Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio
Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.
Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance
Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.
Pd(II) Complex with 4-Bromo-Bis-Hydroxymethyl Phenol and Nicotinamide: Synthesis and Spectral Analysis
In the present study, the reactions involving 4-bromo-2,6-bis-hydroxymethyl-phenol (BBHMP) and nicotinamide (NA) in the presence of Pd(II) ions were investigated. Optimum conditions for the reactions were established as pH = 7 and λ = 450 nm. According to absorbance measurements, the molar ratio of BBHMP: NA: Pd2+ was found to be 1: 2: 2. As a result of physicochemical, spectrophotometric and thermal analyses, the reactions of BBHMP and NA with Pd(II) are complexation reactions and one molecule of BBHMP and two molecules of NA react with two molecules of the Pd(II) ion.
Catalytic Study of Methanol-to-Propylene Conversion over Nano-Sized HZSM-5
Methanol-to-propylene conversion was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over nano-sized HZSM-5 zeolites. The HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized with different Si/Al ratio and silicon sources, and treated with NaOH. The structural property, morphology, and acidity of catalysts were measured by XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The results indicate that the increment of Si/Al ratio decreased the acidity of catalysts and then improved propylene selectivity, while silicon sources had slight impact on the acidity but affected the product distribution. The desilication after alkali treatment could increase intracrystalline mesopores and enhance propylene selectivity.
Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven
Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN. Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.
Developing Models for Predicting Physiologically Impaired Arm Reaching Paths
This paper describes the development of a model of an impaired human arm performing a reaching motion, which will be used to predict hand path trajectories for people with reduced arm joint mobility. Assuming that the arm was in contact with a surface during the entire movement, the contact conditions at the initial and final task locations were determined and used to generate the entire trajectory. The model was validated by comparing it to experimental data, which simulated an arm joint impairment by physically constraining the joint motion with a brace. Future research will include using the model in the development of physical training protocols that avoid early recruitment of “healthy” Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) for reaching motions, thus facilitating an Active Range-Of-Motion Recovery (AROM) for a particular impaired joint.
Hybrid Temporal Correlation Based on Gaussian Mixture Model Framework for View Synthesis
As 3D video is explored as a hot research topic in the last few decades, free-viewpoint TV (FTV) is no doubt a promising field for its better visual experience and incomparable interactivity. View synthesis is obviously a crucial technology for FTV; it enables to render images in unlimited numbers of virtual viewpoints with the information from limited numbers of reference view. In this paper, a novel hybrid synthesis framework is proposed and blending priority is explored. In contrast to the commonly used View Synthesis Reference Software (VSRS), the presented synthesis process is driven in consideration of the temporal correlation of image sequences. The temporal correlations will be exploited to produce fine synthesis results even near the foreground boundaries. As for the blending priority, this scheme proposed that one of the two reference views is selected to be the main reference view based on the distance between the reference views and virtual view, another view is chosen as the auxiliary viewpoint, just assist to fill the hole pixel with the help of background information. Significant improvement of the proposed approach over the state-of –the-art pixel-based virtual view synthesis method is presented, the results of the experiments show that subjective gains can be observed, and objective PSNR average gains range from 0.5 to 1.3 dB, while SSIM average gains range from 0.01 to 0.05.
Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii
Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.
Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots
The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles’ size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.
Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methanol over Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst
Carbon dioxide is highly thermochemical stable molecules where it is very difficult to activate the molecule and achieve higher catalytic conversion into alcohols or other hydrocarbon compounds. In this paper, series of the bimetallic Cu/ZnO-based catalyst supported by SBA-15 were systematically prepared via impregnation technique with different Cu: Zn ratio for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed desorption, reduction, oxidation and pulse chemisorption (TPDRO), and surface area determination was also performed. All catalysts were tested with respect to the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol in microactivity fixed-bed reactor at 250oC, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3. The results demonstrate that the catalytic structure, activity, and methanol selectivity was strongly affected by the ratio between Cu: Zn, Where higher catalytic activity of 14 % and methanol selectivity of 92 % was obtained over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst with Cu:Zn ratio of 7:3 wt. %. Comparing with the single catalyst, the synergetic between Cu and Zn provides additional active sites to adsorb more H2 and CO2 and accelerate the CO2 conversion, resulting in higher methanol production under mild reaction conditions.
Iron Doped Biomaterial Calcium Borate: Synthesis and Characterization
Colemanite is the most common borate mineral, and the main source of the boron required by plants, human, and earth. Transition metals exhibit optical and physical properties such as; non-linear optical character, structural diversity, thermal stability, long cycle life and luminescent radiation. The doping of colemanite with a transition metal, bring it very interesting and attractive properties which make them applicable in industry. Iron doped calcium borate was synthesized by conventional solid state method at 1200 °C for 12 h with a systematic pathway. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS) were used to characterize structural and morphological properties. Also, thermal properties were recorded by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).
