|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 10|
Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.
Protection system hidden failures have been identified as one of the main causes of system cascading collapse resulting to power system instability. In this paper, a systematic approach is presented in order to identify the probability of a system cascading collapse by taking into consideration the effect of protection system hidden failure. This includes the accurate calculation of the probability of hidden failure as it will provide significant impinge on the findings of the probability of system cascading collapse. The probability of a system cascading collapse is then used to identify the initial tripping of sensitive transmission lines which will contribute to a critical system cascading collapse. Based on the results obtained from this study, it is important to decide on the accurate value of the hidden failure probability as it will affect the probability of a system cascading collapse.
Various studies have showed that about 90% of single line to ground faults occurred on High voltage transmission lines have transient nature. This type of faults is cleared by temporary outage (by the single phase auto-reclosure). The interval between opening and reclosing of the faulted phase circuit breakers is named “Dead Time” that is varying about several hundred milliseconds. For adjustment of traditional single phase auto-reclosures that usually are not intelligent, it is necessary to calculate the dead time in the off-line condition precisely. If the dead time used in adjustment of single phase auto-reclosure is less than the real dead time, the reclosing of circuit breakers threats the power systems seriously. So in this paper a novel approach for precise calculation of dead time in power transmission lines based on the network equivalencing in time domain is presented. This approach has extremely higher precision in comparison with the traditional method based on Thevenin equivalent circuit. For comparison between the proposed approach in this paper and the traditional method, a comprehensive simulation by EMTP-ATP is performed on an extensive power network.
In this paper, the computation of the electrical field distribution around AC high-voltage lines is demonstrated. The advantages and disadvantages of two different methods are described to evaluate the electrical field quantity. The first method is a seminumerical method using the laws of electrostatic techniques to simulate the two-dimensional electric field under the high-voltage overhead line. The second method which will be discussed is the finite element method (FEM) using specific boundary conditions to compute the two- dimensional electric field distributions in an efficient way.
To determine the presence and location of faults in a transmission by the adaptation of protective distance relay based on the measurement of fixed settings as line impedance is achieved by several different techniques. Moreover, a fast, accurate and robust technique for real-time purposes is required for the modern power systems. The appliance of radial basis function neural network in transmission line protection is demonstrated in this paper. The method applies the power system via voltage and current signals to learn the hidden relationship presented in the input patterns. It is experiential that the proposed technique is competent to identify the particular fault direction more speedily. System simulations studied show that the proposed approach is able to distinguish the direction of a fault on a transmission line swiftly and correctly, therefore suitable for the real-time purposes.
In this paper, the transformers over-load problem of Shiraz substation in Fars Regional Electric Company (FREC) is investigated for a period of three years plan. So the suggestions for using phase shifting transformer (PST) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) in order to solve this problem are examined in details and finally, some economical and practical designs will be given in order to solve the related problems. Practical consideration and using the basic and fundamental concept of powers in transmission lines in order to find the economical design are the main advantages of this research. The simulation results of the integrated overall system with different designs compare them base on economical and practical aspects to solve the over-load and loss-reduction.
The protection of parallel transmission lines has been a challenging task due to mutual coupling between the adjacent circuits of the line. This paper presents a novel scheme for detection and classification of faults on parallel transmission lines. The proposed approach uses combination of wavelet transform and neural network, to solve the problem. While wavelet transform is a powerful mathematical tool which can be employed as a fast and very effective means of analyzing power system transient signals, artificial neural network has a ability to classify non-linear relationship between measured signals by identifying different patterns of the associated signals. The proposed algorithm consists of time-frequency analysis of fault generated transients using wavelet transform, followed by pattern recognition using artificial neural network to identify the type of the fault. MATLAB/Simulink is used to generate fault signals and verify the correctness of the algorithm. The adaptive discrimination scheme is tested by simulating different types of fault and varying fault resistance, fault location and fault inception time, on a given power system model. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme for fault diagnosis is able to classify all the faults on the parallel transmission line rapidly and correctly.