Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 39

39
10004243
Multiclass Support Vector Machines with Simultaneous Multi-Factors Optimization for Corporate Credit Ratings
Abstract:

Corporate credit rating prediction is one of the most important topics, which has been studied by researchers in the last decade. Over the last decade, researchers are pushing the limit to enhance the exactness of the corporate credit rating prediction model by applying several data-driven tools including statistical and artificial intelligence methods. Among them, multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) has been widely applied due to its good predictability. However, heuristics, for example, parameters of a kernel function, appropriate feature and instance subset, has become the main reason for the critics on MSVM, as they have dictate the MSVM architectural variables. This study presents a hybrid MSVM model that is intended to optimize all the parameter such as feature selection, instance selection, and kernel parameter. Our model adopts genetic algorithm (GA) to simultaneously optimize multiple heterogeneous design factors of MSVM.

38
10003512
Anomaly Detection with ANN and SVM for Telemedicine Networks
Abstract:
In recent years, a wide variety of applications are developed with Support Vector Machines -SVM- methods and Artificial Neural Networks -ANN-. In general, these methods depend on intrusion knowledge databases such as KDD99, ISCX, and CAIDA among others. New classes of detectors are generated by machine learning techniques, trained and tested over network databases. Thereafter, detectors are employed to detect anomalies in network communication scenarios according to user’s connections behavior. The first detector based on training dataset is deployed in different real-world networks with mobile and non-mobile devices to analyze the performance and accuracy over static detection. The vulnerabilities are based on previous work in telemedicine apps that were developed on the research group. This paper presents the differences on detections results between some network scenarios by applying traditional detectors deployed with artificial neural networks and support vector machines.
37
10002616
Methods of Geodesic Distance in Two-Dimensional Face Recognition
Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative study of three methods of 2D face recognition system such as: Iso-Geodesic Curves (IGC), Geodesic Distance (GD) and Geodesic-Intensity Histogram (GIH). These approaches are based on computing of geodesic distance between points of facial surface and between facial curves. In this study we represented the image at gray level as a 2D surface in a 3D space, with the third coordinate proportional to the intensity values of pixels. In the classifying step, we use: Neural Networks (NN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The images used in our experiments are from two wellknown databases of face images ORL and YaleB. ORL data base was used to evaluate the performance of methods under conditions where the pose and sample size are varied, and the database YaleB was used to examine the performance of the systems when the facial expressions and lighting are varied.

36
10000361
On the Network Packet Loss Tolerance of SVM Based Activity Recognition
Abstract:

In this study, data loss tolerance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) based activity recognition model and multi activity classification performance when data are received over a lossy wireless sensor network is examined. Initially, the classification algorithm we use is evaluated in terms of resilience to random data loss with 3D acceleration sensor data for sitting, lying, walking and standing actions. The results show that the proposed classification method can recognize these activities successfully despite high data loss. Secondly, the effect of differentiated quality of service performance on activity recognition success is measured with activity data acquired from a multi hop wireless sensor network, which introduces  high data loss. The effect of number of nodes on the reliability and multi activity classification success is demonstrated in simulation environment. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of data loss in a wireless sensor network on activity detection success rate of an SVM based classification algorithm has not been studied before.

35
9997044
The Use Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation Neural Network for Prediction of Daily Tidal Levels along the Jeddah Coast, Saudi Arabia
Abstract:

Sea level rise threatens to increase the impact of future  storms and hurricanes on coastal communities. Accurate sea level  change prediction and supplement is an important task in determining  constructions and human activities in coastal and oceanic areas. In  this study, support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to predict  daily tidal levels along the Jeddah Coast, Saudi Arabia. The optimal  parameter values of kernel function are determined using a genetic  algorithm. The SVM results are compared with the field data and  with back propagation (BP). Among the models, the SVM is superior  to BPNN and has better generalization performance.

