Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders
Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated
web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for
buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is
significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web,
thus the application of the structural steel material can be
significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide
clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of
the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web
girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation
regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite
element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new
design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of
trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed
considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using
equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent
geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections
and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting.
Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the
necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape
imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended
parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for
different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of
a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments
from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical
calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to
determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical
investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of
the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a
modification factor on the design method related to the conventional
flat web girders.
Lateral Torsional Buckling Investigation on Welded Q460GJ Structural Steel Unrestrained Beams under a Point Load
This study aims to investigate the lateral torsional buckling of I-shaped cross-section beams fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates. Both experimental and numerical simulation results are presented in this paper. A total of eight specimens were tested under a three-point bending, and the corresponding numerical models were established to conduct parametric studies. The effects of some key parameters such as the non-dimensional member slenderness and the height-to-width ratio, were investigated based on the verified numerical models. Also, the results obtained from the parametric studies were compared with the predictions calculated by different design codes including the Chinese design code (GB50017-2003, 2003), the new draft version of Chinese design code (GB50017-201X, 2012), Eurocode 3 (EC3, 2005) and the North America design code (ANSI/AISC360-10, 2010). These comparisons indicated that the sectional height-to-width ratio does not play an important role to influence the overall stability load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ structural steel beams with welded I-shaped cross-sections. It was also found that the design methods in GB50017-2003 and ANSI/AISC360-10 overestimate the overall stability and load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ welded I-shaped cross-section beams.
Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling
Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.
Ground Response Analyses in Budapest Based on Site Investigations and Laboratory Measurements
Near-surface loose sediments and local ground conditions in general have a major influence on seismic response of structures. It is a difficult task to model ground behavior in seismic soil-structure-foundation interaction problems, fully account for them in seismic design of structures, or even properly consider them in seismic hazard assessment. In this study, we focused on applying seismic soil investigation methods, used for determining soil stiffness and damping properties, to response analysis used in seismic design. A site in Budapest, Hungary was investigated using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, Seismic Cone Penetration Tests, Bender Elements, Resonant Column and Torsional Shear tests. Our aim was to compare the results of the different test methods and use the resulting soil properties for 1D ground response analysis. Often in practice, there are little-to no data available on dynamic soil properties and estimated parameters are used for design. Therefore, a comparison is made between results based on estimated parameters and those based on detailed investigations. Ground response results are also compared to Eurocode 8 design spectra.
Evaluation of the End Effect Impact on the Torsion Test for Determining the Shear Modulus of a Timber Beam through a Photogrammetry Approach
The timber beam end effect in the torsion test is
evaluated using binocular stereo vision system. It is recommended by
BS EN 408:2010+A1:2012 to exclude a distance of two to three times
of cross-sectional thickness (b) from ends to avoid the end effect;
whereas, this study indicates that this distance is not sufficiently far
enough to remove this effect in slender cross-sections. The shear
modulus of six timber beams with different aspect ratios is determined
at the various angles and cross-sections. The result of this experiment
shows that the end affected span of each specimen varies depending
on their aspect ratios. It is concluded that by increasing the aspect
ratio this span will increase. However, by increasing the distance
from the ends to the values greater than 6b, the shear modulus trend
becomes constant and end effect will be negligible. Moreover, it is
concluded that end affected span is preferred to be depth-dependent
rather than thickness-dependant.
Static and Dynamic Analysis of Hyperboloidal Helix Having Thin Walled Open and Close Sections
The static and dynamic analyses of hyperboloidal helix having the closed and the open square box sections are investigated via the mixed finite element formulation based on Timoshenko beam theory. Frenet triad is considered as local coordinate systems for helix geometry. Helix domain is discretized with a two-noded curved element and linear shape functions are used. Each node of the curved element has 12 degrees of freedom, namely, three translations, three rotations, two shear forces, one axial force, two bending moments and one torque. Finite element matrices are derived by using exact nodal values of curvatures and arc length and it is interpolated linearly throughout the element axial length. The torsional moments of inertia for close and open square box sections are obtained by finite element solution of St. Venant torsion formulation. With the proposed method, the torsional rigidity of simply and multiply connected cross-sections can be also calculated in same manner. The influence of the close and the open square box cross-sections on the static and dynamic analyses of hyperboloidal helix is investigated. The benchmark problems are represented for the literature.
