Shear Layer Investigation through a High-Load Cascade in Low-Pressure Gas Turbine Conditions
This paper deals with the steady and unsteady flow behavior on the separation bubble occurring on the rear portion of the suction side of T106A blade. The first phase was to implement the steady condition capturing the separation bubble. To accurately predict the separated region, the effects of three different turbulence models and computational grids were separately investigated. The results of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model on the finest grid structure are acceptably in a good agreement with its relevant experimental results. The second phase is mainly to address the effects of wake entrance on bubble disappearance in unsteady situation. In the current simulations, from what was suggested in an experiment, simulating the flow unsteadiness, with concentrations on small scale disturbances instead of simulating a complete oncoming wake, is the key issue. Subsequently, the results from the current strategy to apply the effects of the wake and two other experimental work were compared to be in a good agreement. Between the two experiments, one of them deals with wake passing unsteady flow, and the other one implements experimentally the same approach as the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation.
Aeroacoustics Investigations of Unsteady 3D Airfoil for Different Angle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software
Noise disturbance is one of the major factors considered in the fast development of aircraft technology. This paper reviews the flow field, which is examined on the 2D NACA0015 and 3D NACA0012 blade profile using SST k-ω turbulence model to compute the unsteady flow field. We inserted the time-dependent flow area variables in Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equations as an input and Sound Pressure Level (SPL) values will be computed for different angles of attack (AoA) from the microphone which is positioned in the computational domain to investigate effect of augmentation of unsteady 2D and 3D airfoil region noise level. The computed results will be compared with experimental data which are available in the open literature. As results; one of the calculated Cp is slightly lower than the experimental value. This difference could be due to the higher Reynolds number of the experimental data. The ANSYS Fluent software was used in this study. Fluent includes well-validated physical modeling capabilities to deliver fast, accurate results across the widest range of CFD and multiphysics applications. This paper includes a study which is on external flow over an airfoil. The case of 2D NACA0015 has approximately 7 million elements and solves compressible fluid flow with heat transfer using the SST turbulence model. The other case of 3D NACA0012 has approximately 3 million elements.
A Non-Linear Eddy Viscosity Model for Turbulent Natural Convection in Geophysical Flows
Eddy viscosity models in turbulence modeling can be mainly classified as linear and nonlinear models. Linear formulations are simple and require less computational resources but have the disadvantage that they cannot predict actual flow pattern in complex geophysical flows where streamline curvature and swirling motion are predominant. A constitutive equation of Reynolds stress anisotropy is adopted for the formulation of eddy viscosity including all the possible higher order terms quadratic in the mean velocity gradients, and a simplified model is developed for actual oceanic flows where only the vertical velocity gradients are important. The new model is incorporated into the one dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). Two realistic oceanic test cases (OWS Papa and FLEX' 76) have been investigated. The new model predictions match well with the observational data and are better in comparison to the predictions of the two equation k-epsilon model. The proposed model can be easily incorporated in the three dimensional Princeton Ocean Model (POM) to simulate a wide range of oceanic processes. Practically, this model can be implemented in the coastal regions where trasverse shear induces higher vorticity, and for prediction of flow in estuaries and lakes, where depth is comparatively less. The model predictions of marine turbulence and other related data (e.g. Sea surface temperature, Surface heat flux and vertical temperature profile) can be utilized in short term ocean and climate forecasting and warning systems.
Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.
Complex Flow Simulation Using a Partially Lagging One-Equation Turbulence Model
A recently developed one-equation turbulence model
has been successfully applied to simulate turbulent flows with
various complexities. The model, which is based on the
transformation of the k-ε closure, is wall-distance free and equipped
with lagging destruction/dissipation terms. Test cases included shockboundary-
layer interaction flows over the NACA 0012 airfoil, an
axisymmetric bump, and the ONERA M6 wing. The capability of the
model to operate in a Scale Resolved Simulation (SRS) mode is
demonstrated through the simulation of a massive flow separation
over a circular cylinder at Re= 1.2 x106. An assessment of the results
against available experiments Menter (k-ε)1Eq and the Spalart-
Allmaras model that belongs to the single equation closure family is
Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade
Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyze the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades.
Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm.
Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyze the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.
