Effects of Grape Seed Oil on Postharvest Life and Quality of Some Grape Cultivars
Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are an important crop worldwide. Postharvest problems like berry shattering, decay and stem dehydration are some of the important factors that limit the marketing of table grapes. Edible coatings are an alternative for increasing shelf-life of fruits, protecting fruits from humidity and oxygen effects, thus retarding their deterioration. This study aimed to compare different grape seed oil applications (GSO, 0.5 g L-1, 1 g L-1, 2 g L-1) and SO2 generating pads effects (SO2-1, SO2-2). Treated grapes with GSO and generating pads were packaged into polyethylene trays and stored at 0 ± 1°C and 85-95% moisture. Effects of the applications were investigated by some quality and sensory evaluations with intervals of 15 days. SO2 applications were determined the most effective treatments for minimizing weight loss and changes in TA, pH, color and appearance value. Grape seed oil applications were determined as a good alternative for grape preservation, improving weight losses and °Brix, TA, the color values and sensory analysis. Commercially, ‘Alphonse Lavallée’ clusters were stored for 75 days and ‘Antep Karası’ clusters for 60 days. The data obtained from GSO indicated that it had a similar quality result to SO2 for up to 40 days storage.
Understanding the Experience of the Visually Impaired towards a Multi-Sensorial Architectural Design
Visually impaired people, in their daily lives, face struggles and spatial barriers because the built environment is often designed with an extreme focus on the visual element, causing what is called architectural visual bias or ocularcentrism. The aim of the study is to holistically understand the world of the visually impaired as an attempt to extract the qualities of space that accommodate their needs, and to show the importance of multi-sensory, holistic designs for the blind. Within the framework of existential phenomenology, common themes are reached through "intersubjectivity": experience descriptions by blind people and blind architects, observation of how blind children learn to perceive their surrounding environment, and a personal lived blind-folded experience are analyzed. The extracted themes show how visually impaired people filter out and prioritize tactile (active, passive and dynamic touch), acoustic and olfactory spatial qualities respectively, and how this happened during the personal lived blind folded experience. The themes clarify that haptic and aural inclusive designs are essential to create environments suitable for the visually impaired to empower them towards an independent, safe and efficient life.
The Effects of Applying Wash and Green-A Syrups as Substitution of Sugar on Dough and Cake Properties
Usage of different components has been considered to improve the quality and nutritional properties of cakes in recent years. The effects of applying some sweeteners, instead of sugar, have been evaluated in cakes and many bread formulas up to now; but there has not been any research about the usage of by-products of sugar factories such as Wash and Green-A Syrups in cake formulas. In this research, the effects of substituting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sugar with Wash and Green-A Syrups on some dough and cake properties, such as pH, viscosity, density, volume, weight loss, moisture, water activity, texture, staling, color and sensory evaluations, are studied. The results of these experiments showed that the pH values were not significantly different among any of the all cake batters and also most of the cake samples. Although differences among viscosity and specific gravity of all treatments were both significant and insignificant, these two parameters resulted in higher volume in all samples than the blank one. The differences in weight loss, moisture content and water activity of samples were insignificant. Evaluating of texture showed that the softness of most of samples is increased and the staling is decreased. Crumb color and sensory evaluations of samples were also affected by the replacement of sucrose with Wash and Green-A Syrups. According to the results, we can increase the shelf life and improve the quality and nutritional values of cake by using these kinds of syrups in the formulation.
Evaluating the Role of Multisensory Elements in Foreign Language Acquisition
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of multisensory elements in enhancing and facilitating foreign language acquisition among adult students in a language classroom. The use of multisensory elements enables the creation of a student-centered classroom, where the focus is on individual learner’s language learning process, perceptions and motivation. Multisensory language learning is a pedagogical approach where the language learner uses all the senses more effectively than in a traditional in-class environment. Language learning is facilitated due to multisensory stimuli which increase the number of cognitive connections in the learner and take into consideration different types of learners. A living lab called Multisensory Space creates a relaxed and receptive state in the learners through various multisensory stimuli, and thus promotes their natural foreign language acquisition. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in two questionnaire inquiries among the Finnish students of a higher education institute at the end of their basic French courses in December 2014 and 2016. The inquiries discussed the effects of multisensory elements on the students’ motivation to study French as well as their learning outcomes. The results show that the French classes in the Multisensory Space provide the students with an encouraging and pleasant learning environment, which has a positive impact on their motivation to study the foreign language as well as their language learning outcomes.
Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties
Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.
Quality of Donut Supplemented with Hom Nin Rice Flour
Hom Nin rice (Oryza Sativa L.) was processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour in donuts. The donuts were prepared with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% Hom Nin rice flour (HNF). The donuts were subjected to proximate, texture, color and sensory evaluations. The results of the study revealed that the ash, moisture, crude fiber contents increased while crude fat and protein contents decreased as the level of HNF increased. The hardness and chewiness of donut increased as the HNF increased but the cohesiveness, springiness, and specific volume decreased. Color of donut (L*, a*, and b* values) decreased with the addition of HNF. Overall acceptability for the 20-40% HNF additions did not differ significantly from the score of the 100% wheat flour.
Addressing Oral Sensory Issues and Possible Remediation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Illustrated with a Case Study
The purpose of this study are to define the nature of oral sensory issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identify important components of the assessment and treatment of this issues specific to this population, and delineate specific therapeutic techniques designed to improve assessment and treatment within therapeutic settings. Literature review and case example is used to define the predominant nature of the oral sensory issues that are experienced by some children on the autism spectrum. Characteristics of this complex disorder that can have an impact on feeding skill and behavior are also identified. These factors are then integrated to create assessment and intervention techniques that can be used in conjunction with traditional feeding approaches to facilitate improvements in eating as well as reducing oral apraxic component in this unique population. The complex nature of ASD and its many influences on feeding skills and behavior create the need for modification to both assessment and treatment approaches. Additional research is needed to create therapeutic protocols that can be used by speech-language pathologists to effectively assess and treat feeding and oro motor apraxic difficulties that are commonly encountered in children with ASD.
The Influence of the Types of Smoke Powder and Storage Duration on Sensory Quality of Balinese Beef and Buffalo Meatballs
This study aims to examine the sensory quality of
meatballs made from Balinese beef and buffalo meat after the
addition of smoke powder prior to storage at the temperatures of 2-
5°C for 7 days. This study used meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle
of male Balinese cattle aged 3 years and of male buffalo aged 5 years
as the main raw materials, and smoke powder as a binder and
preservative in making meatballs. The study was based on completely
randomized design (CRD) of factorial pattern of 2 x 3 x 2 where
factors 1, 2 and 3 included the types of meat (cattle and buffalo),
types of smoke powder (oven dried, freeze dried and spray dried)
with a level of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w), and storage
duration (0 and 7 days) with three replications, respectively. The
parameters measured were the meatball sensory quality (scores of
tenderness, firmness, chewing residue, and intensity of flavor). The
results of this study show that each type of meat has produced
different sensory characteristics. The meatballs made from buffalo
meat have higher tenderness and elasticity scores than the Balinese
beef. Meanwhile, the buffalo meatballs have a lower residue
mastication score than the Balinese beef. Each type of smoke
powders has produced a relatively similar sensory quality of
meatballs. It can be concluded that the smoke powder of 2% of the
weight of the meat (w/w) could maintain the sensory quality of the
meatballs for 7 days of storage.
Tactile Sensory Digit Feedback for Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion
Cochlear Implantation (CI) which became a routine
procedure for the last decades is an electronic device that provides a
sense of sound for patients who are severely and profoundly deaf.
The optimal success of this implantation depends on the electrode
technology and deep insertion techniques. However, this manual
insertion procedure may cause mechanical trauma which can lead to
severe destruction of the delicate intracochlear structure.
Accordingly, future improvement of the cochlear electrode implant
insertion needs reduction of the excessive force application during
the cochlear implantation which causes tissue damage and trauma.
