Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications
A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.
Attribute Based Comparison and Selection of Modular Self-Reconfigurable Robot Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach
From the last decades, there is a significant technological advancement in the field of robotics, and a number of modular self-reconfigurable robots were introduced that can help in space exploration, bucket to stuff, search, and rescue operation during earthquake, etc. As there are numbers of self-reconfigurable robots, choosing the optimum one is always a concern for robot user since there is an increase in available features, facilities, complexity, etc. The objective of this research work is to present a multiple attribute decision making based methodology for coding, evaluation, comparison ranking and selection of modular self-reconfigurable robots using a technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution approach. However, 86 attributes that affect the structure and performance are identified. A database for modular self-reconfigurable robot on the basis of different pertinent attribute is generated. This database is very useful for the user, for selecting a robot that suits their operational needs. Two visual methods namely linear graph and spider chart are proposed for ranking of modular self-reconfigurable robots. Using five robots (Atron, Smores, Polybot, M-Tran 3, Superbot), an example is illustrated, and raking of the robots is successfully done, which shows that Smores is the best robot for the operational need illustrated, and this methodology is found to be very effective and simple to use.
PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication
In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.
A Low-Area Fully-Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Fast Fourier Transform System for 3GPP-LTE Standard
This paper presents a low-area and fully-reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) hardware design for 3GPP-LTE communication standard. It can fully support 32 different FFT sizes, up to 2048 FFT points. Besides, a special processing element is developed for making reconfigurable computing characteristics possible, while first-in first-out (FIFO) scheduling scheme design technique is proposed for hardware-friendly FIFO resource arranging. In a synthesis chip realization via TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, the hardware circuit only occupies core area of 0.2325 mm2 and dissipates 233.5 mW at maximal operating frequency of 250 MHz.
A Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna with Polyphase Filter for Polarization Diversity and Cross Polarization Filtering Operation
A reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with polyphase filter for polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation is presented in this paper. In our approach, a polyphase filter is used to obtain the four 90° phase shift outputs to feed a square microstrip patch antenna. The antenna can be switched between four states of polarization in transmission as well as in receiving mode. Switches are interconnected with the polyphase filter network to produce left-hand circular polarization, right-hand circular polarization, horizontal linear polarization, and vertical linear polarization. Additional advantage of using polyphase filter is its filtering capability for cross polarization filtering in right-hand circular polarization and left-hand circular polarization operation. The theoretical and simulated results demonstrated that polyphase filter is a good candidate to drive microstrip patch antenna to accomplish polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation.
Design of Reconfigurable 2 Way Wilkinson Power Divider for WLAN Applications
A Reconfigurable Wilkinson power divider is
proposed in this paper. In existing system only a limited number of
bandwidth is used at the output ports, in the proposed Wilkinson
power divider different band of frequencies are obtained by using
PIN diode. By tuning the PIN diode, different frequencies are
achieved. The size of the power divider is reduced for the operating
frequency and increases the fractional bandwidth.
A Middleware Management System with Supporting Holonic Modules for Reconfigurable Management System
There is currently a gap in the technology covering the
rapid establishment of control after a reconfiguration in a
Reconfigurable Manufacturing System. This gap involves the
detection of the factory floor state and the communication link
between the factory floor and the high-level software. In this paper, a
thin, hardware-supported Middleware Management System (MMS) is
proposed and its design and implementation are discussed. The
research found that a cost-effective localization technique can be
combined with intelligent software to speed up the ramp-up of a
reconfigured system. The MMS makes the process more intelligent,
more efficient and less time-consuming, thus supporting the
industrial implementation of the RMS paradigm.
Bit Model Based Key Management Scheme for Secure Group Communication
For the last decade, researchers have started to focus
their interest on Multicast Group Key Management Framework. The
central research challenge is secure and efficient group key
distribution. The present paper is based on the Bit model based
Secure Multicast Group key distribution scheme using the most
popular absolute encoder output type code named Gray Code. The
focus is of two folds. The first fold deals with the reduction of
computation complexity which is achieved in our scheme by
performing fewer multiplication operations during the key updating
process. To optimize the number of multiplication operations, an
O(1) time algorithm to multiply two N-bit binary numbers which
could be used in an N x N bit-model of reconfigurable mesh is used
in this proposed work. The second fold aims at reducing the amount
of information stored in the Group Center and group members while
performing the update operation in the key content. Comparative
analysis to illustrate the performance of various key distribution
schemes is shown in this paper and it has been observed that this
proposed algorithm reduces the computation and storage complexity
significantly. Our proposed algorithm is suitable for high
performance computing environment.
