Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 34

Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems

The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Microstrip Patch Antenna Enhancement Techniques
Microstrip patch antennas are widely used in many wireless communication applications because of their various advantages such as light weight, compact size, inexpensive, ease of fabrication and high reliability. However, narrow bandwidth and low gain are the major drawbacks of microstrip antennas. The radiation properties of microstrip antenna is affected by many designing factors like feeding techniques, manufacturing substrate, patch and ground structure. This manuscript presents a review of the most popular gain and bandwidth enhancement methods of microstrip antenna and reports a brief description of its feeding techniques.
Multi Antenna Systems for 5G Mobile Phones
With the increasing demand of bandwidth and data rate, there is a dire need to implement antenna systems in mobile phones which are able to fulfill user requirements. A monopole antenna system with multi-antennas configurations is proposed considering the feasibility and user demand. The multi-antenna structure is referred to as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system. The multi-antenna system comprises of 4 antennas operating below 6 GHz frequency bands for 4G/LTE and 4 antenna for 5G applications at 28 GHz and the dimension of board is 120 × 70 × 0.8mm3. The suggested designs is feasible with a structure of low-profile planar-antenna and is adaptable to smart cell phones and handheld devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first design compared to the literature by having integrated antenna system for two standards, i.e., 4G and 5G. All MIMO antenna systems are simulated on commercially available software, which is high frequency structures simulator (HFSS).
A Low Profile Dual Polarized Slot Coupled Patch Antenna

A low profile, dual polarized, slot coupled patch antenna is designed and developed in this paper. The antenna has a measured bandwidth of 17.2% for return loss > 15 dB and pair ports isolation >23 dB. The gain of the antenna is over 10 dBi and the half power beam widths (HPBW) of the antenna are 80±3o in the horizontal plane and 39±2o in the vertical plane. The cross polarization discrimination (XPD) is less than 20 dB in HPBW. Within the operating band, the performances of good impedance match, high ports isolation, low cross polarization, and stable radiation patterns are achieved.

Factors Affecting Slot Machine Performance in an Electronic Gaming Machine Facility

A facility exploiting only electronic gambling machines (EGMs) opened in 2007 in Quebec City, Canada under the name of Salons de Jeux du Québec (SdjQ). This facility is one of the first worldwide to rely on that business model. This paper models the performance of such EGMs. The interest from a managerial point of view is to identify the variables that can be controlled or influenced so that a comprehensive model can help improve the overall performance of the business. The EGM individual performance model contains eight different variables under study (Game Title, Progressive jackpot, Bonus Round, Minimum Coin-in, Maximum Coin-in, Denomination, Slant Top and Position). Using data from Quebec City’s SdjQ, a linear regression analysis explains 90.80% of the EGM performance. Moreover, results show a behavior slightly different than that of a casino. The addition of GameTitle as a factor to predict the EGM performance is one of the main contributions of this paper. The choice of the game (GameTitle) is very important. Games having better position do not have significantly better performance than games located elsewhere on the gaming floor. Progressive jackpots have a positive and significant effect on the individual performance of EGMs. The impact of BonusRound on the dependent variable is significant but negative. The effect of Denomination is significant but weakly negative. As expected, the Language of an EGMS does not impact its individual performance. This paper highlights some possible improvements by indicating which features are performing well. Recommendations are given to increase the performance of the EGMs performance.

A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications
In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.
Comparison of CPW Fed Microstrip Patch Antennas with Varied Ground Structures for Fixed Satellite Applications

This paper draws a comparison between two microstrip patch antennas having different ground structures. The designs utilize 45 mm x 40 mm x 1.6 mm FR4 epoxy substrate (relative permittivity of 4.4 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.02) and CPW feeding technique. The design 1 uses conducting partial ground plates along the two sides of the radiating X’mas tree shaped patch. The design 2 utilizes an X’mas tree shaped slotted ground structure that features a circular radiating patch. A comparative analysis of results of both designs has been carried. The two designs are intended to serve the fixed satellite applications in X and Ku band respectively.

Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

C-LNRD: A Cross-Layered Neighbor Route Discovery for Effective Packet Communication in Wireless Sensor Network

One of the problems to be addressed in wireless sensor networks is the issues related to cross layer communication. Cross layer architecture shares the information across the layer, ensuring Quality of Services (QoS). With this shared information, MAC protocol adapts effective functionality maintenance such as route selection on changeable sensor network environment. However, time slot assignment and neighbour route selection time duration for cross layer have not been carried out. The time varying physical layer communication over cross layer causes high traffic load in the sensor network. Though, the traffic load was reduced using cross layer optimization procedure, the computational cost is high. To improve communication efficacy in the sensor network, a self-determined time slot based Cross-Layered Neighbour Route Discovery (C-LNRD) method is presented in this paper. In the presented work, the initial process is to discover the route in the sensor network using Dynamic Source Routing based Medium Access Control (MAC) sub layers. This process considers MAC layer operation with dynamic route neighbour table discovery. Then, the discovered route path for packet communication employs Broad Route Distributed Time Slot Assignment method on Cross-Layered Sensor Network system. Broad Route means time slotting on varying length of the route paths. During packet communication in this sensor network, transmission of packets is adjusted over the different time with varying ranges for controlling the traffic rate. Finally, Rayleigh fading model is developed in C-LNRD to identify the performance of the sensor network communication structure. The main task of Rayleigh Fading is to measure the power level of each communication under MAC sub layer. The minimized power level helps to easily reduce the computational cost of packet communication in the sensor network. Experiments are conducted on factors such as power factor, on packet communication, neighbour route discovery time, and information (i.e., packet) propagation speed.

Analysis of Effects of Magnetic Slot Wedges on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
The influence of slot wedges permeability on the electromagnetic performance of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the back-EMF waveform, electromagnetic torque and electromagnetic torque ripple are all significantly affected by slot wedges permeability. The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model and confirmed by finite-element analyses.
The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor
There are many perceived advantages of microwave ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked antenna with same dimensions.
High Gain Broadband Plasmonic Slot Nano-Antenna

High gain broadband plasmonic slot nano-antenna has been considered. The theory of plasmonic slot nano-antenna (PSNA) has been developed. The analytical model takes into account also the electrical field inside the metal due to imperfectness of metal in optical range, as well as numerical investigation based on finite element method (FEM) has been realized. It should be mentioned that Yagi-Uda configuration improves directivity in the plane of structure. In contrast, in this paper the possibility of directivity improvement of proposed PSNA in perpendicular plane of structure by using reflection metallic surface placed under the slot in fixed distance has been demonstrated. It is well known that a directivity improvement brings to the antenna gain increasing. This method of diagram improving is also well known from RF antenna design theory. Moreover the improvement of directivity in the perpendicular plane gives more flexibility in such application as improving the light and atom, ion, molecule interactions by using such type of plasmonic slot antenna. By the analogy of dipole type optical antennas the widening of working wavelengths has been realized by using bowtie geometry of slots, which made the antenna broadband.

Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design consist of a rectangular patch with symmetric l-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875 – 7.115 GHz) with stable radiation pattern is achieved. The proposed antenna has excellent characteristics, low profile and costeffective compared to existing UWB antennas. The UWB antenna is designed and analyzed using CST Microwave Studio in transient mode to verify antenna parameters improvements.

A Novel Approach to Allocate Channels Dynamically in Wireless Mesh Networks

Wireless mesh networking is rapidly gaining in popularity with a variety of users: from municipalities to enterprises, from telecom service providers to public safety and military organizations. This increasing popularity is based on two basic facts: ease of deployment and increase in network capacity expressed in bandwidth per footage; WMNs do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Many efforts have been used to maximizing throughput of the network in a multi-channel multi-radio wireless mesh network. Current approaches are purely based on either static or dynamic channel allocation approaches. In this paper, we use a hybrid multichannel multi radio wireless mesh networking architecture, where static and dynamic interfaces are built in the nodes. Dynamic Adaptive Channel Allocation protocol (DACA), it considers optimization for both throughput and delay in the channel allocation. The assignment of the channel has been allocated to be codependent with the routing problem in the wireless mesh network and that should be based on passage flow on every link. Temporal and spatial relationship rises to re compute the channel assignment every time when the pattern changes in mesh network, channel assignment algorithms assign channels in network. In this paper a computing path which captures the available path bandwidth is the proposed information and the proficient routing protocol based on the new path which provides both static and dynamic links. The consistency property guarantees that each node makes an appropriate packet forwarding decision and balancing the control usage of the network, so that a data packet will traverse through the right path.

