|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 27|
Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators.
In this article, the mathematical model is presented, and simulations were carried out using specialized software such as MATLAB before the construction of a 900-W wind turbine. The present study was conducted with the intention of taking advantage of the rotation of the blades of the wind generator after going through a process of amplification of speed by means of a system of gears to finally mechanically couple two electric generators of similar characteristics. This coupling allows generating a maximum voltage of 6 V in DC for each generator and putting in series the 12 V DC is achieved, which is later stored in batteries and used when the user requires it. Laboratory tests were made to verify the level of power generation produced based on the wind speed at the entrance of the blades.
This work presents a comparison study between the state-space and polynomial methods for the design of the robust governor for load frequency control of steam turbine power systems. The robust governor is synthesized using the two approaches and the comparison is extended to include time and frequency domains performance, controller order, and uncertainty representation, weighting filters, optimality and sub-optimality. The obtained results are represented through tables and curves with reasons of similarities and dissimilarities.
This paper proposes a new technique to design a fixed-structure robust loop shaping controller for the pneumatic servosystem. In this paper, a new method based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for tuning the weighting function parameters to design an H∞ controller is presented. The PSO algorithm is used to minimize the infinity norm of the transfer function of the nominal closed loop system to obtain the optimal parameters of the weighting functions. The optimal stability margin is used as an objective in PSO for selecting the optimal weighting parameters; it is shown that the proposed method can simplify the design procedure of H∞ control to obtain optimal robust controller for pneumatic servosystem. In addition, the order of the proposed controller is much lower than that of the conventional robust loop shaping controller, making it easy to implement in practical works. Also two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control design procedure is proposed to improve tracking performance in the face of noise and disturbance. Result of simulations demonstrates the advantages of the proposed controller in terms of simple structure and robustness against plant perturbations and disturbances.
This paper attempts to define the validity domain of LSDP (Loop Shaping Design Procedure) controller system, by determining the suitable uncertainty region, so that linear system be stable. Indeed the LSDP controller cannot provide stability for any perturbed system. For this, we will use the gap metric tool that is introduced into the control literature for studying robustness properties of feedback systems with uncertainty. A 2nd order electric linear system example is given to define the validity domain of LSDP controller and effectiveness gap metric.
This paper introduces an open-source software package SCILAB , an alternative of MATLAB , which can be used for robust control design and analysis of a typical mass-spring-damper (MSD) system. Using the previously published ideas in [3,4], this popular mechanical system is considered to provide another example of usefulness of SCILAB for advanced control design.
This paper presents a design method of self-tuning Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) by using improved deadbeat control algorithm. QFT is a technique to achieve robust control with pre-defined specifications whereas deadbeat is an algorithm that could bring the output to steady state with minimum step size. Nevertheless, usually there are large peaks in the deadbeat response. By integrating QFT specifications into deadbeat algorithm, the large peaks could be tolerated. On the other hand, emerging QFT with adaptive element will produce a robust controller with wider coverage of uncertainty. By combining QFT-based deadbeat algorithm and adaptive element, superior controller that is called selftuning QFT-based deadbeat controller could be achieved. The output response that is fast, robust and adaptive is expected. Using a grain dryer plant model as a pilot case-study, the performance of the proposed method has been evaluated and analyzed. Grain drying process is very complex with highly nonlinear behaviour, long delay, affected by environmental changes and affected by disturbances. Performance comparisons have been performed between the proposed self-tuning QFT-based deadbeat, standard QFT and standard dead-beat controllers. The efficiency of the self-tuning QFTbased dead-beat controller has been proven from the tests results in terms of controller’s parameters are updated online, less percentage of overshoot and settling time especially when there are variations in the plant.