 

34
5065
Support Vector Machines Approach for Detecting the Mean Shifts in Hotelling-s T2 Control Chart with Sensitizing Rules
Abstract:
In many industries, control charts is one of the most frequently used tools for quality management. Hotelling-s T2 is used widely in multivariate control chart. However, it has little defect when detecting small or medium process shifts. The use of supplementary sensitizing rules can improve the performance of detection. This study applied sensitizing rules for Hotelling-s T2 control chart to improve the performance of detection. Support vector machines (SVM) classifier to identify the characteristic or group of characteristics that are responsible for the signal and to classify the magnitude of the mean shifts. The experimental results demonstrate that the support vector machines (SVM) classifier can effectively identify the characteristic or group of characteristics that caused the process mean shifts and the magnitude of the shifts.
33
5928
On Speeding Up Support Vector Machines: Proximity Graphs Versus Random Sampling for Pre-Selection Condensation
Abstract:
Support vector machines (SVMs) are considered to be the best machine learning algorithms for minimizing the predictive probability of misclassification. However, their drawback is that for large data sets the computation of the optimal decision boundary is a time consuming function of the size of the training set. Hence several methods have been proposed to speed up the SVM algorithm. Here three methods used to speed up the computation of the SVM classifiers are compared experimentally using a musical genre classification problem. The simplest method pre-selects a random sample of the data before the application of the SVM algorithm. Two additional methods use proximity graphs to pre-select data that are near the decision boundary. One uses k-Nearest Neighbor graphs and the other Relative Neighborhood Graphs to accomplish the task.
32
6928
A Study on the Differential Diagnostic Model for Newborn Hearing Loss Screening
Abstract:

According to the statistics, the prevalence of congenital hearing loss in Taiwan is approximately six thousandths; furthermore, one thousandths of infants have severe hearing impairment. Hearing ability during infancy has significant impact in the development of children-s oral expressions, language maturity, cognitive performance, education ability and social behaviors in the future. Although most children born with hearing impairment have sensorineural hearing loss, almost every child more or less still retains some residual hearing. If provided with a hearing aid or cochlear implant (a bionic ear) timely in addition to hearing speech training, even severely hearing-impaired children can still learn to talk. On the other hand, those who failed to be diagnosed and thus unable to begin hearing and speech rehabilitations on a timely manner might lose an important opportunity to live a complete and healthy life. Eventually, the lack of hearing and speaking ability will affect the development of both mental and physical functions, intelligence, and social adaptability. Not only will this problem result in an irreparable regret to the hearing-impaired child for the life time, but also create a heavy burden for the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a set of computer-assisted predictive model that can accurately detect and help diagnose newborn hearing loss so that early interventions can be provided timely to eliminate waste of medical resources. This study uses information from the neonatal database of the case hospital as the subjects, adopting two different analysis methods of using support vector machine (SVM) for model predictions and using logistic regression to conduct factor screening prior to model predictions in SVM to examine the results. The results indicate that prediction accuracy is as high as 96.43% when the factors are screened and selected through logistic regression. Hence, the model constructed in this study will have real help in clinical diagnosis for the physicians and actually beneficial to the early interventions of newborn hearing impairment.