Experimental and Semi-Analytical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Vertical slotted walls can be used as permeable breakwaters to provide economical and environmental protection from undesirable waves and currents inside the port. The permeable breakwaters are partially protection and have been suggested to overcome the environmental disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. For regular waves a semi-analytical model is based on an eigenfunction expansion method and utilizes a boundary condition at the surface of each wall are developed to detect the energy dissipation through the slots. Extensive laboratory tests are carried out to validate the semi-analytic models. The structure of the physical model contains two walls and it consists of impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is based a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at a distant of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 times of the water depth from the first one. A comparison of the theoretical results with previous studies and experimental measurements of the present study show a good agreement and that, the semi-analytical model is able to adequately reproduce most the important features of the experiment.

Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Recently, permeable breakwaters have been suggested to overcome the disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. These protection structures have minor impacts on the coastal environment and neighboring beaches where they provide a more economical protection from waves and currents. For regular waves, a numerical model is used (FLOW-3D, VOF) to investigate the hydraulic performance of a permeable breakwater. The model of permeable breakwater consists of a pair of identical vertical slotted walls with an impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at distant of 0.5 and 1.5 of the water depth from the first one. The numerical model is validated by comparisons with previous laboratory data and semi-analytical results of the same model. A good agreement between the numerical results and both laboratory data and semi-analytical results has been shown and the results indicate the applicability of the numerical model to reproduce most of the important features of the interaction. Through the numerical investigation, the friction factor of the model is carefully discussed.

A Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN and WiMAX Applications

In this paper, the design of a multiple U-slotted microstrip patch antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) as a superstrate for WLAN and WiMAX applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate FR4 having permittivity of 4.4 and air substrate. The characteristics of the antenna are designed and evaluated the performance of modelled antenna using CST Microwave studio. The proposed antenna dual resonant frequency has been achieved in the band of 2.37-2.55 GHz and 3.4-3.6 GHz. Because of the impact of FSS superstrate, it is found that the bandwidths have been improved from 6.12% to 7.35 % and 3.7% to 5.7% at resonant frequencies 2.45 GHz and 3.5 GHz, respectively. The maximum gain at the resonant frequency of 2.45 and 3.5 GHz are 9.3 and 11.33 dBi, respectively.

Low Cost Real-Time Communication Braille Hand-Glove for Visually Impaired Using Slot Sensors and Vibration Motors

Visually impaired people find it extremely difficult to acquire basic and vital information necessary for their living. Therefore, they are at a very high risk of being socially excluded as a result of poor access to information. In recent years, several attempts have been made in improving the communication methods for visually impaired people which involve tactile sensation such as finger Braille, manual alphabets and the print on palm method and several other electronic devices. But, there are some problems which arise in such methods such as lack of privacy and lack of compatibility to computer environment. This paper describes a low cost Braille hand glove for blind people using slot sensors and vibration motors with the help of which they can read and write emails, text messages and read e-books. This glove allows the person to type characters based on different Braille combination using six slot sensors. The vibration in six different positions of the glove which matches to the Braille code allows them to read characters.

Performance Improvement of MAC Protocols for Broadband Power-Line Access Networks of Developing Countries: A Case of Tanzania

This paper investigates the possibility of improving throughputs of some Media Access Controls protocols such as ALOHA, slotted ALOHA and Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance with the aim of increasing the performance of Powerline access networks. In this investigation, the real Powerline network topology in Tanzania located in Dar es Salaam City, Kariakoo area was used as a case study. During this investigation, Wireshark Network Protocol Analyzer was used to analyze data traffic of similar existing network for projection purpose and then the data were simulated using MATLAB. This paper proposed and analyzed three improvement techniques based on collision domain, packet length and combination of the two. From the results, it was found that the throughput of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance protocol improved noticeably while ALOHA and slotted ALOHA showed insignificant changes especially when the hybrid techniques were employed.

A Novel Low-Profile Coupled-Fed Printed Twelve-Band Mobile Phone Antenna with Slotted Ground Plane for LTE/GSM/UMTS/WIMAX/WLAN Operations

A low profile planar antenna for twelve-band operation in the mobile phone is presented. The proposed antenna radiating elements occupy an area equals 17 × 50 mm2 are mounted on the compact no-ground portion of the system circuit board to achieve a simple low profile structure. In order to overcome the shortcoming of narrow bandwidth for conventional planar printed antenna, a novel bandwidth enhancement approach for multiband handset antennas is proposed here. The technique used in this study shows that by using a coupled-fed mechanism and a slotted ground structure, a multiband operation with wideband characteristic can be achieved. The influences of the modifications introduced into the ground plane improved significantly the bandwidths of the designed antenna. The slotted ground plane structure with the coupled-fed elements contributes their lowest, middle and higher-order resonant modes to form four operating modes. The generated modes are able to cover LTE 700/2300/2500, GSM 850/900/1800/1900, UMTS, WiMAX 3500, WLAN 2400/5200/5800 operations. Parametric studies via simulation are provided and discussed. Proposed antenna’s gain, efficiency and radiation pattern characteristics over the desired operating bands are obtained and discussed. The reasonable results observed can meet the requirements of practical mobile phones.