This study is examined tool-tissue interaction of large prototype scale
digit embedded with distributive tactile sensor based upon cochlear
electrode and large prototype scale cochlea phantom for simulating
the human cochlear which could lead to small scale digit
requirements. The digit, distributive tactile sensors embedded with
silicon-substrate was inserted into the cochlea phantom to measure
any digit/phantom interaction and position of the digit in order to
minimize tissue and trauma damage during the electrode cochlear
insertion. The digit have provided tactile information from the digitphantom
insertion interaction such as contact status, tip penetration,
obstacles, relative shape and location, contact orientation and
multiple contacts. The tests demonstrated that even devices of such a
relative simple design with low cost have potential to improve
cochlear implant surgery and other lumen mapping applications by
providing tactile sensory feedback information and thus controlling
the insertion through sensing and control of the tip of the implant
during the insertion. In that approach, the surgeon could minimize the
tissue damage and potential damage to the delicate structures within
the cochlear caused by current manual electrode insertion of the
cochlear implantation. This approach also can be applied to other
minimally invasive surgery applications as well as diagnosis and path
Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines
Goat production is one of the activities included in
integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat
and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In
order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered,
five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and
Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine
Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters,
carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and
analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of
significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed
descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as
slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing
percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different
(P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure
breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular
while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the
carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were
described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale.
On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no
significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is
therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while
both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is
further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same
sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier
goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.
Rheological Properties of Dough and Sensory Quality of Crackers with Dietary Fibers
The possibility of application the dietary fibers in
production of crackers was observed in this work, as well as their
influence on rheological and textural properties on the dough for
crackers and influence on sensory properties of obtained crackers.
Three different dietary fibers, oat, potato and pea fibers, replaced
10% of wheat flour. Long fermentation process and baking test
method were used for crackers production. The changes of dough for
crackers were observed by rheological methods of determination the
viscoelastic dough properties and by textural measurements. Sensory
quality of obtained crackers was described using quantity descriptive
method (QDA) by trained members of descriptive panel. Additional
analysis of crackers surface was performed by videometer. Based on
rheological determination, viscoelastic properties of dough for
crackers were reduced by application of dietary fibers. Manipulation
of dough with 10% of potato fiber was disabled, thus the recipe
modification included increase in water content at 35%. Dough
compliance to constant stress for samples with dietary fibers
decreased, due to more rigid and stiffer dough consistency compared
to control sample. Also, hardness of dough for these samples
increased and dough extensibility decreased. Sensory properties of
final products, crackers, were reduced compared to control sample.
Application of dietary fibers affected mostly hardness, structure and
crispness of the crackers. Observed crackers were low marked for
flavor and taste, due to influence of fibers specific aroma. The sample
with 10% of potato fibers and increased water content was the most
adaptable to applied stresses and to production process. Also this
sample was close to control sample without dietary fibers by
evaluation of sensory properties and by results of videometer method.
Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation
Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible
potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and
malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and microenterprises
of sweet potato production. A study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability
of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow
maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine
max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn
(Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus
sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two
methods: oven and sun drying. The blends were also assessed in
terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet
potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40
of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100%
sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet
potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100%
Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet
potato/ yellow maize). In addition, carried out chemical analysis
revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C,
potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and
iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and
Iron in the blended products.
Evaluation of Bakery Products Made from Barley-Gelatinized Corn Flour and Wheat-Defatted Rice Bran Flour Composites
In the present research, whole meal barley flour
(WBF) was supplemented with gelatinized corn flour (GCF) in 0 and
30%. Whole meal wheat flour (WWF) was mixed with defatted rice
bran (DRB) to produce 0, 20, 25, and 30% replacement levels.
Rheological properties of dough were studied. Thermal properties
and starch crystallinity of flours were evaluated. Flat bread, balady
bread and pie were prepared from the different flour blends. The
different bakeries were sensory evaluated. Color of raw materials and
crust of bakery products were determined. Nutrients contents of raw
flours and food products were assessed. Results showed that addition
of GCF to WBF increased the viscosity and falling number of the
produced dough. Water absorption, dough development time and
dough stability increased with increasing the level of DRB in dough
while, weakening and mixing tolerance index decreased.