On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns
Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.
Computational Feasibility Study of a Torsional Wave Transducer for Tissue Stiffness Monitoring
A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer design
is proposed to measure shear moduli in soft tissue with direct
access availability, using shear wave elastography technique. The
measurement of shear moduli of tissues is a challenging problem,
mainly derived from a) the difficulty of isolating a pure shear wave,
given the interference of multiple waves of different types (P, S,
even guided) emitted by the transducers and reflected in geometric
boundaries, and b) the highly attenuating nature of soft tissular
materials. An immediate application, overcoming these drawbacks,
is the measurement of changes in cervix stiffness to estimate the
gestational age at delivery. The design has been optimized using
a finite element model (FEM) and a semi-analytical estimator of
the probability of detection (POD) to determine a suitable geometry,
materials and generated waves. The technique is based on the time
of flight measurement between emitter and receiver, to infer shear
wave velocity. Current research is centered in prototype testing and
validation. The geometric optimization of the transducer was able
to annihilate the compressional wave emission, generating a quite
pure shear torsional wave. Currently, mechanical and electromagnetic
coupling between emitter and receiver signals are being the research
focus. Conclusions: the design overcomes the main described
problems. The almost pure shear torsional wave along with the short
time of flight avoids the possibility of multiple wave interference.
This short propagation distance reduce the effect of attenuation, and
allow the emission of very low energies assuring a good biological
security for human use.
An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams
Lateral torsional buckling is a global buckling mode
which should be considered in design of slender structural members
under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the
load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite
element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in
engineering practice for calculation ease which can be obtained by
using energy method. In lateral torsional buckling applications of
energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional
buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the
variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. Accuracy of the
results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact
mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever
I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties and
loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function
in application of energy method. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral
torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams.
Coefficient matrices are calculated for concentrated load at free end,
uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam
cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented
function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes
obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation
solutions for considered loading cases.
Statistical Analysis of Parameters Effects on Maximum Strain and Torsion Angle of FRP Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Torsion
In recent years, honeycomb fiber reinforced plastic
(FRP) sandwich panels have been increasingly used in various
industries. Low weight, low price and high mechanical strength are
the benefits of these structures. However, their mechanical properties
and behavior have not been fully explored. The objective of this
study is to conduct a combined numerical-statistical investigation of
honeycomb FRP sandwich beams subject to torsion load. In this
paper, the effect of geometric parameters of sandwich panel on
maximum shear strain in both face and core and angle of torsion in a
honeycomb FRP sandwich structures in torsion is investigated. The
effect of Parameters including core thickness, face skin thickness,
cell shape, cell size, and cell thickness on mechanical behavior of the
structure were numerically investigated. Main effects of factors were
considered in this paper and regression equations were derived.
Taguchi method was employed as experimental design and an
optimum parameter combination for the maximum structure stiffness
has been obtained. The results showed that cell size and face skin
thickness have the most significant impacts on torsion angle,
maximum shear strain in face and core.
Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox
Singular value decomposition based optimisation of
geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During
the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model
of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum
singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective
functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value
problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only
necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (μmax
and μmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers;
the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are
optimised under several constraints that include bending stress,
contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by
optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the
module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a
light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised
geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints.
Lateral Torsional Buckling of an Eccentrically Loaded Channel Section Beam
Channel sections are widely used in practice as beams.
However, design rules for eccentrically loaded (not through shear
center) beams with channel cross- sections are not available in
Eurocode 3. This paper compares the ultimate loads based on the
adjusted design rules for lateral torsional buckling of eccentrically
loaded channel beams in bending to the ultimate loads obtained with
Finite Element (FE) simulations on the basis of a parameter study.
Based on the proposed design rule, this study has led to a new design
rule which conforms to Eurocode 3.
Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws
This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the
criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size
rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the
torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by
manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling
factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and
dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its
scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and
full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of
motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external
force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems
is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results
show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a
full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of
its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason,
it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for
investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.
Influence of Chemical Treatment on Elastic Properties of the Band Cotton Crepe 100%
The manufacturing technology of band cotton is very
delicate and depends to choice of certain parameters such as torsion
of warp yarn.
The fabric elasticity is achieved without the use of any elastic
material, chemical expansion, artificial or synthetic and it’s capable
of creating pressures useful for therapeutic treatments.
