|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 3|
“Humour studies” is an interdisciplinary research area that is relatively recent. It interests researchers from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, medicine, nursing, in the work place, gender studies, among others, and certainly teaching, language learning, linguistics, and literature. Linguistic theories of humour research are numerous; some of which are of interest to the present study. In spite of the fact that humour courses are now taught in universities around the world in the Egyptian context it is not included. The purpose of the present study is two-fold: to review the state of arts and to show how linguistic theories of humour can be possibly used as an art and craft of teaching and of learning in EFL literature classes. In the present study linguistic theories of humour were applied to selected literary texts to interpret humour as an intrinsic artistic communicative competence challenge. Humour in the area of linguistics was seen as a fifth component of communicative competence of the second language leaner. In literature it was studied as satire, irony, wit, or comedy. Linguistic theories of humour now describe its linguistic structure, mechanism, function, and linguistic deviance. Semantic Script Theory of Verbal Humor (SSTH), General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH), Audience Based Theory of Humor (ABTH), and their extensions and subcategories as well as the pragmatic perspective were employed in the analyses. This research analysed the linguistic semantic structure of humour, its mechanism, and how the audience reader (teacher or learner) becomes an interactive interpreter of the humour. This promotes humour competence together with the linguistic, social, cultural, and discourse communicative competence. Studying humour as part of the literary texts and the perception of its function in the work also brings its positive association in class for educational purposes. Humour is by default a provoking/laughter-generated device. Incongruity recognition, perception and resolving it, is a cognitive mastery. This cognitive process involves a humour experience that lightens up the classroom and the mind. It establishes connections necessary for the learning process. In this context the study examined selected narratives to exemplify the application of the theories. It is, therefore, recommended that the theories would be taught and applied to literary texts for a better understanding of the language. Students will then develop their language competence. Teachers in EFL/ESL classes will teach the theories, assist students apply them and interpret text and in the process will also use humour. This is thus easing students' acquisition of the second language, making the classroom an enjoyable, cheerful, self-assuring, and self-illuminating experience for both themselves and their students. It is further recommended that courses of humour research studies should become an integral part of higher education curricula in Egypt.
The objective of this research is to investigate the advantages of using large-diameter 0.7 inch prestressing strands in pretention applications. The advantages of large-diameter strands are mainly beneficial in the heavy construction applications. Bridges and tunnels are subjected to a higher daily traffic with an exponential increase in trucks ultimate weight, which raise the demand for higher structural capacity of bridges and tunnels. In this research, precast prestressed I-girders were considered as a case study. Flexure capacities of girders fabricated using 0.7 inch strands and different concrete strengths were calculated and compared to capacities of 0.6 inch strands girders fabricated using equivalent concrete strength. The effect of bridge deck concrete strength on composite deck-girder section capacity was investigated due to its possible effect on final section capacity. Finally, a comparison was made to compare the bridge cross-section of girders designed using regular 0.6 inch strands and the large-diameter 0.7 inch. The research findings showed that structural advantages of 0.7 inch strands allow for using fewer bridge girders, reduced material quantity, and light-weight members. The structural advantages of 0.7 inch strands are maximized when high strength concrete (HSC) are used in girder fabrication, and concrete of minimum 5ksi compressive strength is used in pouring bridge decks. The use of 0.7 inch strands in bridge industry can partially contribute to the improvement of bridge conditions, minimize construction cost, and reduce the construction duration of the project.
The National Bridge Inventory (NBI) includes more than 600,000 bridges within the United States of America. Prestressed concrete girder bridges represent one of the most widely used bridge systems. The majority of these girder bridges were constructed using 0.5 and 0.6 inch diameter strands. The main impediments to using larger strand diameters are: 1) lack of prestress bed capacities, 2) lack of structural knowledge regarding the transfer and development length of larger strands, and 3) the possibility of developing wider end zone cracks upon strand release. This paper presents a study about using 0.7 inch strands in girder fabrication. Transfer and development length were evaluated, and girders were fabricated using 0.7 inch strands at different spacings. Results showed that 0.7 inch strands can be used at 2.0 inch spacing without violating the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, while attaining superior performance in shear and flexure.