31
5893
Enhanced Performance for Support Vector Machines as Multiclass Classifiers in Steel Surface Defect Detection
Abstract:
Steel surface defect detection is essentially one of pattern recognition problems. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are known as one of the most proper classifiers in this application. In this paper, we introduce a more accurate classification method by using SVMs as our final classifier of the inspection system. In this scheme, multiclass classification task is performed based on the "one-againstone" method and different kernels are utilized for each pair of the classes in multiclass classification of the different defects. In the proposed system, a decision tree is employed in the first stage for two-class classification of the steel surfaces to "defect" and "non-defect", in order to decrease the time complexity. Based on the experimental results, generated from over one thousand images, the proposed multiclass classification scheme is more accurate than the conventional methods and the overall system yields a sufficient performance which can meet the requirements in steel manufacturing.
30
8828
Emotion Classification using Adaptive SVMs
Authors:
Abstract:
The study of the interaction between humans and computers has been emerging during the last few years. This interaction will be more powerful if computers are able to perceive and respond to human nonverbal communication such as emotions. In this study, we present the image-based approach to emotion classification through lower facial expression. We employ a set of feature points in the lower face image according to the particular face model used and consider their motion across each emotive expression of images. The vector of displacements of all feature points input to the Adaptive Support Vector Machines (A-SVMs) classifier that classify it into seven basic emotions scheme, namely neutral, angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. The system was tested on the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) dataset of frontal view facial expressions [7]. Our experiments on emotion classification through lower facial expressions demonstrate the robustness of Adaptive SVM classifier and verify the high efficiency of our approach.
29
3571
Corporate Credit Rating using Multiclass Classification Models with order Information
Abstract:
Corporate credit rating prediction using statistical and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques has been one of the attractive research topics in the literature. In recent years, multiclass classification models such as artificial neural network (ANN) or multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) have become a very appealing machine learning approaches due to their good performance. However, most of them have only focused on classifying samples into nominal categories, thus the unique characteristic of the credit rating - ordinality - has been seldom considered in their approaches. This study proposes new types of ANN and MSVM classifiers, which are named OMANN and OMSVM respectively. OMANN and OMSVM are designed to extend binary ANN or SVM classifiers by applying ordinal pairwise partitioning (OPP) strategy. These models can handle ordinal multiple classes efficiently and effectively. To validate the usefulness of these two models, we applied them to the real-world bond rating case. We compared the results of our models to those of conventional approaches. The experimental results showed that our proposed models improve classification accuracy in comparison to typical multiclass classification techniques with the reduced computation resource.
28
7591
Development of NOx Emission Model for a Tangentially Fired Acid Incinerator
Abstract:
This paper aims to develop a NOx emission model of an acid gas incinerator using Nelder-Mead least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). Malaysia DOE is actively imposing the Clean Air Regulation to mandate the installation of analytical instrumentation known as Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) to report emission level online to DOE . As a hardware based analyzer, CEMS is expensive, maintenance intensive and often unreliable. Therefore, software predictive technique is often preferred and considered as a feasible alternative to replace the CEMS for regulatory compliance. The LS-SVR model is built based on the emissions from an acid gas incinerator that operates in a LNG Complex. Simulated Annealing (SA) is first used to determine the initial hyperparameters which are then further optimized based on the performance of the model using Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. The LS-SVR model is shown to outperform a benchmark model based on backpropagation neural networks (BPNN) in both training and testing data.
27
11592
A Comparison of Different Soft Computing Models for Credit Scoring
Abstract:
It has become crucial over the years for nations to improve their credit scoring methods and techniques in light of the increasing volatility of the global economy. Statistical methods or tools have been the favoured means for this; however artificial intelligence or soft computing based techniques are becoming increasingly preferred due to their proficient and precise nature and relative simplicity. This work presents a comparison between Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks two popular soft computing models when applied to credit scoring. Amidst the different criteria-s that can be used for comparisons; accuracy, computational complexity and processing times are the selected criteria used to evaluate both models. Furthermore the German credit scoring dataset which is a real world dataset is used to train and test both developed models. Experimental results obtained from our study suggest that although both soft computing models could be used with a high degree of accuracy, Artificial Neural Networks deliver better results than Support Vector Machines.
26
14969
Identification of Printed Punjabi Words and English Numerals Using Gabor Features
Abstract:

Script identification is one of the challenging steps in the development of optical character recognition system for bilingual or multilingual documents. In this paper an attempt is made for identification of English numerals at word level from Punjabi documents by using Gabor features. The support vector machine (SVM) classifier with five fold cross validation is used to classify the word images. The results obtained are quite encouraging. Average accuracy with RBF kernel, Polynomial and Linear Kernel functions comes out to be greater than 99%.

