Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 3

3
10008634
Solomon 300 OD (Betacyfluthrin+Imidacloprid): A Combi-Product for the Management of Insect-Pests of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.)
Abstract:

Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) an important commercial vegetable crop is ravaged by a number of insect-pests during both vegetative and reproductive phase resulting into significant crop loss.Thrips, Scirtothripsdorsalis, mite, Polyphagotarsonemuslatus and whitefly, Bemisiatabaci are the key sap feeding insects, their infestation leads to leaf curl, stunted growth and yield loss.During flowering and fruit formation stage, gall midge fly, Asphondyliacapparis (Rubsaaman) infesting flower buds and young fruits andHelicoverpaarmigera (Hubner) feeding on matured green fruits are the important insect pests causing significant crop loss.The pest is known to infest both flower buds and young fruits resulting into malformation of flower buds and twisting of fruits.In order to manage these insect-pests a combi product consisting of imidacloprid and betacyfluthrin (Soloman 300 OD) was evaluated for its bio-efficacy, phytotoxicity and effect on predator activity.Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide belonging to neo-nicotinoid group, is effective against insect pests such as aphids, whiteflies (sap feeders) and other insectsviz., termites and soil insects.Beta-Cyfluthrin is an insecticide of synthetic pyrethroid group which acts by contact action and ingestion. It acts on the insects' nervous system as sodium channel blocker consequently a disorder of the nervous system occurs leading finally to the death. The field experiments were taken up during 2015 and 2016 at the Main Agricultural Research Station of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.The trials were laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications using popular land race of Byadagi crop variety.Results indicated that the product at 21.6 + 50.4% gai/ha (240 ml/ha) and 27.9 + 65% gai/ha (310 ml/ha) was found quite effective in controlling thrips (0.00 to 0.66 thrips per six leaves) as against the standard check insecticide recommended for thrips by the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad wherein the density of thrips recorded was significantly higher (1.00 to 2.00 Nos./6 leaves). Similarly, the test insecticide was quite effective against other target insects, whiteflies, fruit borer and gall midge fly as indicated by lower insect population observed in the treatments as compared to standard insecticidal control. The predatory beetle activity was found to be normal in all experimental plots. Highest green fruit yield of 5100-5500 kg/ha was recorded in Soloman 300 OD applied crop at 310 ml/ha rate as compared to 4750 to 5050 kg/ha recorded in check. At present 6-8 sprays of insecticides are recommended for management of these insect-pests on the crop. If combi-products are used in pest management programmes, it is possible to reduce insecticide usages in crop ecosystem.

2
10000746
Effectiveness of Biopesticide against Insects Pest and Its Quality of Pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr.)
Abstract:

Effect of biopesticide from wood vinegar and extracted substances from 3 medicinal plants such as: non taai yak (Stemona tuberosa Lour), boraphet (Tinospora crispa Mier) and derris (Derris elliptica Roxb) were tested on the age five years of pomelo. The selected pomelo was carried out for insects’ pest control and its quality. The experimental site was located at farmer’s orchard in Phichit Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (December to March). The extracted from plants and wood vinegar were evaluated in 6 treatments: 1) water as control; 2) wood vinegar; 3) S. tuberosa Lour; 4) T. crispa Mier; 5) D. elliptica Roxb; 6) mixed (wood vinegar + S. tuberosa Lour + T. crispa Mier + D. elliptica Roxb). The experiment was RCB with 6 treatments and 3 replications per treatment. The results showed that T. crispa Mier was the highest effectiveness for reduction population of thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) at 14.10 and 15.37 respectively, followed by treatment of mixed, D. elliptica Roxb, S. tuberosa Lour and wood vinegar with significance different. Additionally, T. crispa Mier promoted the high quality of harvested pomelo in term of thickness of skin at 12.45 mm and S. tuberosa Lour gave the high quality of the pomelo in term of firmness (276.5 kg/cm2) and brix (11.0%).

1
13183
Life Table and Reproductive Table Parameters of Scolothrips Longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as a Predator of Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus Turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Abstract:
Scolothrips longicornis Priesner is one of the important predators of tetranychid mites with a wide distribution throughout Iran. Life table and population growth parameters of S. longicornis feeding on two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov & Nikolski were investigated under laboratory condition (26±1ºC, 65±5% R.H. and 16L: 8D). To carry of these experiments, S. longicornis collections reared on cowpea infested with T. turkestani were prepared. The eggs with less than 24 hours old were selected and reared. The emerged larvae feeding directly on cowpea leaf discs which were infested with T. turkestani. Thirty females of S. longicornis with 24 hours age were selected and released on infested leaf discs. They replaced daily to a new leaf disc and the laying eggs have counted. The experiment continued till the last thrips had died. The result showed that the mean age mortality of the adult female thrips were between 21-25 days which is nearly equal life expectancy (ex) at the time of adult eclosion. Parameters related to reproductive table including gross reproductive rate, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase and finite rate of increase were 48.91, 37.63, 0.26 and 2.3, respectively. Mean age per female/day, mean fertile egg per female/day, gross hatch rate, mean net age fertility, mean net age fecundity, net fertility rate and net fecundity rate were 2.23, 1.76, 0.87, 13.87, 14.26, 69.1 and 78.5, respectively. Sex ratio of offspring also recorded daily. The highest sex ratio for females was 0.88 in first day of oviposition. The sex ratio decreased gradually and reached under 0.46 after the day 26 and the oviposition rate declined. Then it seems that maintenance of rearing culture of predatory thrips for mass rearing later than 26 days after egg-laying commence is not profitable.
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