Before use, the band is subjected to treatments of specific
preparation for obtaining certain elasticity, however, during its
treatment, there are some regression parameters. The dependence of
manufacturing parameters on the quality of the chemical treatment
The aim of this work is to improve the properties of the fabric
through the development of manufacturing technology appropriately.
Finally for the treatment of the strip pancake 100% cotton, a
treatment method is recommended.
Magnet Position Variation of the Electromagnetic Actuation System in a Torsional Scanner
A mechanically-resonant torsional spring scanner was developed in a recent study. Various methods were developed to improve the angular displacement of the scanner while maintaining the scanner frequency. However the effects of rotor magnet radial position on scanner characteristics were not well investigated. In this study, the relationships between the magnet position and the scanner characteristics such as natural frequency, angular displacement and stress level were studied. A finite element model was created and an average deviation of 3.18% was found between the simulation and experimental results, qualifying the simulation results as a guide for further investigations. Three magnet positions on the transverse oscillating suspended plate were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA) and one of the positions were selected as the design position. The magnet position with the longest distance from the twist axis of mirror was selected since it attains minimum stress level, while exceeding the minimum critical flicker frequency and delivering the targeted angular displacement to the scanner.
A Parametric Study on Lateral Torsional Buckling of European IPN and IPE Cantilevers
IPN and IPE sections, which are commonly used European I shapes, are widely used in steel structures as cantilever beams to support overhangs. A considerable number of studies exist on calculating lateral torsional buckling load of I sections. However, most of them provide series solutions or complex closed-form equations. In this paper, a simple equation is presented to calculate lateral torsional buckling load of IPN and IPE section cantilever beams. First, differential equation of lateral torsional buckling is solved numerically for various loading cases. Then a parametric study is conducted on results to present an equation for lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE beams. Finally, results obtained by presented equation are compared to differential equation solutions and finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beams. It is seen that the results obtained from presented equation coincide with differential equation solutions and ABAQUS software results. It can be suggested that presented formula can be safely used to calculate critical lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE section cantilevers.
Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based On Kinematic Hardening Model
In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.
Prediction of Nonlinear Torsional Behavior of High Strength RC Beams
Seismic design criteria based on performance of
structures have recently been adopted by practicing engineers in
response to destructive earthquakes. A simple but efficient
structural-analysis tool capable of predicting both the strength and
ductility is needed to analyze reinforced concrete (RC) structures
under such event. A three-dimensional lattice model is developed in
this study to analyze torsions in high-strength RC members.
Optimization techniques for determining optimal variables in each
lattice model are introduced. Pure torsion tests of RC members are
performed to validate the proposed model. Correlation studies
between the numerical and experimental results confirm that the
proposed model is well capable of representing salient features of the
Longitudinal Shear Modulus of Single Aramid, Carbon and Glass Fibres by Torsion Pendulum Tests
The longitudinal shear moduli of a single aramid, carbon and glass fibres are measured in the present study. A popularly known concept of freely oscillating torsion pendulum has been used to characterize the torsional modulus. A simple freely oscillating
torsional pendulum setup is designed with two different types of plastic discs: horizontal and vertical, as the known mass of the
pendulum. The time period of the torsional oscillation is measured to determine the torsional rigidity of the fibre. Then the shear
modulus of the fibre is calculated from its torsional rigidity. The mean shear modulus of aramid, carbon and glass fibres measured are 6.22±0.09, 18.5±0.91, 38.1±3.55 GPa by horizontal disc pendulum and 6.19±0.13, 18.1±1.34 and 39.5±1.83 GPa by vertical disc pendulum, respectively. The results obtained by both pendulums differed by less than 5% and agreed well with the results reported in literature for these three types of fibres. A detailed uncertainty calculations are carried out for the measurements. It is seen that scatter as well as uncertainty (or error) in the measured shear modulus of these fibres is less than 10%. For aramid fibres the effect of gauge length on the shear modulus value is also studied. It is verified that the scatter in measured shear modulus value increases with gauge length and scatter in fibre diameter.
Torsion Behavior of Steel Fibered High Strength Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRB Bars
This paper investigates experimentally and
analytically the torsion behavior of steel fibered high strength self
compacting concrete beams reinforced by GFRP bars. Steel fibered
high strength self compacting concrete (SFHSSCC) and GFRP bars
became in the recent decades a very important materials in the
structural engineering field. The use of GFRP bars to replace steel
bars has emerged as one of the many techniques put forward to
enhance the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures.
