Experimental Investigation on Residual Stresses in Welded Medium-Walled I-shaped Sections Fabricated from Q460GJ Structural Steel Plates
GJ steel is a new type of high-performance structural steel which has been increasingly adopted in practical engineering. Q460GJ structural steel has a nominal yield strength of 460 MPa, which does not decrease significantly with the increase of steel plate thickness like normal structural steel. Thus, Q460GJ structural steel is normally used in medium-walled welded sections. However, research works on the residual stress in GJ steel members are few though it is one of the vital factors that can affect the member and structural behavior. This article aims to investigate the residual stresses in welded I-shaped sections fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates by experimental tests. A total of four full scale welded medium-walled I-shaped sections were tested by sectioning method. Both circular curve correction method and straightening measurement method were adopted in this study to obtain the final magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, this paper also explores the interaction between flanges and webs. And based on the statistical evaluation of the experimental data, a multilayer residual stress model is proposed.
Effect of Cladding Direction on Residual Stress Distribution in Laser Cladded Rails
In this investigation, a laser cladding process with a powder feeding was used to deposit stainless steel 410L (high strength, excellent resistance to abrasion and corrosion, and great laser compatibility) onto railhead (higher strength, heat treated hypereutectoid rail grade manufactured in accordance with the requirements of European standard EN 13674 Part 1 for R400HT grade), to investigate the development and controllability of process-induced residual stress in the cladding, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and substrate and to analyse their correlation with hardness profile during two different laser cladding directions (across and along the track). Residual stresses were analysed by neutron diffraction at OPAL reactor, ANSTO. Neutron diffraction was carried out on the samples in longitudinal (parallel to the rail), transverse (perpendicular to the rail) and normal (through thickness) directions with high spatial resolution through the thickness. Due to the thick rail and thin cladding, 4 mm thick reference samples were prepared from every specimen by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). Metallography across the laser claded sample revealed four distinct zones: The clad zone, the dilution zone, HAZ and the substrate. Compressive residual stresses were found in the clad zone and tensile residual stress in the dilution zone and HAZ. Laser cladding in longitudinally cladding induced higher tensile stress in the HAZ, whereas transversely cladding rail showed lower tensile behavior.
The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails
Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.
Analysis of Residual Stresses and Angular Distortion in Stiffened Cylindrical Shell Fillet Welds Using Finite Element Method
In this paper, a two-dimensional method is developed to simulate the fillet welds in a stiffened cylindrical shell, using finite element method. The stiffener material is aluminum 2519. The thermo-elasto-plastic analysis is used to analyze the thermo-mechanical behavior. Due to the high heat flux rate of the welding process, two uncouple thermal and mechanical analysis are carried out instead of performing a single couple thermo-mechanical simulation. In order to investigate the effects of the welding procedures, two different welding techniques are examined. The resulted residual stresses and distortions due to different welding procedures are obtained. Furthermore, this study employed the technique of element birth and death to simulate the weld filler variation with time in fillet welds. The obtained results are in good agreement with the published experimental and three-dimensional numerical simulation results. Therefore, the proposed 2D modeling technique can effectively give the corresponding results of 3D models. Furthermore, by inspection of the obtained residual hoop and transverse stresses and angular distortions, proper welding procedure is suggested.
Evaluation of Residual Stresses in Human Face as a Function of Growth
Growth and remodeling of biological structures have
gained lots of attention over the past decades. Determining the
response of living tissues to mechanical loads is necessary for a wide
range of developing fields such as prosthetics design or computerassisted
surgical interventions. It is a well-known fact that biological
structures are never stress-free, even when externally unloaded. The
exact origin of these residual stresses is not clear, but theoretically,
growth is one of the main sources. Extracting body organ’s shapes
from medical imaging does not produce any information regarding
the existing residual stresses in that organ. The simplest cause of such
stresses is gravity since an organ grows under its influence from
birth. Ignoring such residual stresses might cause erroneous results in
numerical simulations. Accounting for residual stresses due to tissue
growth can improve the accuracy of mechanical analysis results. This
paper presents an original computational framework based on gradual
growth to determine the residual stresses due to growth. To illustrate
the method, we apply it to a finite element model of a healthy human
face reconstructed from medical images. The distribution of residual
stress in facial tissues is computed, which can overcome the effect of
gravity and maintain tissues firmness. Our assumption is that tissue
wrinkles caused by aging could be a consequence of decreasing
residual stress and thus not counteracting gravity. Taking into
account these stresses seems therefore extremely important in
maxillofacial surgery. It would indeed help surgeons to estimate
tissues changes after surgery.
The Effect of Material Properties and Volumetric Changes in Phase Transformation to the Final Residual Stress of Welding Process
The wider growing Finite Element Method (FEM)
application is caused by its benefits of cost saving and environment
friendly. Also, by using FEM a deep understanding of certain
phenomenon can be achieved. This paper observed the role of
material properties and volumetric change when Solid State Phase
Transformation (SSPT) takes place in residual stress formation due to
a welding process of ferritic steels through coupled Thermo-
Metallurgy-Mechanical (TMM) analysis. The correctness of FEM residual stress prediction was validated by
experiment. From parametric study of the FEM model, it can be
concluded that the material properties change tend to over-predicts
residual stress in the weld center whilst volumetric change tend to
underestimates it. The best final result is the compromise of both by
incorporates them in the model which has a better result compared to
a model without SSPT.
