|Commenced in January 1999||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 43|
Maximal radar wave absorbing cannot be achieved by shaping alone. We have to focus on the parameters of absorbing materials such as permittivity, permeability, and thickness so that best absorbing according to our necessity can happen. The real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity (εr' and εr") and permeability (µr' and µr") were obtained by simulation. The microwave absorbing property of carbon and Ni(C) is simulated in this study by MATLAB software; the simulation was in the frequency range between 2 to 12 GHz for carbon black (C), and carbon coated nickel (Ni(C)) with different thicknesses. In fact, we draw reflection loss (RL) for C and Ni-C via frequency. We have compared their absorption for 3-mm thickness and predicted for other thicknesses by using of electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The results showed that reflection loss position changes in low frequency with increasing of thickness. We found out that, in all cases, using nanocomposites as absorbance cannot get better results relative to pure nanoparticles. The frequency where absorption is maximum can determine the best choice between nanocomposites and pure nanoparticles. Also, we could find an optimal thickness for long wavelength absorbing in order to utilize them in protecting shields and covering.
A problem is formulated for the natural oscillations of a circular plate of linearly variable thickness on the basis of the symmetry method. The equations of natural frequencies and forms for a plate are obtained, providing that it is rigidly fixed along the inner contour. The first three eigenfrequencies are calculated, and the eigenmodes of the oscillations of the acoustic element are constructed. An algorithm for applying the symmetry method and the factorization method for solving problems in the theory of oscillations for plates of variable thickness is shown. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on the basis of comparison of known results and those obtained in the article. It is shown that the results are more accurate and reliable.
Air permeability plays an important role for applications such as filtration, thermal and acoustic insulation. The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate air permeability property of various combinations of nonwovens. The PROWHITE air permeability tester was used for the measurement of the air permeability of the samples in accordance with the relevant standards and a comparative study of the results were made. It was found that the fabric mass per unit area was closely related to the air-permeability. The air permeability decreased with the increase in mass per unit area. Additionally, the air permeability of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness. Moreover, air permeability of multilayered SMS nonwoven structures was lower than those of single layered ones.
This study presents an inverse analysis for predicting the thermal conductivities and the heat flux of a high-temperature metallurgical reactor simultaneously. Once these thermal parameters are predicted, the time-varying thickness of the protective phase-change bank that covers the inside surface of the brick walls of a metallurgical reactor can be calculated. The enthalpy method is used to solve the melting/solidification process of the protective bank. The inverse model rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined with the Broyden method (BM). A statistical analysis for the thermal parameter estimation is carried out. The effect of the position of the temperature sensors, total number of measurements and measurement noise on the accuracy of inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of temperature sensors.
The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.
In this study, the dynamic analysis of viscoelastic plates with variable thickness is examined. The solutions of dynamic response of viscoelastic thin plates with variable thickness have been obtained by using the functional analysis method in the conjunction with the Gâteaux differential. The four-node serendipity element with four degrees of freedom such as deflection, bending, and twisting moments at each node is used. Additionally, boundary condition terms are included in the functional by using a systematic way. In viscoelastic modeling, Three-parameter Kelvin solid model is employed. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain are transformed to the real time domain by using MDOP, Dubner & Abate, and Durbin inverse transform techniques. To test the performance of the proposed mixed finite element formulation, numerical examples are treated.
The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.
This article presents modeling studies of NiAl alloy under solid-particle erosion and liquid-drop erosion. In the solid-particle erosion simulation, attention is paid to the oxide scale thickness variation on the alloy in high-temperature erosion environments. The erosion damage is assumed to be deformation wear and cutting wear mechanisms, incorporating the influence of the oxide scale on the eroded surface; thus the instantaneous oxide thickness is the result of synergetic effect of erosion and oxidation. For liquid-drop erosion, special interest is in investigating the effects of drop velocity and drop size on the damage of the target surface. The models of impact stress wave, mean depth of penetration, and maximum depth of erosion rate (Max DER) are employed to develop various maps for NiAl alloy, including target thickness vs. drop size (diameter), rate of mean depth of penetration (MDRP) vs. drop impact velocity, and damage threshold velocity (DTV) vs. drop size.
This study investigates the cleaning performance of high intensity 360 kHz frequency on removal of nano-dimensional and sub-micron particles from various surfaces, uniformity of the cleaning tank and run to run variation of cleaning process. The uniformity of the cleaning tank was measured by two different methods i.e. 1. ppbTM meter and 2. Liquid Particle Counting (LPC) technique. The result indicates that the energy was distributed more uniformly throughout the entire cleaning vessel even at the corners and edges of the tank when megasonic sweeping technology is applied. The result also shows that rinsing the parts with 360 kHz frequency at final rinse gives lower particle counts, hence higher cleaning efficiency as compared to other frequencies. When megasonic sweeping technology is applied each piezoelectric transducers will operate at their optimum resonant frequency and generates stronger acoustic cavitational force and higher acoustic streaming velocity. These combined forces are helping to enhance the particle removal and at the same time improve the overall cleaning performance. The multiple extractions study was also carried out for various frequencies to measure the cleaning potential and asymptote value.
Rotary draw bending is a method which is being used in tube forming. In the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness distribution changes for tube’s cross section. Thinning takes place in the outer arc of the tube (extrados) due to the stretching of the material, whereas thickening occurs in the inner arc of the tube (intrados) due to the comparison of the material. The calculations of the wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting, and strain distribution have not been accurate enough, so far. The previous model (the geometrical model) describes the neutral axis shifting and wall thickness distribution. The geometrical of the tube, bending radius and bending angle are considered in the geometrical model, while the influence of the material properties of the tube forming are ignored. The advanced model is a modification of the previous model using material properties that depends on the correction factor. The correction factor is a purely empirically determined factor. The advanced model was compared with the Finite element simulation (FE simulation) using a different bending factor (Bf =bending radius/ diameter of the tube), wall thickness (Wf = diameter of the tube/ wall thickness), and material properties (strain hardening exponent). Finite element model of rotary draw bending has been performed in PAM-TUBE program (version: 2012). Results from the advanced model resemble the FE simulation and the experimental test.