High strength concrete and GFRP bars attract designers and
architects as it allows improving the durability as well as the esthetics
of a construction. One of the trends in SFHSSCC structures is to
provide their ductile behavior and additional goal is to limit
development and propagation of macro-cracks in the body of
SFHSSCC elements. SFHSSCC and GFRP bars are tough, improve
the workability, enhance the corrosion resistance of reinforced
concrete structures, and demonstrate high residual strengths after
appearance of the first crack. Experimental studies were carried out
to select effective fiber contents. Three types of volume fraction from
hooked shape steel fibers are used in this study, the hooked steel
fibers were evaluated in volume fractions ranging between 0.0%,
0.75% and 1.5%. The beams shape is chosen to create the required
forces (i.e. torsion and bending moments simultaneously) on the test
zone. A total of seven beams were tested, classified into three groups.
All beams, have 200cm length, cross section of 10×20cm,
longitudinal bottom reinforcement of 3
Theoretical Study on Torsional Strengthening of Multi-cell RC Box Girders
A new analytical method to predict the torsional
capacity and behavior of R.C multi-cell box girders strengthened with
carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets is presented.
Modification was done on the Softened Truss Model (STM) in the
proposed method; the concrete torsional problem is solved by
combining the equilibrium conditions, compatibility conditions and
constitutive laws of materials by taking into account the confinement
of concrete with CFRP sheets. A specific algorithm is developed to
predict the torsional behavior of reinforced concrete multi-cell box
girders with or without strengthening by CFRP sheets. Applications
of the developed method as an assessment tool to strengthened multicell
box girders with CFRP and first analytical example that
demonstrate the contribution of the CFRP materials on the torsional
response is also included.
Torsional Statics of Circular Nanostructures: Numerical Approach
Based on the standard finite element method, a new
finite element method which is known as nonlocal finite element
method (NL-FEM) is numerically implemented in this article to
study the nonlocal effects for solving 1D nonlocal elastic problem.
An Eringen-type nonlocal elastic model is considered. In this model,
the constitutive stress-strain law is expressed interms of integral
equation which governs the nonlocal material behavior. The new
NL-FEM is adopted in such a way that the postulated nonlocal elastic
behavior of material is captured by a finite element endowed with a
set of (cross-stiffness) element itself by the other elements in mesh.
An example with their analytical solutions and the relevant numerical
findings for various load and boundary conditions are presented and
discussed in details. It is observed from the numerical solutions that
the torsional deformation angle decreases with increasing nonlocal
nanoscale parameter. It is also noted that the analytical solution fails
to capture the nonlocal effect in some cases where numerical
solutions handle those situation effectively which prove the
reliability and effectiveness of numerical techniques.
Experimental Study of Strength Recovery from Residual Strength on Kaolin Clay
Strength recovery effect from the residual-state of shear is not well address in scientific literature. Torsional ring shear strength recovery tests on kaolin clay using rest periods up to 30 days are performed at the effective normal stress 100kN/m2. Test results shows that recovered strength measured in the laboratory is slightly noticeable after rest period of 3 days, but recovered strength lost after very small shear displacement. This paper mainly focused on the strength recovery phenomenon from the residual strength of kaolin clay based on torsional ring shear test results. Mechanisms of recovered strength are also discussed.
The Development of Chulalongkorn University's SAE Student Formula's Space Frame
The objective of this paper is to present the
development of the frame of Chulalongkorn University team in TSAE
Auto Challenge Student Formula and Student Formula SAE
Competition of Japan. Chulalongkorn University's SAE team, has
established since year 2003, joined many competitions since year 2006
and became the leading team in Thailand. Through these 5 years, space
frame was the most selected and developed year by year through six
frame designs. In this paper, the discussions on the conceptual design
of these frames are introduced, focusing on the mass and torsional
stiffness improvement. The torsional stiffness test was performed on
the real used frames and the results are compared. It can be seen that
the 2010-2011 frame is firstly designed based on the analysis and
experiment that considered the required mass and torsional stiffness.
From the torsional stiffness results, it can be concluded that the frames
were developed including the decreasing of mass and the increasing
torsional stiffness by applying many techniques.