A Survey of Baseband Architecture for Software Defined Radio
This paper is a survey of recent works that proposes a baseband processor architecture for software defined radio. A classification of different approaches is proposed. The performance of each architecture is also discussed in order to clarify the suitable approaches that meet software-defined radio constraints.
Single Port Overlay Cognitive Radio Using Reconfigurable Filtennas
In this paper cognitive radio is presented and the
spectrum overlay cognitive radio antenna system is detailed. A UWB
antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics is proposed.
The reconfigurability is achieved when the filter is integrated to the
feeding line of the single port overlay cognitive radio. When
activated, the filter can transform the UWB frequency response into a
reconfigurable narrowband one, which is suitable for the
communication operation of the CR system. Here single port overlay
cognitive radio antenna is designed and simulated using Ansoft High
Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).
Bandwidth Control Using Reconfigurable Antenna Elements
Reconfigurable antennas represent a recent innovation in antenna design that changes from classical fixed-form, fixed function antennas to modifiable structures that can be adapted to fit the requirements of a time varying system.
The ability to control the operating band of an antenna system can have many useful applications. Systems that operate in an acquire-and-track configuration would see a benefit from active bandwidth control. In such systems a wide band search mode is first employed to find a desired signal then a narrow band track mode is used to follow only that signal. Utilizing active antenna bandwidth control, a single antenna would function for both the wide band and narrow band configurations providing the rejection of unwanted signals with the antenna hardware. This ability to move a portion of the RF filtering out of the receiver and onto the antenna itself will also aid in reducing the complexity of the often expensive RF processing subsystems.
Meta-analysis of Performance: Summarizing Research for Implementation of Reconfigurability
The aim of this study is to identify the conditions of
implementation for reconfigurability in summarizing past flexible
manufacturing systems (FMS) research by drawing overall
conclusions from many separate High Performance Manufacturing
(HPM) studies. Meta-analysis will be applied to links between HPM
programs and their practices related to FMS and manufacturing
performance with particular reference to responsiveness performance.
More specifically, an application of meta-analysis will be made with
reference to two of the main steps towards the development of an
empirically-tested theory: testing the adequacy of the measurement of
variables and testing the linkages between the variables.
Scheduling for a Reconfigurable Manufacturing System with Multiple Process Plans and Limited Pallets/Fixtures
A reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) is an
advanced system designed at the outset for rapid changes in its hardware
and software components in order to quickly adjust its production
capacity and functionally. Among various operational decisions, this
study considers the scheduling problem that determines the input
sequence and schedule at the same time for a given set of parts. In
particular, we consider the practical constraints that the numbers of
pallets/fixtures are limited and hence a part can be released into the
system only when the fixture required for the part is available. To
solve the integrated input sequencing and scheduling problems, we
suggest a priority rule based approach in which the two sub-problems
are solved using a combination of priority rules. To show the effectiveness
of various rule combinations, a simulation experiment was
done on the data for a real RMS, and the test results are reported.
Intelligent Design of Reconfigurable Machines
This paper presents methodologies for developing an
intelligent CAD system assisting in analysis and design of
reconfigurable special machines. It describes a procedure for
determining feasibility of utilizing these machines for a given part
and presents a model for developing an intelligent CAD system. The
system analyzes geometrical and topological information of the given
part to determine possibility of the part being produced by
reconfigurable special machines from a technical point of view. Also
feasibility of the process from a economical point of view is
analyzed. Then the system determines proper positioning of the part
considering details of machining features and operations needed.
This involves determination of operation types, cutting tools and the
number of working stations needed. Upon completion of this stage
the overall layout of the machine and machining equipment required
Routing Capability and Blocking Analysis of Dynamic ROADM Optical Networks (Category - II) for Dynamic Traffic
Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers
(ROADMs) can be classified into three categories based on their
underlying switching technologies. Category I consists of a single
large optical switch; category II is composed of a number of small
optical switches aligned in parallel; and category III has a single
optical switch and only one wavelength being added/dropped. In this
paper, to evaluate the wavelength-routing capability of ROADMs of
category-II in dynamic optical networks,the dynamic traffic models
are designed based on Bernoulli, Poisson distributions for smooth
and regular types of traffic. Through Analytical and Simulation
results, the routing power of cat-II of ROADM networks for two
traffic models are determined.