Extensibility and energy decreased, while, resistance to extension
increased as DRB level increased. Gelatinized temperature of WWF,
WBF, GCF, and DRB were 13.26, 35.09, 28.33, and 39.63,
respectively. Starch crystallinity was affected when DRB was added
to WWF. The highest protein content was present in balady bread
made from 70% WWF and 30% DRB. The highest calcium,
phosphorus, and potassium levels were present in products made
from 100% WBF. Sensory attributes of the products were slightly
affected by adding DRB and GCF. Conclusion: Addition of DRB or
GCF to WWF or WBF, respectively affect the physical, chemical,
rheological and sensory properties of balady bread, flat bread, and pie
while improved their nutritive values.
Musical Notation Reading versus Alphabet Reading - Comparison and Implications for Teaching Music Reading to Students with Dyslexia
This paper discusses the question whether a person
diagnosed with dyslexia will necessarily have difficulty in reading
musical notes. The author specifies the characteristics of alphabet
reading in comparison to musical notation reading, and concludes
that there should be no contra-indication for teaching standard music
reading to children with dyslexia if an appropriate process is offered.
This conclusion is based on a long term case study and relies on two
main characteristics of music reading: (1) musical notation system is
a systematic, logical, relative set of symbols written on a staff; and
(2) music reading learning connected with playing a musical
instrument is a multi-sensory activity that combines sight, hearing,
touch, and movement. The paper describes music reading teaching
procedures, using soprano recorders, and provides unique teaching
methods that have been found to be effective for students who were
diagnosed with dyslexia. It provides theoretical explanations in
addition to guidelines for music education practices.
Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage
In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum
and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and
sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage
Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined
during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period,
vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal
content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage
compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere
packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was
1.85 μg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 μg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94
μg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum
had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.
Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability
Sensory input plays an important role to human
posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any
unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint
stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to
movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and
joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening
strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory
manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test
(Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order
to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt
up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different
frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore,
four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and
vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to
maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint
stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance
people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance
people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive
external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited
condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to
predict unbalance situation faced by human
Effect on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of Matured Soursop (Anona muricata) Flour
Soursop (Anona muricata) is one of the underutilized tropical fruits containing nutrients, particularly dietary fibre and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. This objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of matured soursop pulp flour (SPF) to be substituted with high-protein wheat flour in bread. Bread formulation was substituted with different levels of SPF (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were evaluated. Higher substitution level of SPF resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fibre, protein and ash content, while fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (p<0.05). FESEM showed that the bread crumb surface of control and 5% SPF appeared to distribute evenly and coalesced by thin gluten film. However, higher SPF substitution level in bread formulation exhibited a deleterious effect by formation of discontinuous gluten network. For texture profile analysis, 5% SPF bread resulted in the lowest value of hardness. The score of sensory evaluation showed that 5% SPF bread received good acceptability and is comparable with control bread.
A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface
It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.
Sensory Characterization of Cookies with Chestnut Flour
In this work sensory characteristics of cookies with different amount of chestnut flour were determined by sensory and instrumental methods. The wheat flour for cookies was substituted with chestnut flour in three different levels (20, 40 and 60%) and the dough moisture was 22%. The control sample was with 100% of wheat flour. Sensory quality of the cookies was described using quantity descriptive method (QDA) by six trained members of descriptive panel. Instrumental evaluation included texture characterization by texture analyzer, the color measurements (CIE L*a*b* system) and determination by videometer.
The samples with 20% of chestnut flour were with highest ponderated score for overall sensory impression (17.6), which is very close to score for control sample (18). Increase in amount of chestnut flour caused decrease in scores for all sensory properties, thus overall sensory score decreased also. Compared to control sample and with increase in amount of chestnut flour, instrumental determination of the samples confirmed the sensory analysis results. The hardness of the cookies increased, as well as the values of red a* and yellow (b*) component coordinate, but the values for lightness (L*) decreased. Also the values, evaluated by videometer at defined wavelength, were the highest for control cookies and decreased with increase in amount of chestnut flour.