Calculation of Voided Slabs Rigidities
A theoretical study of the rigidities of slabs with
circular voids oriented in the longitudinal and in the transverse
direction is discussed. Equations are presented for predicting the
bending and torsional rigidities of the voided slabs. This paper
summarizes the results of an extensive literature search and initial
review of the current methods of analyzing voided slab. The various
methods of calculating the equivalent plate parameters, which are
necessary for two-dimensional analysis, are also reviewed. Static
deflections on voided slabs are shown to be in good agreement with
The Frame Analysis and Testing for Student Formula
The objective of this paper is to study the analysis and testing for determining the torsional stiffness of the student formula-s space frame. From past study, the space frame for Chulalongkorn University Student Formula team used in 2011 TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula in Thailand was designed by considering required mass and torsional stiffness based on the numerical method and experimental method. The numerical result was compared with the experimental results to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame. It can be seen from the large error of torsional stiffness of 2011 frame that the experimental result can not verify by the numerical analysis due to the different between the numerical model and experimental setting. In this paper, the numerical analysis and experiment of the same 2011 frame model is performed by improving the model setting. The improvement of both numerical analysis and experiment are discussed to confirm that the models from both methods are same. After the frame was analyzed and tested, the results are compared to verify the torsional stiffness of the frame. It can be concluded that the improved analysis and experiments can used to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame.
Strength Optimization of Induction Hardened Splined Shaft – Material and Geometric Aspects
the current study presents a modeling framework to determine the torsion strength of an induction hardened splined shaft by considering geometry and material aspects with the aim to optimize the static torsion strength by selection of spline geometry and hardness depth. Six different spline geometries and seven different hardness profiles including non-hardened and throughhardened shafts have been considered. The results reveal that the torque that causes initial yielding of the induction hardened splined shaft is strongly dependent on the hardness depth and the geometry of the spline teeth. Guidelines for selection of the appropriate hardness depth and spline geometry are given such that an optimum static torsion strength of the component can be achieved.
Analytical Solution of Time-Harmonic Torsional Vibration of a Cylindrical Cavity in a Half-Space
In this article an isotropic linear elastic half-space with
a cylindrical cavity of finite length is considered to be under the
effect of a ring shape time-harmonic torsion force applied at an
arbitrary depth on the surface of the cavity. The equation of
equilibrium has been written in a cylindrical coordinate system. By
means of Fourier cosine integral transform, the non-zero
displacement component is obtained in the transformed domain. With
the aid of the inversion theorem of the Fourier cosine integral
transform, the displacement is obtained in the real domain. With the
aid of boundary conditions, the involved boundary value problem for
the fundamental solution is reduced to a generalized Cauchy singular
integral equation. Integral representation of the stress and
displacement are obtained, and it is shown that their degenerated
form to the static problem coincides with existing solutions in the
Investigating the Capacity of Ultimate Torsion of Concrete Prismatic Beams with Transverse Spiral Bars
In this paper, the torsion capacity of ultimate point on rectangular beams with spiral reinforcements in the torsion direction and its anti-direction are investigated. Therefore, models of above-mentioned beams have been numerically analyzed under various loads using ANSYS software. It was observed that, spirallyreinforced prismatic beam and beam with spiral links, show lower torsion capacity than beam with normal links also in anti-direction. The result is that the concrete regulations are violated in this case.
Instability Problem of Turbo-Machines with Radial Distortion Problems
In the upstream we place a piece of ring and rotate
it with 83Hz, 166Hz, 333Hz,and 666H to find the effect of the
periodic distortion.In the experiment this type of the perturbation
will not allow since the mechanical failure of any parts of the
equipment in the upstream will destroy the blade system. This type of
study will be only possible by CFD. We use two pumps NS32
(ENSAM) and three blades pump (Tamagawa Univ). The benchmark
computations were performed without perturbation parts, and confirm
the computational results well agreement in head-flow rate. We
obtained the pressure fluctuation growth rate that is representing the
global instability of the turbo-system. The fluctuating torque
components were 0.01Nm(5000rpm), 0.1Nm(10000rmp),
0.04Nm(20000rmp), 0.15Nm( 40000rmp) respectively. Only for
10000rpm(166Hz) the output toque was random, and it implies that it
creates unsteady flow by separations on the blades, and will reduce the
pressure loss significantly