Direct Design of Steel Bridge Using Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis
In this paper, a direct design using a nonlinear inelastic analysis is suggested. Also, this paper compares the load carrying capacity obtained by a nonlinear inelastic analysis with experiment results to verify the accuracy of the results. The allowable stress design results of a railroad through a plate girder bridge and the safety factor of the nonlinear inelastic analysis were compared to examine the safety performance. As a result, the load safety factor for the nonlinear inelastic analysis was twice as high as the required safety factor under the allowable stress design standard specified in the civil engineering structure design standards for urban magnetic levitation railways, which further verified the advantages of the proposed direct design method.
Numerical Investigation on Optimizing Fatigue Life in a Lap Joint Structure
Riveting process is one of the important ways to keep
fastening the lap joints in aircraft structures. Failure of aircraft lap
joints directly depends on the stress field in the joint. An important
application of riveting process is in the construction of aircraft
fuselage structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element method is
carried out in order to optimize residual stress field in a riveted lap
joint and also to estimate its fatigue life. In continue, a number of
experiments are designed and analyzed using design of experiments
(DOE). Then, Taguchi method is used to select an optimized case
between different levels of each factor. Besides that, the factor which
affects the most on residual stress field is investigated. Such
optimized case provides the maximum residual stress field. Fatigue
life of the optimized joint is estimated by Paris-Erdogan law. Stress
intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using both finite element
analysis and experimental formula. In addition, the effect of residual
stress field, geometry and secondary bending are considered in SIF
calculation. A good agreement is found between results of such
methods. Comparison between optimized fatigue life and fatigue life
of other joints has shown an improvement in the joint’s life.
The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel
This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen
and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction
stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after
being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied
by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained
results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant
effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress
promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite.
Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear
correlation with hydrogen content.
Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Shot Peening Forming and Surface Properties of AALY12
Ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on AALY12 sheet was studied. Several parameters (arc heights, surface roughness, surface topography and micro hardness) with different USP process parameters were measured. The research proposes that radius of curvature of shot peened sheet increases with time and electric current decreasing, while increases with pin diameter increasing, and radius of curvature reaches a saturation level after a specific processing time and electric current. An empirical model of the relationship between radius of curvature and pin diameter, electric current, time was also obtained. The research shows that the increment of surface and vertical micro hardness of material is more obvious with longer time and higher value of electric current, which can be up to 20% and 28% respectively.
Development of Material Analyzing Software Using X-Ray Diffraction
X-ray diffraction is an effective mean for analyzing material properties. This paper developed a new computational software for determining the properties of crystalline materials such as elastic constants, residual stresses, surface hardness, phase components, and etc. The results computed from the X-ray diffraction method were compared to those from the traditional methods and they are in the 95% confidential limits, showing that the newly developed software has high reproducibility, opening a possibility of its commercialization.
Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation through Residual Stress Field
In this paper fatigue crack initiation and propagation in notched plate under constant amplitude loading through tensile residual stress field of 2024 T351 Al-alloy plate were investigated. Residual stress field was generated by plastic deformation using finite element method (FEM) where isotropic hardening in Von Mises model was applied. Simulation of fatigue behavior was made on AFGROW code. It was shown that the fatigue crack initiation and propagation were affected by level of residual stress filed. In this investigation, the presence of tensile residual stresses at notch (hole) reduces considerably the total fatigue life. It was shown that the decreasing in stress reduces the fatigue crack growth rates.
Analysis of Residual Strain and Stress Distributions in High Speed Milled Specimens using an Indentation Method
Through a proper analysis of residual strain and stress
distributions obtained at the surface of high speed milled specimens
of AA 6082–T6 aluminium alloy, the performance of an improved
indentation method is evaluated. This method integrates a special
device of indentation to a universal measuring machine. The
mentioned device allows introducing elongated indents allowing to
diminish the absolute error of measurement. It must be noted that the
present method offers the great advantage of avoiding both the
specific equipment and highly qualified personnel, and their inherent
high costs. In this work, the cutting tool geometry and high speed
parameters are selected to introduce reduced plastic damage.
Through the variation of the depth of cut, the stability of the shapes
adopted by the residual strain and stress distributions is evaluated.
The results show that the strain and stress distributions remain
unchanged, compressive and small. Moreover, these distributions
reveal a similar asymmetry when the gradients corresponding to
conventional and climb cutting zones are compared.