Effect of Ripening Conditions and Storage Time on Oxidative and Sensory Stability of Petrovská Klobása Sausage
The influence of ripening conditions (traditional and industrial) on oxidative and sensory stability of dry fermented sausage (Petrovská klobása), during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period the content of free fatty acids was significantly higher (P<0.05), while the content of malondialdehyde was significantly lower in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying. At the end of the storage period, content of hexanal in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of ripening (1.67μg/g) was significantly lower (P<0.05) in comparison with this content in the sausage subjected to industrial conditions of ripening (4.94µg/g). Traditional conditions of ripening at lower temperatures have led to better sensory properties of odor and taste of traditional dry fermented sausage, Petrovská klobása after 2 and 7 months of storage.
Effect of Hull-Less Barley Flakes and Malt Extract on Yoghurt Quality
The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract on quality of yoghurt during its storage.
The results showed that the concentration of added malt extract and storage time influenced the changes of pH and lactic acid in yoghurt samples. Sensory properties – aroma, taste, consistency and appearance – of yoghurt enriched with flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract changed significantly (p<0.05) during storage. Yoghurt with increased proportion of malt extract had sweeter taste and more flowing consistency. Sensory properties (taste, aroma, consistency and appearance) of yoghurt samples enriched with 5% flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain (YFBG 5%) and 5% flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and 2% malt extract (YFBG 5% ME 2%) did not change significantly during one week of storage.
Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin
Soymilk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soymilk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soymilk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soymilk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soymilk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92%protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soymilk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soymilk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.
Sensory Evaluation of Diversified Sweet Potato Drinks among Consumers: Implication for Malnutrition Reduction in Nigeria
Diversification of the processing of crops is a very important way of reducing food insecurity, perishability of most perishable crops and generates verities. Sweet potato has been diversified in various ways by researchers through processing into different forms for consumption. The study considered diversifying the crop into different drinks by combining it with different high nutrient acceptable cereal. There was significant relationship between the educational background of the respondents and level of acceptability of the sweet potato drinks (χ 2 = 1.033 and P = 0.05). Interestingly, significant relationship existed between the most preferred sweet potato drink by the respondents and level of acceptability of the sweet potato drinks (r = 0.394, P = 0.031). The high level of acceptability of the drinks will lead to enhanced production of the crops required for the drinks that would assist in income generation and alleviating food and nutrition insecurity.
Novel Trends in Manufacturing Systems with View on Implementation Possibilities of Intelligent Automation
The current trend of increasing quality and demands
of the final product is affected by time analysis of the entire
manufacturing process. The primary requirement of manufacturing is
to produce as many products as soon as possible, at the lowest
possible cost, but of course with the highest quality. Such
requirements may be satisfied only if all the elements entering and
affecting the production cycle are in a fully functional condition.
These elements consist of sensory equipment and intelligent control
elements that are essential for building intelligent manufacturing
systems. The intelligent manufacturing paradigm includes a new
approach to production system structure design. Intelligent behaviors
are based on the monitoring of important parameters of system and
its environment. The flexible reaction to changes. The realization and
utilization of this design paradigm as an "intelligent manufacturing
system" enables the flexible system reaction to production
requirement as soon as environmental changes too. Results of these
flexible reactions are a smaller layout space, be decreasing of
production and investment costs and be increasing of productivity.
Intelligent manufacturing system itself should be a system that can
flexibly respond to changes in entering and exiting the process in
interaction with the surroundings.
Chemical, Pasting and Sensory Properties of Whole Fermented Maize (Ogi) Fortified with Pigeon Pea Flour
Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) blanched for 20min was dehulled and milled into flour. The flour was incorporated into dried whole fermented maize (Ogi) at five levels. The resultant products were analyzed for chemical and pasting properties. The fortified Ogi samples were also assessed for sensory attributes: appearance, color, flavor, mouth feel and overall acceptability. The protein content in the whole Ogi fortified samples was in the range of 11.2-16.6% and crude fibre 3.22-3.46%. Fortified whole Ogi with pigeon pea at 30%, 40% and 50% of inclusion with pigeon pea flour has higher protein, crude fibre and ash content. Varying range of pasting quality was recorded for the blends, pasting temperature for fortified Obi was in the range of 45.3-49.50C and peak time 5.05-5.210C. The sensory acceptability of the whole Ogi fortified blends prepared into gruel has higher acceptability for various qualities in comparison with the traditional Ogi gruel.