Design and Optimization of a Microstrip Patch Antenna for Increased Bandwidth

With the ever-increasing need for wireless communication and the emergence of many systems, it is important to design broadband antennas to cover a wide frequency range. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband patch antenna, employing the three techniques of slotting, adding directly coupled parasitic elements, and fractal EBG structures. The bandwidth is improved from 9.32% to 23.77%. A wideband ranging from 4.15 GHz to 5.27 GHz is obtained. Also a comparative analysis of embedding EBG structures at different heights is also done. The composite effect of integrating these techniques in the design provides a simple and efficient method for obtaining low profile, broadband, high gain antenna. By the addition of parasitic elements the bandwidth was increased to only 18.04%. Later on by embedding EBG structures the bandwidth was increased up to 23.77%. The design is suitable for variety of wireless applications like WLAN and Radar Applications.

Effects of Geometry of Disk Openers on Seed Slot Properties
Offset Double-Disk Opener (DDO) is a popular furrow opener in conservation tillage. It has some limitations such as negative suction to penetrate in the soil, hair pinning and mixing seed and fertilizer in the slot. Because of importance of separation of seed and fertilizer in the slot, by adding two horizontal mini disks to DDO a modified opener was made (MDO) which placed the fertilizer between and under two rows of seed. To consider performance of novel opener an indoor comparison test between DDO and MDO was performed at soil bin. The experiment was conducted with three working speeds (3, 6 and 8 km h-1), two bulk densities of soil (1.1 and 1.4 Mg m-3) and two levels of residues (1 and 2 ton ha-1). The experimental design consisted in a (3×2×2) complete randomized factorial with three replicates for each test. Moisture of seed furrow, separation of seed and fertilizer, hair pinning and resultant forces acting on the openers were used as assessing indexes. There was no significant difference between soil moisture content in slots created by DDO and MDO at 0-4 cm depth, but at 4-8 cm the in the slot created by MDO moisture content was higher about 9%. Horizontal force for both openers increased with increasing speed and soil bulk density. Vertical force for DDO was negative so it needed additional weight for penetrating in the soil, but vertical force for MDO was positive and, which can solve the challenge of penetration in the soil in DDO. In soft soil with heavy residues some trash was pushed by DDO into seed furrow (hair pinning) but at MDO seed were placed at clean groove. Lateral and vertical separation of seed and fertilizer was performed effectively by MDO (4.5 and 5 cm, respectively) while DDO put seed and fertilizer close to each other. Overall, the Modified Offset Double-disks (MDO) had better performance. So by adapting this opener with no-tillage drillers it would possible to have higher yield in conservation tillage where the most appropriate opener is disk type.
Light Confinement in Low Index Nanometer Areas
In this work we numerically examine structures which could confine light in nanometer areas. A system consisting of two silicon disks with in plane separation of a few tens of nanometers has been studied first. The normalized unitless effective mode volume, Veff, has been calculated for the two lowest whispering gallery mode resonances. The effective mode volume is reduced significantly as the gap between the disks decreases. In addition, the effect of the substrate is also studied. In that case, Veff of approximately the same value as the non-substrate case for a similar two disk system can be obtained by using disks almost twice as thick. We also numerically examine a structure consisting of a circular slot waveguide which is formed into a silicon disk resonator. We show that the proposed structure could have high Q resonances thus raising the belief that it is a very promising candidate for optical interconnects applications. The study includes several numerical calculations for all the geometric parameters of the structure. It also includes numerical simulations of the coupling between a waveguide and the proposed disk resonator leading to a very promising conclusion about its applicability.
A Numerical Study on Heat Transfer in Laminar Pulsed Slot Jets Impinging on a Surface
Numerical simulations are performed for laminar continuous and pulsed jets impinging on a surface in order to investigate the effects of pulsing frequency on the heat transfer characteristics. The time-averaged Nusselt number of pulsed jets is larger in the impinging jet region as compared to the continuous jet, while it is smaller in the outer wall jet region. At the stagnation point, the mean and RMS Nusselt numbers become larger and smaller, respectively, as the pulsing frequency increases. Unsteady behaviors of vortical fluid motions and temperature field are also investigated to understand the underlying mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement.
Active Intra-ONU Scheduling with Cooperative Prediction Mechanism in EPONs
Dynamic bandwidth allocation in EPONs can be generally separated into inter-ONU scheduling and intra-ONU scheduling. In our previous work, the active intra-ONU scheduling (AS) utilizes multiple queue reports (QRs) in each report message to cooperate with the inter-ONU scheduling and makes the granted bandwidth fully utilized without leaving unused slot remainder (USR). This scheme successfully solves the USR problem originating from the inseparability of Ethernet frame. However, without proper setting of threshold value in AS, the number of QRs constrained by the IEEE 802.3ah standard is not enough, especially in the unbalanced traffic environment. This limitation may be solved by enlarging the threshold value. The large threshold implies the large gap between the adjacent QRs, thus resulting in the large difference between the best granted bandwidth and the real granted bandwidth. In this paper, we integrate AS with a cooperative prediction mechanism and distribute multiple QRs to reduce the penalty brought by the prediction error. Furthermore, to improve the QoS and save the usage of queue reports, the highest priority (EF) traffic which comes during the waiting time is granted automatically by OLT and is not considered in the requested bandwidth of ONU. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better performance metrics in terms of bandwidth utilization and average delay for different classes of packets.
A Study on Brushless DC Motor for High Torque Density
Brushless DC motor with high torque density and slim topology for easy loading for robot system is proposed and manufactured. Electromagnetic design is executed by equivalent magnetic circuit model and numerical analysis. Manufactured motor is tested and verified characteristics comparing with conventional BLDC motor.
Sustainable Design of Impinging Premixed Slot Jets
Cooktop burners are widely used nowadays. In cooktop burner design, nozzle efficiency and greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions mainly depend on heat transfer from the premixed flame to the impinging surface. This is a complicated issue depending on the individual and combined effects of various input combustion variables. Optimal operating conditions for sustainable burner design were rarely addressed, especially in the case of multiple slot-jet burners. Through evaluating the optimal combination of combustion conditions for a premixed slot-jet array, this paper develops a practical approach for the sustainable design of gas cooktop burners. Efficiency, CO and NOx emissions in respect of an array of slot jets using premixed flames were analysed. Response surface experimental design were applied to three controllable factors of the combustion process, viz. Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and jet-to-vessel distance. Desirability Function Approach(DFA) is the analytic technique used for the simultaneous optimization of the efficiency and emission responses.
Analytical Estimation of Rotor Loss Due to Stator Slotting of Synchronous PM Machines