Physiological control of a left ventricle assist device (LVAD) is generally a complicated task due to diverse operating environments and patient variability. In this work, a tracking control algorithm based on sliding mode and feed forward control for a class of discrete-time single input single output (SISO) nonlinear uncertain systems is presented. The controller was developed to track the reference trajectory to a set operating point without inducing suction in the ventricle. The controller regulates the estimated mean pulsatile flow Qp and mean pulsatility index of pump rotational speed PIω that was generated from a model of the assist device. We recall the principle of the sliding mode control theory then we combine the feed-forward control design with the sliding mode control technique to follow the reference trajectory. The uncertainty is replaced by its upper and lower boundary. The controller was tested in a computer simulation covering two scenarios (preload and ventricular contractility). The simulation results prove the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller
A novel design of two-wheeled robotic vehicle with moving payload is presented in this paper. A mathematical model describing the vehicle dynamics is derived and simulated in Matlab Simulink environment. Two control strategies were developed to stabilise the vehicle in the upright position. A robust Proportional- Integral-Derivative (PID) control strategy has been implemented and initially tested to measure the system performance, while the second control strategy is to use a hybrid fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The results are given on a comparative basis for the system performance in terms of disturbance rejection, control algorithms robustness as well as the control effort in terms of input torque.
The load frequency control problem of power systems has attracted a lot of attention from engineers and researchers over the years. Increasing and quickly changing load demand, coupled with the inclusion of more generators with high variability (solar and wind power generators) on the network are making power systems more difficult to regulate. Frequency changes are unavoidable but regulatory authorities require that these changes remain within a certain bound. Engineers are required to perform the tricky task of adjusting the control system to maintain the frequency within tolerated bounds. It is well known that to minimize frequency variations, a large proportional feedback gain (speed regulation constant) is desirable. However, this improvement in performance using proportional feedback comes about at the expense of a reduced stability margin and also allows some steady-state error. A conventional PI controller is then included as a secondary control loop to drive the steadystate error to zero. In this paper, we propose a robust controller to replace the conventional PI controller which guarantees performance and stability of the power system over the range of variation of the speed regulation constant. Simulation results are shown to validate the superiority of the proposed approach on a simple single-area power system model.
One of the most attractive and important field of chaos theory is control of chaos. In this paper, we try to present a simple framework for chaotic motion control using the feedback linearization method. Using this approach, we derive a strategy, which can be easily applied to the other chaotic systems. This task presents two novel results: the desired periodic orbit need not be a solution of the original dynamics and the other is the robustness of response against parameter variations. The illustrated simulations show the ability of these. In addition, by a comparison between a conventional state feedback and our proposed method it is demonstrated that the introduced technique is more efficient.
The problem of controlling a two link robotic manipulator, consisting of a rotating and a prismatic links, is addressed. The actuations of both links are assumed to have unknown dead zone nonlinearities and friction torques modeled by LuGre friction model. Because of the existence of the unknown dead zone and friction torque at the actuations, unknown parameters and unmeasured states would appear to be part of the overall system dynamics that need for estimation. Unmeasured states observer, unknown parameters estimators, and robust adaptive control laws have been derived such that closed loop global stability is achieved. Simulation results have been performed to show the efficacy of the suggested approach.
The control design for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is challenging due to the uncertainties in the complex dynamic modeling of the vehicle as well as its unstructured operational environment. To cope with these difficulties, a practical robust control is therefore desirable. The paper deals with the application of coefficient diagram method (CDM) for a robust control design of an autonomous underwater vehicle. The CDM is an algebraic approach in which the characteristic polynomial and the controller are synthesized simultaneously. Particularly, a coefficient diagram (comparable to Bode diagram) is used effectively to convey pertinent design information and as a measure of trade-off between stability, response speed and robustness. In the polynomial ring, Kharitonov polynomials are employed to analyze the robustness of the controller due to parametric uncertainties.
