to feed back their channel information on an uplink feedback
channel. Channel information considered available in the schedulers
is the zero forcing (ZF) post detection signal to interference plus
noise ratio. Our analysis study concerns the round robin and the
In this paper, we present an overview and a complete capacity
analysis of these schemes. The main results in our study are to give
an analytical form of system capacity using the ZF receiver at the
user terminal. Simulations have been carried out to validate all
proposed analytical solutions and to compare the performance of
System Concept for Low Analog Complexity and High-IF Superposition Heterodyne Receivers
For today-s and future wireless communications applications,
more and more data traffic has to be transmitted with
growing speed and quality demands. The analog front-end of any
mobile device has to cope with very hard specifications regardless
which transmission standard has to be supported. State-of-the-art
analog front-end implementations are reaching the limit of technical
feasibility. For that reason, alternative front-end architectures could
support a continuing development of mobile communications e.g.,
six-port-based front-ends , .
In this article we propose an analog front-end with high intermediate
frequency and which utilizes additive mixing instead
of multiplicative mixing. The system architecture is presented and
several spurious effects as well as their influence on the system
dimensioning are discussed. Furthermore, several issues concerning
the technical feasibility are provided and some simulation results
are discussed which show the principle functionality of the proposed
superposition heterodyne receiver.
Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Misalignment Coils
In biomedical implant field, a new formula is given
for the study of Radio Frequency power attenuation by simultaneous
effects of side and angular misalignment of the supply/data transfer
coils. A confrontation with the practical measurements done into a
Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results.
The DC supply systems without material connection and the data
transmitters used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well
dimensioned by taking into account the possibility of power
attenuation by misalignment of transfer coils
Discrete-time Phase and Delay Locked Loops Analyses in Tracking Mode
Phase locked loops (PLL) and delay locked loops (DLL) play an important role in establishing coherent references (phase of carrier and symbol timing) in digital communication systems. Fully digital receiver including digital carrier synchronizer and symbol timing synchronizer fulfils the conditions for universal multi-mode communication receiver with option of symbol rate setting over several digit places and long-term stability of requirement parameters. Afterwards it is necessary to realize PLL and DLL in synchronizer in digital form and to approach to these subsystems as a discrete representation of analog template. Analysis of discrete phase locked loop (DPLL) or discrete delay locked loop (DDLL) and technique to determine their characteristics based on analog (continuous-time) template is performed in this posed paper. There are derived transmission response and error function for 1st order discrete locked loop and resulting equations and graphical representations for 2nd order one. It is shown that the spectrum translation due to sampling takes effect at frequency characteristics computing for specific values of loop parameters.
SVM Based Model as an Optimal Classifier for the Classification of Sonar Signals
Research into the problem of classification of sonar signals has been taken up as a challenging task for the neural networks. This paper investigates the design of an optimal classifier using a Multi layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP NN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Results obtained using sonar data sets suggest that SVM classifier perform well in comparison with well-known MLP NN classifier. An average classification accuracy of 91.974% is achieved with SVM classifier and 90.3609% with MLP NN classifier, on the test instances. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for the proposed SVM classifier on test data set is found as 0.981183, which is very close to unity and this clearly confirms the excellent quality of the proposed classifier. The SVM classifier employed in this paper is implemented using kernel Adatron algorithm is seen to be robust and relatively insensitive to the parameter initialization in comparison to MLP NN.
Joint Transmitter-Receiver Optimization for Bonded Wireline Communications
With the advent of DSL services, high data rates are now available over phone lines, yet higher rates are in demand. In this paper, we optimize the transmit filters that can be used over wireline channels. Results showing the bit error rates when optimized filters are used, and with a decision feedback equalizer (DFE) employed in the receiver, are given. We then show that significantly higher throughput can be achieved by modeling the channel as a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel. A receiver that employs a MIMO-DFE that deals jointly with several users is proposed and shown to provide significant improvement over the conventional DFE.