25
9314
Applications of Support Vector Machines on Smart Phone Systems for Emotional Speech Recognition
Abstract:
An emotional speech recognition system for the applications on smart phones was proposed in this study to combine with 3G mobile communications and social networks to provide users and their groups with more interaction and care. This study developed a mechanism using the support vector machines (SVM) to recognize the emotions of speech such as happiness, anger, sadness and normal. The mechanism uses a hierarchical classifier to adjust the weights of acoustic features and divides various parameters into the categories of energy and frequency for training. In this study, 28 commonly used acoustic features including pitch and volume were proposed for training. In addition, a time-frequency parameter obtained by continuous wavelet transforms was also used to identify the accent and intonation in a sentence during the recognition process. The Berlin Database of Emotional Speech was used by dividing the speech into male and female data sets for training. According to the experimental results, the accuracies of male and female test sets were increased by 4.6% and 5.2% respectively after using the time-frequency parameter for classifying happy and angry emotions. For the classification of all emotions, the average accuracy, including male and female data, was 63.5% for the test set and 90.9% for the whole data set.
24
14387
Support Vector Machine Prediction Model of Early-stage Lung Cancer Based on Curvelet Transform to Extract Texture Features of CT Image
Abstract:
Purpose: To explore the use of Curvelet transform to extract texture features of pulmonary nodules in CT image and support vector machine to establish prediction model of small solitary pulmonary nodules in order to promote the ratio of detection and diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer. Methods: 2461 benign or malignant small solitary pulmonary nodules in CT image from 129 patients were collected. Fourteen Curvelet transform textural features were as parameters to establish support vector machine prediction model. Results: Compared with other methods, using 252 texture features as parameters to establish prediction model is more proper. And the classification consistency, sensitivity and specificity for the model are 81.5%, 93.8% and 38.0% respectively. Conclusion: Based on texture features extracted from Curvelet transform, support vector machine prediction model is sensitive to lung cancer, which can promote the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer to some extent.
23
516
Annual Power Load Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression Machines: A Study on Guangdong Province of China 1985-2008
Abstract:
Load forecasting has always been the essential part of an efficient power system operation and planning. A novel approach based on support vector machines is proposed in this paper for annual power load forecasting. Different kernel functions are selected to construct a combinatorial algorithm. The performance of the new model is evaluated with a real-world dataset, and compared with two neural networks and some traditional forecasting techniques. The results show that the proposed method exhibits superior performance.
22
11395
Combined Feature Based Hyperspectral Image Classification Technique Using Support Vector Machines
Abstract:

A spatial classification technique incorporating a State of Art Feature Extraction algorithm is proposed in this paper for classifying a heterogeneous classes present in hyper spectral images. The classification accuracy can be improved if and only if both the feature extraction and classifier selection are proper. As the classes in the hyper spectral images are assumed to have different textures, textural classification is entertained. Run Length feature extraction is entailed along with the Principal Components and Independent Components. A Hyperspectral Image of Indiana Site taken by AVIRIS is inducted for the experiment. Among the original 220 bands, a subset of 120 bands is selected. Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM) is calculated for the selected forty bands. From GLRLMs the Run Length features for individual pixels are calculated. The Principle Components are calculated for other forty bands. Independent Components are calculated for next forty bands. As Principal & Independent Components have the ability to represent the textural content of pixels, they are treated as features. The summation of Run Length features, Principal Components, and Independent Components forms the Combined Features which are used for classification. SVM with Binary Hierarchical Tree is used to classify the hyper spectral image. Results are validated with ground truth and accuracies are calculated.

21
1583
Genetic Algorithms and Kernel Matrix-based Criteria Combined Approach to Perform Feature and Model Selection for Support Vector Machines
Authors:
Abstract:
Feature and model selection are in the center of attention of many researches because of their impact on classifiers- performance. Both selections are usually performed separately but recent developments suggest using a combined GA-SVM approach to perform them simultaneously. This approach improves the performance of the classifier identifying the best subset of variables and the optimal parameters- values. Although GA-SVM is an effective method it is computationally expensive, thus a rough method can be considered. The paper investigates a joined approach of Genetic Algorithm and kernel matrix criteria to perform simultaneously feature and model selection for SVM classification problem. The purpose of this research is to improve the classification performance of SVM through an efficient approach, the Kernel Matrix Genetic Algorithm method (KMGA).
20
3742
An SVM based Classification Method for Cancer Data using Minimum Microarray Gene Expressions
Abstract:
This paper gives a novel method for improving classification performance for cancer classification with very few microarray Gene expression data. The method employs classification with individual gene ranking and gene subset ranking. For selection and classification, the proposed method uses the same classifier. The method is applied to three publicly available cancer gene expression datasets from Lymphoma, Liver and Leukaemia datasets. Three different classifiers namely Support vector machines-one against all (SVM-OAA), K nearest neighbour (KNN) and Linear Discriminant analysis (LDA) were tested and the results indicate the improvement in performance of SVM-OAA classifier with satisfactory results on all the three datasets when compared with the other two classifiers.
19
5636
Fusion Classifier for Open-Set Face Recognition with Pose Variations
Abstract:

