Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 5

5
10007697
Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments
Abstract:

Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

4
10003804
An Efficient Digital Baseband ASIC for Wireless Biomedical Signals Monitoring
Abstract:
A digital baseband Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) (yclic Redundancy Checkis developed for a microchip transponder to transmit signals and temperature levels from biomedical monitoring devices. The transmission protocol is adapted from the ISO/IEC 11784/85 standard. The module has a decimation filter that employs only a single adder-subtractor in its datapath. The filtered output is coded with cyclic redundancy check and transmitted through backscattering Load Shift Keying (LSK) modulation to a reader. Fabricated using the 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the module occupies 0.116 mm2 in chip area (digital baseband: 0.060 mm2, decimation filter: 0.056 mm2), and consumes a total of less than 0.9 μW of power (digital baseband: 0.75 μW, decimation filter: 0.14 μW).
3
17289
An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors
Authors:
Abstract:

Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).

2
6952
A Single-chip Proportional to Absolute Temperature Sensor Using CMOS Technology
Abstract:
Nowadays it is a trend for electronic circuit designers to integrate all system components on a single-chip. This paper proposed the design of a single-chip proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) sensor including a voltage reference circuit using CEDEC 0.18m CMOS Technology. It is a challenge to design asingle-chip wide range linear response temperature sensor for many applications. The channel widths between the compensation transistor and the reference transistor are critical to design the PTAT temperature sensor circuit. The designed temperature sensor shows excellent linearity between -100°C to 200° and the sensitivity is about 0.05mV/°C. The chip is designed to operate with a single voltage source of 1.6V.
1
15695
Temperature Variation Effects on I-V Characteristics of Cu-Phthalocyanine based OFET
Abstract:
In this study we present the effect of elevated temperatures from 300K to 400K on the electrical properties of copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic field effect transistors (OFET). Thin films of organic semiconductor CuPc (40nm) and semitransparent Al (20nm) were deposited in sequence, by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with previously deposited Ag source and drain electrodes with a gap of 40 μm. Under resistive mode of operation, where gate was suspended it was observed that drain current of this organic field effect transistor (OFET) show an increase with temperature. While in grounded gate condition metal (aluminum) – semiconductor (Copper Phthalocyanine) Schottky junction dominated the output characteristics and device showed switching effect from low to high conduction states like Zener diode at higher bias voltages. This threshold voltage for switching effect has been found to be inversely proportional to temperature and shows an abrupt decrease after knee temperature of 360K. Change in dynamic resistance (Rd = dV/dI) with respect to temperature was observed to be -1%/K.
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