|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 13|
Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.
The reinforcement and repair of concrete structures by bonding composite materials have become relatively common operations. Different types of composite materials can be used: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) as well as functionally graded material (FGM). The development of analytical and numerical models describing the mechanical behavior of structures in civil engineering reinforced by composite materials is necessary. These models will enable engineers to select, design, and size adequate reinforcements for the various types of damaged structures. This study focuses on the free vibration behavior of orthotropic laminated composite plates using a refined shear deformation theory. In these models, the distribution of transverse shear stresses is considered as parabolic satisfying the zero-shear stress condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates without using shear correction factors. In this analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained by using the Hamilton’s principle. The accuracy of the developed model is demonstrated by comparing our results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. Besides, a finite-element analysis is used to calculate the natural frequencies of laminated composite plates and is compared with those obtained by the analytical approach.
In the present investigation, free vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) skew plates under thermal environment is studied. Kinematics equations are based on the Reddy’s higher order shear deformation theory and a nine noded isoparametric Lagrangian element is adopted to mesh the plate geometry. The issue of C1 continuity requirement related to the assumed displacement field has been circumvented effectively to develop C0 finite element formulation. Effective mechanical properties of the constituents of the plate are considered to be as position and temperature dependent and assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution. The displacement components of a rectangular plate are mapped into skew plate geometry by means of suitable transformation rule. One dimensional Fourier heat conduction equation is used to ascertain the temperature profile of the plate along thickness direction. Influence of different parameters such as volume fraction index, boundary condition, aspect ratio, thickness ratio and temperature field on frequency parameter of the FGM skew plate is demonstrated by performing various examples and the related findings are discussed briefly. New results are generated for vibration of the FGM skew plate under thermal environment, for the first time, which may be implemented in the future research involving similar kind of problems.
A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick cantilever isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the. Results obtained are discussed critically with those of other theories.
A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick simply supported isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the results obtained is discussed critically with those of other theories.
This paper deals with the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of shear deformable functionally graded ceramicmetal (FGM) plates. Theoretical formulations are based on higher order shear deformation theory with a considerable amendment in the transverse displacement using finite element method (FEM). The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to be temperaturedependent and graded in the thickness direction according to a powerlaw distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The temperature field is supposed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface (XY plane) and varied in the thickness direction only. The fundamental equations for the FGM plates are obtained using variational approach by considering traction free boundary conditions on the top and bottom faces of the plate. A C0 continuous isoparametric Lagrangian finite element with thirteen degrees of freedom per node have been employed to accomplish the results. Convergence and comparison studies have been performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the present model. The numerical results are obtained for different thickness ratios, aspect ratios, volume fraction index and temperature rise with different loading and boundary conditions. Numerical results for the FGM plates are provided in dimensionless tabular and graphical forms. The results proclaim that the temperature field and the gradient in the material properties have significant role on the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of the FGM plates.
Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.
This paper deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of doubly curved laminated composite shells using active fiber composite (AFC) materials. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment has been considered to be made of the AFC materials. A three dimensional energy based finite element model of the smart doubly curved laminated composite shell integrated with a patch of such ACLD treatment has been developed to demonstrate the performance of the patch on enhancing the damping characteristics of the doubly curved laminated composite shells. Particular emphasis has been placed on studying the effect of variation of piezoelectric fiber orientation angle in the constraining AFC layer on the control authority of the ACLD patch.
Stability of functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends is studied in this paper. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on first order shear deformation beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.