A fusion classifier composed of two modules, one made by a hidden Markov model (HMM) and the other by a support vector machine (SVM), is proposed to recognize faces with pose variations in open-set recognition settings. The HMM module captures the evolution of facial features across a subject-s face using the subject-s facial images only, without referencing to the faces of others. Because of the captured evolutionary process of facial features, the HMM module retains certain robustness against pose variations, yielding low false rejection rates (FRR) for recognizing faces across poses. This is, however, on the price of poor false acceptance rates (FAR) when recognizing other faces because it is built upon withinclass samples only. The SVM module in the proposed model is developed following a special design able to substantially diminish the FAR and further lower down the FRR. The proposed fusion classifier has been evaluated in performance using the CMU PIE database, and proven effective for open-set face recognition with pose variations. Experiments have also shown that it outperforms the face classifier made by HMM or SVM alone.

18
3698
A Bayesian Kernel for the Prediction of Protein- Protein Interactions
Abstract:
Understanding proteins functions is a major goal in the post-genomic era. Proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the interaction partners of a protein in order to understand its function. Machine learning techniques have been widely applied to predict protein-protein interactions. Kernel functions play an important role for a successful machine learning technique. Choosing the appropriate kernel function can lead to a better accuracy in a binary classifier such as the support vector machines. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian kernel for the support vector machine to predict protein-protein interactions. The use of Bayesian kernel can improve the classifier performance by incorporating the probability characteristic of the available experimental protein-protein interactions data that were compiled from different sources. In addition, the probabilistic output from the Bayesian kernel can assist biologists to conduct more research on the highly predicted interactions. The results show that the accuracy of the classifier has been improved using the Bayesian kernel compared to the standard SVM kernels. These results imply that protein-protein interaction can be predicted using Bayesian kernel with better accuracy compared to the standard SVM kernels.
17
12415
Glass Bottle Inspector Based on Machine Vision
Abstract:
This text studies glass bottle intelligent inspector based machine vision instead of manual inspection. The system structure is illustrated in detail in this paper. The text presents the method based on watershed transform methods to segment the possible defective regions and extract features of bottle wall by rules. Then wavelet transform are used to exact features of bottle finish from images. After extracting features, the fuzzy support vector machine ensemble is putted forward as classifier. For ensuring that the fuzzy support vector machines have good classification ability, the GA based ensemble method is used to combining the several fuzzy support vector machines. The experiments demonstrate that using this inspector to inspect glass bottles, the accuracy rate may reach above 97.5%.
16
3921
Artificial Neural Networks and Multi-Class Support Vector Machines for Classifying Magnetic Measurements in Tokamak Reactors
Abstract:
This paper is mainly concerned with the application of a novel technique of data interpretation for classifying measurements of plasma columns in Tokamak reactors for nuclear fusion applications. The proposed method exploits several concepts derived from soft computing theory. In particular, Artificial Neural Networks and Multi-Class Support Vector Machines have been exploited to classify magnetic variables useful to determine shape and position of the plasma with a reduced computational complexity. The proposed technique is used to analyze simulated databases of plasma equilibria based on ITER geometry configuration. As well as demonstrating the successful recovery of scalar equilibrium parameters, we show that the technique can yield practical advantages compared with earlier methods.
15
15714
Feature Subset Selection approach based on Maximizing Margin of Support Vector Classifier
Abstract:
Identification of cancer genes that might anticipate the clinical behaviors from different types of cancer disease is challenging due to the huge number of genes and small number of patients samples. The new method is being proposed based on supervised learning of classification like support vector machines (SVMs).A new solution is described by the introduction of the Maximized Margin (MM) in the subset criterion, which permits to get near the least generalization error rate. In class prediction problem, gene selection is essential to improve the accuracy and to identify genes for cancer disease. The performance of the new method was evaluated with real-world data experiment. It can give the better accuracy for classification.