Production of the Protein-Vitamin Complex from Wheat Germ
Wheat germ has a balanced amino acid composition of the protein, which is well digested by enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of humans, a high content of vitamins, minerals and unsaturated acids. Introduction components grain food products will enrich their biologically important substances, giving these products a number of valuable properties and reducing their caloric.
A complex natural system of substances in foods will help replenish the body's need of essential nutrients, increasing its resistance to the harmful effects of the environment, prolong life. In this regard, there was a need for the development of production technology of protein complexes from wheat germ and then applying them in food, particularly in the dairy industry. Experimental studies were conducted to determine the number of herbal supplements on the sensory characteristics of the product. Studies have been conducted to determine the optimal process parameters of water activity and moisture content of the investigational product.
Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Assessment of Cod (Gadus morhua) Fillets during Chilled Storage as Influenced by Bleeding Methods
The effects of seawater and slurry ice bleeding methods on the sensory, microbiological and chemical quality changes of cod fillets during chilled storage were examined in this study. The results from sensory evaluation showed that slurry ice bleeding method prolonged the shelf life of cod fillets up to 13-14 days compared to 10-11 days for fish bled in seawater. Slurry ice bleeding method also led to a slower microbial growth and biochemical developments, resulting lower total plate count (TPC), H2S-producing bacteria count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), free fatty acid (FFA) content and higher phospholipid content (PL) compared to those of samples bled in seawater. The results of principle component analysis revealed that TPC, H2S-producing bacteria, TVB-N, TMA and FFA were in significant correlation. They were also in negative correlation with sensory evaluation (Torry score), PL and water holding capacity (WHC).
Sensory Evaluation of Meatballs with Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)
Meat and meat products for human consumption are one of main sources of protein, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Popular variety of meat product is meatballs, which can be enriched with valuable product – Jerusalem artichoke powder, made from dried and grinded Jerusalem artichoke tubers, it is raw material with low-calorie, low fat, rich in dietary fibres, minerals, and vitamins. The results of this study indicate that that people could accept the new product - meatballs with Jerusalem artichoke powder and Jerusalem artichoke powder is suitable for meatballs preparation, in result them is possible to improve meatballs sensory and physical properties.
Talent in Autism: Cognitive Style based on Weak Central Coherence and Special Sensory Characteristics in State of Kuwait: Case Study
The study aimed to identify the nature of autistic
talent, the manifestations of their weak central coherence, and their
sensory characteristics. The case study consisted of four talented
autistic males. Two of them in drawing, one in clay formation and
one in jigsaw puzzle. Tools of data collection were Group Embedded
Figures Test, Block Design Test, Sensory Profile Checklist Revised,
Interview forms and direct observation. Results indicated that talent
among autistics emerges in limited domain and being extraordinary
for each case. Also overlapping construction properties. Indeed, they
show three perceptual aspects of weak central coherence: The weak
in visual spatial-constructional coherence, the weak in perceptual
coherence and the weak in verbal – semantic coherence. Moreover,
the majority of the study cases used the three strategies of weak
central coherence (segmentation, obliqueness and rotation). As for
the sensory characteristics, all study cases have numbers of that
characteristics that especially emerges in the visual system.
Effects of Ice and Seawater Storing Conditions on the Sensory, Chemical and Microbiological Quality of the Mediterranean Hake (Merluccius merluccius) During Post-Catch Handling and Distribution
Changes in the sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of the Mediterranean hake during post-catch handling and distribution were investigated. 115 fish samples were seasonally received during three stages of the transfer route from the sea to the consumer and two storage methods were recorded, seawater and ice storage. Microbiological evaluation revealed higher status for the ice stored samples regarding heterotrophic bacteria (2.68 log cfu/g and 1.92 log cfu/g at 22oC and 37°C respectively) and psychrotrophic counts (3.20 log cfu/g), with statistically significant differences among storage methods. Sensory evaluation also revealed higher status for the ice stored samples with a mean quality index of 0.17 and a spoilage time estimated at 30 hours, in contrast to seawater storage, which varied from 0.28 to 0.3, and a 14-hour estimated spoilage. Detected pathogens were identified mainly in the seawater stored samples, posing questions on the quality of the product reaching the seafood markets.