In this paper, we analyze the rotor eddy currents losses provoqued by the stator slot harmonics developed in the permanent magnets or pole pieces of synchronous machines. An analytical approach is presented to evaluate the effect of slot ripples on rotor field and losses calculation. This analysis is then tested on a model by 2D/3D finite element (FE) calculation. The results show a good agreement on loss calculations when skin effect is negligible and the magnet is considered.

CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots
Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible. This paper attempts to explore the effect of boundary layer suction slots corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller with converging configurations for the slots. The analysis shows that the converging suction slots located on the impeller blade about 25% from the trailing edge, significantly improves the static pressure recovery across the fan. Also it is found that Slots provided at a radial distance of about 12% from the leading and trailing edges marginally improve the static pressure recovery across the fan.
Design Analysis of a Slotted Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Communication
In this paper, a new design technique for enhancing bandwidth that improves the performance of a conventional microstrip patch antenna is proposed. This paper presents a novel wideband probe fed inverted slotted microstrip patch antenna. The design adopts contemporary techniques; coaxial probe feeding, inverted patch structure and slotted patch. The composite effect of integrating these techniques and by introducing the proposed patch, offer a low profile, broadband, high gain, and low cross-polarization level. The results for the VSWR, gain and co-and cross-polarization patterns are presented. The antenna operating the band of 1.80-2.36 GHz shows an impedance bandwidth (2:1 VSWR) of 27% and a gain of 10.18 dBi with a gain variation of 1.12 dBi. Good radiation characteristics, including a cross-polarization level in xz-plane less than -42 dB, have been obtained.
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