14
11531
Using Support Vector Machine for Prediction Dynamic Voltage Collapse in an Actual Power System
Abstract:
This paper presents dynamic voltage collapse prediction on an actual power system using support vector machines. Dynamic voltage collapse prediction is first determined based on the PTSI calculated from information in dynamic simulation output. Simulations were carried out on a practical 87 bus test system by considering load increase as the contingency. The data collected from the time domain simulation is then used as input to the SVM in which support vector regression is used as a predictor to determine the dynamic voltage collapse indices of the power system. To reduce training time and improve accuracy of the SVM, the Kernel function type and Kernel parameter are considered. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed SVM method, its performance is compared with the multi layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). Studies show that the SVM gives faster and more accurate results for dynamic voltage collapse prediction compared with the MLPNN.
13
4386
Shift Invariant Support Vector Machines Face Recognition System
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new method for incorporating global shift invariance in support vector machines. Unlike other approaches which incorporate a feature extraction stage, we first scale the image and then classify it by using the modified support vector machines classifier. Shift invariance is achieved by replacing dot products between patterns used by the SVM classifier with the maximum cross-correlation value between them. Unlike the normal approach, in which the patterns are treated as vectors, in our approach the patterns are treated as matrices (or images). Crosscorrelation is computed by using computationally efficient techniques such as the fast Fourier transform. The method has been tested on the ORL face database. The tests indicate that this method can improve the recognition rate of an SVM classifier.
12
8952
A Hybrid Machine Learning System for Stock Market Forecasting
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a hybrid machine learning system based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for stock market prediction. A variety of indicators from the technical analysis field of study are used as input features. We also make use of the correlation between stock prices of different companies to forecast the price of a stock, making use of technical indicators of highly correlated stocks, not only the stock to be predicted. The genetic algorithm is used to select the set of most informative input features from among all the technical indicators. The results show that the hybrid GA-SVM system outperforms the stand alone SVM system.
11
12114
Addressing Scalability Issues of Named Entity Recognition Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines
Abstract:
This paper explores the scalability issues associated with solving the Named Entity Recognition (NER) problem using Support Vector Machines (SVM) and high-dimensional features. The performance results of a set of experiments conducted using binary and multi-class SVM with increasing training data sizes are examined. The NER domain chosen for these experiments is the biomedical publications domain, especially selected due to its importance and inherent challenges. A simple machine learning approach is used that eliminates prior language knowledge such as part-of-speech or noun phrase tagging thereby allowing for its applicability across languages. No domain-specific knowledge is included. The accuracy measures achieved are comparable to those obtained using more complex approaches, which constitutes a motivation to investigate ways to improve the scalability of multiclass SVM in order to make the solution more practical and useable. Improving training time of multi-class SVM would make support vector machines a more viable and practical machine learning solution for real-world problems with large datasets. An initial prototype results in great improvement of the training time at the expense of memory requirements.
10
990
An ensemble of Weighted Support Vector Machines for Ordinal Regression
Abstract:
Instead of traditional (nominal) classification we investigate the subject of ordinal classification or ranking. An enhanced method based on an ensemble of Support Vector Machines (SVM-s) is proposed. Each binary classifier is trained with specific weights for each object in the training data set. Experiments on benchmark datasets and synthetic data indicate that the performance of our approach is comparable to state of the art kernel methods for ordinal regression. The ensemble method, which is straightforward to implement, provides a very good sensitivity-specificity trade-off for the highest and lowest rank.
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