Conventional Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Molybdate, Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9
Rare earths containing complex metal oxides have drawn much attention due to physical, chemical and optical properties which make them feasible in so many areas such as non-linear optical materials and ion exchanger. We have researched a systematic study to obtain rare earth containing zirconium molybdate compound, characterization, investigation of crystal system and calculation of unit cell parameters. After a successful synthesis of Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9 which is a member of rare earth metal containing complex oxides family, X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Score Plus/Rietveld refinement analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were completed to determine the crystal structure. Morphological properties and elemental composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Thermal properties were observed via Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).
Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation
Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. No drying gas is required, so the present technique should not be confused with spray dying. Resulting nanothermites, insensitive explosives or propellants and compositions are foreseen to replace toxic (according to REACH) and very sensitive matter in military and civil applications. Diverse examples are given in detail: nano-RDX (n-Cyclotrimethylentrinitramin) and nano-aluminum based systems, mixtures (n-RDX/n-TNT - trinitrotoluene) or even cocrystalline matter like n-CL-20/HMX (Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane/ Cyclotetra-methylentetranitramin). These nanomaterials show reduced sensitivity by trend without losing effectiveness and performance. An analytical study for material characterization was performed by using Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and combined techniques as well as spectroscopic methods. As a matter of course, sensitivity tests regarding electrostatic discharge, impact, and friction are provided.
Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst
Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.
Thermodynamic Attainable Region for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Synthesis Gas
This paper demonstrates the use of a method of synthesizing process flowsheets using a graphical tool called the GH-plot and in particular, to look at how it can be used to compare the reactions of a combined simultaneous process with regard to their thermodynamics. The technique uses fundamental thermodynamic principles to allow the mass, energy and work balances locate the attainable region for chemical processes in a reactor. This provides guidance on what design decisions would be best suited to developing new processes that are more effective and make lower demands on raw material and energy usage.
Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method
In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.
Dynamic Process Monitoring of an Ammonia Synthesis Fixed-Bed Reactor
This study involves the modeling and monitoring of an ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor using partial least squares (PLS) and its variants. The process exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the presence of heat recycling and feed quench. One limitation of static PLS model in this situation is that it does not take account of the process dynamics and hence dynamic PLS was used. Although it showed, superior performance to static PLS in terms of prediction, the monitoring scheme was inappropriate hence adaptive PLS was considered. A limitation of adaptive PLS is that non-conforming observations also contribute to the model, therefore, a new adaptive approach was developed, robust adaptive dynamic PLS. This approach updates a dynamic PLS model and is robust to non-representative data. The developed methodology showed a clear improvement over existing approaches in terms of the modeling of the reactor and the detection of faults.
A Method to Saturation Modeling of Synchronous Machines in d-q Axes
This paper discusses the general methods to saturation
in the steady-state, two axis (d & q) frame models of synchronous
machines. In particular, the important role of the magnetic coupling
between the d-q axes (cross-magnetizing phenomenon), is
demonstrated. For that purpose, distinct methods of saturation
modeling of dumper synchronous machine with cross-saturation are
identified, and detailed models synthesis in d-q axes. A number of
models are given in the final developed form. The procedure and the
novel models are verified by a critical application to prove the
validity of the method and the equivalence between all developed
models is reported. Advantages of some of the models over the
existing ones and their applicability are discussed.
Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials
The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as
diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high
hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates
owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent
character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modifiedmicrowave
method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel
(glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate
molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD),
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron
microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo
gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).
Inventive Synthesis and Characterization of a Cesium Molybdate Compound: CsBi(MoO4)2
Cesium molybdates with general formula
CsMIII(MoO4)2, where MIII = Bi, Dy, Pr, Er, exhibit rich
polymorphism, and crystallize in a layered structure. These properties
cause intensive studies on cesium molybdates. CsBi(MoO4)2 was synthesized by microwave method by using
cerium sulphate, bismuth oxide and molybdenum (VI) oxide in an
appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray
diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy,
scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS),
thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).
Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method
Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate
material, which can be used as a flame retardant agent and corrosion
resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water
content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate
can be used as flame retardant at high temperature process of plastic
and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were
studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6) and boric acid
(H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were
characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new
application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters
were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction
time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials
(Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the
products were analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum
molar ratio of 1:5 is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with
Plasma Chemical Gasification of Solid Fuel with Mineral Mass Processing
The article presents a plasma chemical technology for
processing solid fuels, using examples of bituminous and brown
coals. Thermodynamic and experimental investigation of the
technology was made. The technology allows producing synthesis
gas from the coal organic mass and valuable components (technical
silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum, and carbon silicon, as well as
microelements of rare metals, such as uranium, molybdenum,
vanadium, etc.) from the mineral mass. The thusly produced highcalorific
synthesis gas can be used for synthesis of methanol, as a
high-calorific reducing gas instead of blast-furnace coke as well as
power gas for thermal power plants.
Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV
High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process
use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow
behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial
velocity affects the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler
Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution
along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a
fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating
within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random
phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6
times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the
axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.
The Determination of the Potassium Nitrate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio in the Synthesis of Potassium Borates via Hydrothermal Method
Potassium borates, which are widely used in welding
and metal refining industry, as a lubricating oil additive, cement
additive, fiberglass additive and insulation compound, are one of the
important groups of borate minerals. In this study the production of a
potassium borate mineral via hydrothermal method is aimed. The
potassium source of potassium nitrate (KNO3) was used along with a
sodium source of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and boron source of
boric acid (H3BO3). The constant parameters of reaction temperature
and reaction time were determined as 80°C and 1 h, respectively. The
molar ratios of 1:1:3 (as KNO3:NaOH:H3BO3), 1:1:4, 1:1:5, 1:1:6
and 1:1:7 were used. Following the synthesis the identifications of
the produced products were conducted by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD),
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman
Spectroscopy. The results of the experiments and analysis showed in
the ratio of 1:1:6, the Santite mineral with powder diffraction file
number (pdf no.) of 01-072-1688, which is known as potassium
pentaborate (KB5O8·4H2O) was synthesized as best.
A Methodology for the Synthesis of Multi-Processors
Random epistemologies and hash tables have garnered
minimal interest from both security experts and experts in the last
several years. In fact, few information theorists would disagree with
the evaluation of expert systems. In our research, we discover how
flip-flop gates can be applied to the study of superpages. Though
such a hypothesis at first glance seems perverse, it is derived from
Sensor Monitoring of the Concentrations of Different Gases Present in Synthesis of Ammonia Based On Multi-Scale Entropy and Multivariate Statistics
This paper presents powerful techniques for the
development of a new monitoring method based on multi-scale
entropy (MSE) in order to characterize the behaviour of the
concentrations of different gases present in the synthesis of Ammonia
and soft-sensor based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA).
High Level Synthesis of Canny Edge Detection Algorithm on Zynq Platform
Real time image and video processing is a demand in
many computer vision applications, e.g. video surveillance, traffic
management and medical imaging. The processing of those video
applications requires high computational power. Thus, the optimal
solution is the collaboration of CPU and hardware accelerators. In
this paper, a Canny edge detection hardware accelerator is proposed.
Edge detection is one of the basic building blocks of video and image
processing applications. It is a common block in the pre-processing
phase of image and video processing pipeline. Our presented
approach targets offloading the Canny edge detection algorithm from
processing system (PS) to programmable logic (PL) taking the
advantage of High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool flow to accelerate the
implementation on Zynq platform. The resulting implementation
enables up to a 100x performance improvement through hardware
acceleration. The CPU utilization drops down and the frame rate
jumps to 60 fps of 1080p full HD input video stream.
The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum
Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric
acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste
is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such
evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or
disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron
minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their
remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates
were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of
this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium
borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of borongypsum
usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products
are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their
crystal structure, respectively.
The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates
In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the
reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and
tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are
selected as 80oC reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The
effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For
the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the
end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with
the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and
characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper
crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that
simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper
Enzymatic Synthesis of Olive-Based Ferulate Esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology
Ferulic acid has widespread industrial potential by virtue of its antioxidant properties. However, it is partially soluble in aqueous media, limiting their usefulness in oil-based processes in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and material industry. Therefore, modification of ferulic acid should be made by producing of more lipophilic derivatives. In this study, a preliminary investigation of lipase-catalyzed trans-esterification reaction of ethyl ferulate and olive oil was investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), to produce ferulate ester, a sunscreen agent. A statistical approach of Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the interactive effects of reaction temperature (40-80°C), reaction time (4-12 hours), and amount of enzyme (0.1-0.5 g). The optimum conditions derived via RSM were reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 2.34 hours, and amount of enzyme 0.3 g. The actual experimental yield was 59.6% ferulate ester under optimum condition, which compared well to the maximum predicted value of 58.0%.