Residual Stresses in Thermally Sprayed Gas Turbine Components
In this paper, the residual stress of thermal spray
coatings in gas turbine component by curvature method has been
studied. The samples and shaft were coated by hard WC-12Co
cermets using high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) after preparation in
same conditions. The curvature of coated samples was measured by
using of coordinate measurement machine (CMM). The metallurgical
and Tribological studies has been made on the coated shaft using
optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
Bond Strength in Thermally Sprayed Gas Turbine Shafts
In this paper, the bond strength of thermal spray
coatings in high speed shafts has been studied. The metallurgical and
mechanical studies has been made on the coated samples and shaft
using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Development Trend in Investigation of Residual Stresses in WC-Co Coating by HVOF Thermal Spraying
In this paper, the techniques for estimating the
residual stress in high velocity oxy fuel thermal spray coatings have
been discussed and compared. The development trend and the last
investigation have been studied. It is seemed that the there is not
effective study on the effect of the peening action in HVOF
analytically and numerically.
Application of HVOF Thermal Spraying inHigh Speed Gas Compressor Shafts
In this paper, the application of thermal spray
coatings in high speed shafts by a revolution up to 23000 RPM
has been studied. Gas compressor shafts are worn in contact
zone with journal therefore will be undersized. Wear
mechanisms of compressor shaft were identified. The
predominant wear mechanism is abrasion wear. The worn
surface was coated by hard WC-Co cermets using high
velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) after preparation. The shafts were in
satisfactory service in 8000h period. The metallurgical and
Tribological studies has been made on the worn and coated
shaft using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) and X-ray diffraction.
Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Front Cross Member of the Peugeot 405
Undoubtedly, chassis is one of the most important
parts of a vehicle. Chassis that today are produced for vehicles are
made up of four parts. These parts are jointed together by screwing.
Transverse parts are called cross member.
This study reviews the stress generated by cyclic laboratory loads
in front cross member of Peugeot 405. In this paper the finite element
method is used to simulate the welding process and to determine the
physical response of the spot-welded joints. Analysis is done by the
The Stresses generated in cross member structure are generally
classified into two groups: The stresses remained in form of residual
stresses after welding process and the mechanical stress generated by
cyclic load. Accordingly the total stress must be obtained by
determining residual stress and mechanical stress separately and then
sum them according to the superposition principle.
In order to improve accuracy, material properties including
physical, thermal and mechanical properties were supposed to be
temperature-dependent. Simulation shows that maximum Von Misses
stresses are located at special points. The model results are then
compared to the experimental results which are reported by
producing factory and good agreement is observed.
The Temperature Range in the Simulation of Residual Stress and Hot Tearing During Investment Casting
Hot tear cracking and residual stress are two different consequences of thermal stress both of which can be considered as casting problem. The purpose of the present study is simulation of the effect of casting shape characteristic on hot tearing and residual stress. This study shows that the temperature range for simulation of hot tearing and residual stress are different. In this study, in order to study the development of thermal stress and to predict the hot tearing and residual stress of shaped casting, MAGMASOFT simulation program was used. The strategy of this research was the prediction of hot tear location using pinpointing hot spot and thermal stress concentration zones. The results shows that existing of stress concentration zone increases the hot tearing probability and consequently reduces the amount of remaining residual stress in casting parts.
Influence of High Speed Parameters on the Quality of Machined Surface
The contribution is dealing with the influence of high speed parameters on the quality of machined surface. In general the principle of high speed cutting lies in achieving faster machine times with concurrent increase in accuracy and quality of the machined areas in largely irregular, mathematically hard to define shapes. High speed machining is a highly effective method of machining with the following goals: increasing of machining productivity, increasing of quality of the machined surface, improving of machining economy, improving of ecological aspects of machining. This article is based on an experiment performed by the Department of Machining and Assembly of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of VŠBTechnical University of Ostrava.
A New Analytical Approach to Reconstruct Residual Stresses Due to Turning Process
A thin layer on the component surface can be found
with high tensile residual stresses, due to turning operations, which
can dangerously affect the fatigue performance of the component. In
this paper an analytical approach is presented to reconstruct the
residual stress field from a limited incomplete set of measurements.
Airy stress function is used as the primary unknown to directly solve
the equilibrium equations and satisfying the boundary conditions. In
this new method there exists the flexibility to impose the physical
conditions that govern the behavior of residual stress to achieve a
meaningful complete stress field. The analysis is also coupled to a
least squares approximation and a regularization method to provide
stability of the inverse problem. The power of this new method is
then demonstrated by analyzing some experimental measurements
and achieving a good agreement between the model prediction and
the results obtained from residual stress measurement.
Stabilizer Fillet Weld Strength under Multiaxial Loading (Effect of Force, Size and Residual Stress)
In this paper, the strength of a stabilizer is determined when the static and fatigue multiaxial loading are applied. Stabilizer is a part of suspension system in the heavy truck for stabilizing the cabin against the vibration of the road which composes of a thin-walled tube joined to a forge component by fillet weld. The component is loaded by non proportional random sequence of torsion and bending. Residual stress of welding process is considered here for static loading. This static loading with road irregularities are applied in this study as fatigue case that can affected in the fillet welded area of this part. The stresses in the welded structure are calculated using FEA. In addition, the fatigue with multi axial loading in the fillet weld is also investigated and the critical zone of the stabilizer is specified and presented by graphs. Residual stresses that have been resulted by the thermal forces are considered in FEA. Force increasing is the element of finding the critical point of the component.