In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.
The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (α-C:H) were deposited on p-type Si (100) substrates at different thicknesses by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (rf-PECVD). Raman spectra display asymmetric diamond-like carbon (DLC) peaks, representative of the α-C:H films. The decrease of intensity ID/IG ratios revealed the sp3 content arise at different thicknesses of the α-C:H films. In terms of mechanical properties, the high hardness and elastic modulus values showed the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors related to sp3 content in amorphous carbon films. Electrochemical properties showed that the α-C:H films exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in air-saturated 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution for pH 2 at room temperature. Thickness increasing affected the small sp2 clusters in matrix, restricting the velocity transfer and exchange of electrons. The deposited α-C:H films exhibited excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.
The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.
The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.
In this paper, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel method. The ZnO thin films with well defined orientation were acquired by spin coating of zinc acetate dehydrate monoethanolamine (MEA), de-ionized water and isopropanol alcohol. These films were pre-heated at 275°C for 10 min and then annealed at 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 80 min. The effect of annealing temperature and different thickness on structure and surface morphology of the thin films were verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It was found that there was a significant effect of annealing temperature on the structural parameters of the films such as roughness exponent, fractal dimension and interface width. Thin films also were characterizied by X-ray Diffractometery (XRD) method. XRD analysis revealed that the annealed ZnO thin films consist of single phase ZnO with wurtzite structure and show the c-axis grain orientation. Increasing annealing temperature increased the crystallite size and the c-axis orientation of the film after 450°C. Also In this study, ZnO thin films in different thickness have been prepared by sol-gel method on the glass substrate at room temperature. The thicknesses of films are 100, 150 and 250 nm. Using fractal analysis, morphological characteristics of surface films thickness in amorphous state were investigated. The results show that with increasing thickness, surface roughness (RMS) and lateral correlation length (ξ) are decreased. Also, the roughness exponent (α) and growth exponent (β) were determined to be 0.74±0.02 and 0.11±0.02, respectively.
The finite element method is used to obtain the elastic buckling load factor for square isotropic plate containing circular, square and rectangular cutouts. ANSYS commercial finite element software had been used in the study. The applied inplane loads considered are uniaxial and biaxial compressions. In all the cases the load is distributed uniformly along the plate outer edges. The effects of the size and shape of concentric cutouts with different plate thickness ratios and the influence of plate edge conditions, such as SSSS, CCCC and mixed boundary condition SCSC on the plate buckling strength have been considered in the analysis.
The knowledge about rock layers thickness,especially above drilled mining pavements is crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-excited Acoustical System is presentedin the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rocklayer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system,which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.
Narrow bandwidth and high loss performance limits the use of reflectarray antennas in some applications. This article reports on the feasibility of employing strategic reflectarray resonant elements to characterize the reflectivity performance of reflectarrays in X-band frequency range. Strategic reflectarray resonant elements incorporating variable substrate thicknesses ranging from 0.016λ to 0.052λ have been analyzed in terms of reflection loss and reflection phase performance. The effect of substrate thickness has been validated by using waveguide scattering parameter technique. It has been demonstrated that as the substrate thickness is increased from 0.508mm to 1.57mm the measured reflection loss of dipole element decreased from 5.66dB to 3.70dB with increment in 10% bandwidth of 39MHz to 64MHz. Similarly the measured reflection loss of triangular loop element is decreased from 20.25dB to 7.02dB with an increment in 10% bandwidth of 12MHz to 23MHz. The results also show a significant decrease in the slope of reflection phase curve as well. A Figure of Merit (FoM) has also been defined for the comparison of static phase range of resonant elements under consideration. Moreover, a novel numerical model based on analytical equations has been established incorporating the material properties of dielectric substrate and electrical properties of different reflectarray resonant elements to obtain the progressive phase distribution for each individual reflectarray resonant element.
Resistance spot welding (RSW) has been used widely to join sheet metals. It has been a challenge to get required weld quality in spot welding of dissimilar thickness materials. Weld parameters are not generally available in standards for thickness beyond 4mm. This paper presents the welding process design and parameter optimization of RSW used in joining of low carbon steel sheet of thickness 0.8 mm and metal strips of cross section 10 x 5mm for electrical motor applications. Taguchi quality design was adopted for weld current and time optimization using L9 orthogonal array. Optimum process parameters (current- 3.5kA and time- 10 cycles) were obtained from the Taguchi analysis and shear test results. Confirmation experiment result revealed that the weld quality was within acceptable interval. Further, numerical simulation of RSW process was carried out with selected weld parameters to quantify the temperature at faying surface and check for formation of appropriate nugget. The nugget geometry measured after peel test and predicted from numerical validation method were similar and in accordance with the standards.
The cup method is applied for the measurement of water vapor transport properties of porous materials worldwide. However, in practical applications the experimental results are often used without taking into account some secondary effects which can play an important role under specific conditions. In this paper, the effect of temperature on water vapor transport properties of cellular concrete is studied, together with the influence of sample thickness. At first, the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity and sorption and desorption isotherms are measured for material characterization purposes. Then, the steady state cup method is used for determination of water vapor transport properties, whereas the measurements are performed at several temperatures and for three different sample thicknesses.