RFU Based Computational Unit Design For Reconfigurable Processors
Fully customized hardware based technology provides high performance and low power consumption by specializing the tasks in hardware but lacks design flexibility since any kind of changes require re-design and re-fabrication. Software based solutions operate with software instructions due to which a great flexibility is achieved from the easy development and maintenance of the software code. But this execution of instructions introduces a high overhead in performance and area consumption. In past few decades the reconfigurable computing domain has been introduced which overcomes the traditional trades-off between flexibility and performance and is able to achieve high performance while maintaining a good flexibility. The dramatic gains in terms of chip performance and design flexibility achieved through the reconfigurable computing systems are greatly dependent on the design of their computational units being integrated with reconfigurable logic resources. The computational unit of any reconfigurable system plays vital role in defining its strength. In this research paper an RFU based computational unit design has been presented using the tightly coupled, multi-threaded reconfigurable cores. The proposed design has been simulated for VLIW based architectures and a high gain in performance has been observed as compared to the conventional computing systems.
Design of Non-Blocking and Rearrangeable Modified Banyan Network with Electro-Optic MZI Switching Elements
Banyan networks are really attractive for serving as
the optical switching architectures due to their unique properties of
small depth and absolute signal loss uniformity. The fact has been
established that the limitations of blocking nature and the nonavailability
of proper connections due to non-rearrangeable property
can be easily ruled out using electro-optic MZI switches as basic
switching elements. Combination of the horizontal expansion and
vertical stacking of optical banyan networks is an appropriate scheme
for constructing non-blocking banyan-based optical switching
networks. The interconnected banyan switching fabrics (IBSF) have
been considered and analyzed to best serve the purpose of optical
switching with electro-optic MZI basic elements. The cross/bar state
interchange for the switches has been facilitated by appropriate
voltage switching or the by the switching of operating wavelength.
The paper is dedicated to the modification of the basic switching
element being used as well as the architecture of the switching
A Low-cost Reconfigurable Architecture for AES Algorithm
This paper proposes a low-cost reconfigurable
architecture for AES algorithm. The proposed architecture separates
SubBytes and MixColumns into two parallel data path, and supports
different bit-width operation for this two data path. As a result, different number of S-box can be supported in this architecture. The
throughput and power consumption can be adjusted by changing the
number of S-box running in this design. Using the TSMC 0.18μm CMOS standard cell library, a very low-cost implementation of 7K
Gates is obtained under 182MHz frequency. The maximum throughput is 360Mbps while using 4 S-Box simultaneously, and the
minimum throughput is 114Mbps while only using 1 S-Box
On-Line Geometrical Identification of Reconfigurable Machine Tool using Virtual Machining
One of the main research directions in CAD/CAM
machining area is the reducing of machining time.
The feedrate scheduling is one of the advanced techniques that
allows keeping constant the uncut chip area and as sequel to keep
constant the main cutting force. They are two main ways for feedrate
optimization. The first consists in the cutting force monitoring, which
presumes to use complex equipment for the force measurement and
after this, to set the feedrate regarding the cutting force variation. The
second way is to optimize the feedrate by keeping constant the
material removal rate regarding the cutting conditions.
In this paper there is proposed a new approach using an extended
database that replaces the system model.
The feedrate scheduling is determined based on the identification
of the reconfigurable machine tool, and the feed value determination
regarding the uncut chip section area, the contact length between tool
and blank and also regarding the geometrical roughness.
The first stage consists in the blank and tool monitoring for the
determination of actual profiles. The next stage is the determination
of programmed tool path that allows obtaining the piece target
The graphic representation environment models the tool and blank
regions and, after this, the tool model is positioned regarding the
blank model according to the programmed tool path. For each of
these positions the geometrical roughness value, the uncut chip area
and the contact length between tool and blank are calculated. Each of
these parameters are compared with the admissible values and
according to the result the feed value is established.
We can consider that this approach has the following advantages:
in case of complex cutting processes the prediction of cutting force is
possible; there is considered the real cutting profile which has
deviations from the theoretical profile; the blank-tool contact length
limitation is possible; it is possible to correct the programmed tool
path so that the target profile can be obtained.