An approach of design of stable of control systems with ultimately wide ranges of uncertainly disturbed parameters is offered. The method relies on using of nonlinear structurally stable functions from catastrophe theory as controllers. Theoretical part presents an analysis of designed nonlinear second-order control systems. As more important the integrators in series, canonical controllable form and Jordan forms are considered. The analysis resumes that due to added controllers systems become stable and insensitive to any disturbance of parameters. Experimental part presents MATLAB simulation of design of control systems of epidemic spread, aircrafts angular motion and submarine depth. The results of simulation confirm the efficiency of offered method of design. KeywordsCatastrophes, robust control, simulation, uncertain parameters.
A new robust nonlinear control scheme of a manipulator is proposed in this paper which is robust against modeling errors and unknown disturbances. It is based on the principle of variable structure control, with sliding mode control (SMC) method. The variable structure control method is a robust method that appears to be well suited for robotic manipulators because it requers only bounds on the robotic arm parameters. But there is no single systematic procedure that is guaranteed to produce a suitable control law. Also, to reduce chattring of the control signal, we replaced the sgn function in the control law by a continuous approximation such as tangant function. We can compute the maximum load with regard to applied torque into joints. The effectivness of the proposed approach has been evaluated analitically demonstrated through computer simulations for the cases of variable load and robot arm parameters.
This paper introduces a new method called ARPDC (Advanced Robust Parallel Distributed Compensation) for automatic control of nonlinear systems. This method improves a quality of robust control by interpolating of robust and optimal controller. The weight of each controller is determined by an original criteria function for model validity and disturbance appreciation. ARPDC method is based on nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems and Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC) control scheme. The relaxed stability conditions of ARPDC control of nominal system have been derived. The advantages of presented method are demonstrated on the inverse pendulum benchmark problem. From comparison between three different controllers (robust, optimal and ARPDC) follows, that ARPDC control is almost optimal with the robustness close to the robust controller. The results indicate that ARPDC algorithm can be a good alternative not only for a robust control, but in some cases also to an adaptive control of nonlinear systems.
The problem of robust disturbance rejection (RDR) using a proportional state feedback controller is studied for the case of Left Invertible MIMO generalized state space linear systems with nonlinear uncertain structure. Sufficient conditions for the problem to have a solution are established. The set of all proportional feedback controllers solving the problem subject to these conditions is analytically determined.
A robust control approach is proposed for a high speed manipulator using a hybrid computed torque control approach in the state space. The high-speed manipulator is driven by permanent magnet dc motors to track a trajectory in the joint space in the presence of disturbances. Tracking problem is analyzed in the state space where the completed models are considered for actuators. The proposed control approach can guarantee the stability and a satisfactory tracking performance. A two-link elbow manipulator driven by electrical actuators is simulated and results are shown to satisfy conditions under technical specifications.
Design of a fixed parameter robust STATCOM controller for a multi-machine power system through an H-? based loop-shaping procedure is presented. The trial and error part of the graphical loop-shaping procedure has been eliminated by embedding a particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique in the design loop. Robust controllers were designed considering the detailed dynamics of the multi-machine system and results were compared with reduced order models. The robust strategy employing loop-shaping and PSO algorithms was observed to provide very good damping profile for a wide range of operation and for various disturbance conditions.
The Connection Admission Control (CAC) problem is formulated in this paper as a discrete time optimal control problem. The control variables account for the acceptance/ rejection of new connections and forced dropping of in-progress connections. These variables are constrained to meet suitable conditions which account for the QoS requirements (Link Availability, Blocking Probability, Dropping Probability). The performance index evaluates the total throughput. At each discrete time, the problem is solved as an integer-valued linear programming one. The proposed procedure was successfully tested against suitably simulated data.
This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a robust sliding mode control structure, designed using the exact feedback linearization procedure of the dynamic of a small-size autonomous helicopter in hover. The robustness of the controller in the context of stabilization and trajectory tracking with respect to small body forces and air resistance on the main and tail rotor, is analytically proved using Lyapunov approach. Some simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance and robustness of such controller in the presence of small body forces and air resistance.