Applying this method, there are obtained data sets which allow the
feedrate scheduling so that the uncut chip area is constant and, as a
result, the cutting force is constant, which allows to use more
efficiently the machine tool and to obtain the reduction of machining
Local Linear Model Tree (LOLIMOT) Reconfigurable Parallel Hardware
Local Linear Neuro-Fuzzy Models (LLNFM) like other neuro- fuzzy systems are adaptive networks and provide robust learning capabilities and are widely utilized in various applications such as pattern recognition, system identification, image processing and prediction. Local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) is a type of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang neuro fuzzy algorithm which has proven its efficiency compared with other neuro fuzzy networks in learning the nonlinear systems and pattern recognition. In this paper, a dedicated reconfigurable and parallel processing hardware for LOLIMOT algorithm and its applications are presented. This hardware realizes on-chip learning which gives it the capability to work as a standalone device in a system. The synthesis results on FPGA platforms show its potential to improve the speed at least 250 of times faster than software implemented algorithms.
A Reconfigurable Processing Element for Cholesky Decomposition and Matrix Inversion
Fixed-point simulation results are used for the
performance measure of inverting matrices by Cholesky
decomposition. The fixed-point Cholesky decomposition algorithm
is implemented using a fixed-point reconfigurable processing
element. The reconfigurable processing element provides all
mathematical operations required by Cholesky decomposition. The
fixed-point word length analysis is based on simulations using
different condition numbers and different matrix sizes. Simulation
results show that 16 bits word length gives sufficient performance
for small matrices with low condition number. Larger matrices and
higher condition numbers require more dynamic range for a fixedpoint
Information System for Data Selection and New Information Acquisition for Reconfigurable Multifunctional Machine Tools
The purpose of the paper is to develop an informationcontrol environment for overall management and self-reconfiguration of the reconfigurable multifunctional machine tool for machining both rotation and prismatic parts and high concentration of different technological operations - turning, milling, drilling, grinding, etc. For the realization of this purpose on the basis of defined sub-processes for the implementation of the technological process, architecture of the information-search system for machine control is suggested. By using the object-oriented method, a structure and organization of the search system based on agents and manager with central control are developed. Thus conditions for identification of available information in DBs, self-reconfiguration of technological system and entire control of the reconfigurable multifunctional machine tool are created.
Coloured Reconfigurable Nets for Code Mobility Modeling
Code mobility technologies attract more and more developers and consumers. Numerous domains are concerned, many platforms are developed and interest applications are realized. However, developing good software products requires modeling, analyzing and proving steps. The choice of models and modeling languages is so critical on these steps. Formal tools are powerful in analyzing and proving steps. However, poorness of classical modeling language to model mobility requires proposition of new models. The objective of this paper is to provide a specific formalism “Coloured Reconfigurable Nets" and to show how this one seems to be adequate to model different kinds of code mobility.
Performance Improvements of DSP Applications on a Generic Reconfigurable Platform
Speedups from mapping four real-life DSP
applications on an embedded system-on-chip that couples coarsegrained
reconfigurable logic with an instruction-set processor are
presented. The reconfigurable logic is realized by a 2-Dimensional
Array of Processing Elements. A design flow for improving
application-s performance is proposed. Critical software parts, called
kernels, are accelerated on the Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable
Array. The kernels are detected by profiling the source code. For
mapping the detected kernels on the reconfigurable logic a prioritybased
mapping algorithm has been developed. Two 4x4 array
architectures, which differ in their interconnection structure among
the Processing Elements, are considered. The experiments for eight
different instances of a generic system show that important overall
application speedups have been reported for the four applications.
The performance improvements range from 1.86 to 3.67, with an
average value of 2.53, compared with an all-software execution.
These speedups are quite close to the maximum theoretical speedups
imposed by Amdahl-s law.
A Reconfigurable Processing Element Implementation for Matrix Inversion Using Cholesky Decomposition
Fixed-point simulation results are used for the performance measure of inverting matrices using a reconfigurable processing element. Matrices are inverted using the Cholesky decomposition algorithm. The reconfigurable processing element is capable of all required mathematical operations. The fixed-point word length analysis is based on simulations of different condition numbers and different matrix sizes.