Numerical Investigation of Displacement Ventilation Effectiveness
Displacement ventilation of a room with an occupant is modeled using CFD. The geometry of manikin is accurately represented in CFD model to minimize potential. Indoor zero equation turbulence model is used to simulate all cases and the effect of the thermal radiation from manikin is taken into account. After validation of the code, predicted mean vote, mean age of air, and ventilation effectiveness are used to predict the thermal comfort zones and indoor air quality. The effect of the inlet velocity and temperature on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality is investigated. The results show that the inlet velocity has great effect on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality and low inlet velocity is sufficient to establish comfortable conditions inside the room. In addition, the displacement ventilation system achieves not only thermal comfort in ventilated rooms, but also energy saving of fan power.
Interface Location in Single Phase Stirred Tanks
In this work, study the location of interface in a stirred vessel with Rushton impeller by computational fluid dynamic was presented. To modeling rotating the impeller, sliding mesh (SM) technique was used and standard k-ε model was selected for turbulence closure. Mean tangential, radial and axial velocities and also turbulent kinetic energy (k) and turbulent dissipation rate (ε) in various points of tank was investigated. Results show sensitivity of system to location of interface and radius of 7 to 10cm for interface in the vessel with existence characteristics cause to increase the accuracy of simulation.
CFD Investigation of Interface Location in Stirred Tanks with a Concave Impeller
In this work study the location of interface in a stirred vessel with a Concave impeller by computational fluid dynamic was presented. To modeling rotating the impeller, sliding mesh (SM) technique was used and standard k-ε model was selected for turbulence closure. Mean tangential, radial and axial velocities and also turbulent kinetic energy (k) and turbulent dissipation rate (ε) in various points of tank was investigated. Results show sensitivity of system to location of interface and radius of 7 to 10cm for interface in the vessel with existence characteristics cause to increase the accuracy of simulation.
Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Jet Impingement Cooling
Effective cooling of electronic equipment has emerged
as a challenging and constraining problem of the new century. In the
present work the feasibility and effectiveness of jet impingement
cooling on electronics were investigated numerically and
experimentally. Studies have been conducted to see the effect of the
geometrical parameters such as jet diameter (D), jet to target
spacing (Z) and ratio of jet spacing to jet diameter (Z/D) on the heat
transfer characteristics. The values of Reynolds numbers considered
are in the range 7000 to 42000. The results obtained from the
numerical studies are validated by conducting experiments. From the
studies it is found that the optimum value of Z/D ratio is 5. For a
given Reynolds number, the Nusselt number increases by about 28%
if the diameter of the nozzle is increased from 1mm to 2mm.
Correlations are proposed for Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds
number and these are valid for air as the cooling medium.
Experimental and Numerical Study of A/C Outletsand Its Impact on Room Airflow Characteristics
This paper investigates experimental and numerical study of the airflow characteristics for vortex, round and square ceiling diffusers and its effect on the thermal comfort in a ventilated room. Three different thermal comfort criteria namely; Mean Age of the Air (MAA), ventilation effectiveness (E), and Effective Draft Temperature (EDT) have been used to predict the thermal comfort zone inside the room. In experimental work, a sub-scale room is set-up to measure the temperature field in the room. In numerical analysis, unstructured grids have been used to discretize the numerical domain. Conservation equations are solved using FLUENT commercial flow solver. The code is validated by comparing the numerical results obtained from three different turbulence models with the available experimental data. The comparison between the various numerical models shows that the standard k-ε turbulence model can be used to simulate these cases successfully. After validation of the code, effect of supply air velocity on the flow and thermal field could be investigated and hence the thermal comfort. The results show that the pressure coefficient created by the square diffuser is 1.5 times greater than that created by the vortex diffuser. The velocity decay coefficient is nearly the same for square and round diffusers and is 2.6 times greater than that for the vortex diffuser.
Effect of Turbulence Models on Simulated Iced Aircraft Airfoil
The present work describes a computational study of
aerodynamic characteristics of GLC305 airfoil clean and with 16.7
min ice shape (rime 212) and 22.5 min ice shape (glaze 944).The
performance of turbulence models SA, Kε, Kω Std, and Kω SST
model are observed against experimental flow fields at different
Mach numbers 0.12, 0.21, 0.28 in a range of Reynolds numbers
3x106, 6x106, and 10.5x106 on clean and iced aircraft airfoil
GLC305. Numerical predictions include lift, drag and pitching
moment coefficients at different Mach numbers and at different angle
of attacks were done. Accuracy of solutions with respect to the
effects of turbulence models, variation of Mach number, initial
conditions, grid resolution and grid spacing near the wall made the
study much sensitive. Navier Stokes equation based computational
technique is used. Results are very close to the experimental results.
It has seen that SA and SST models are more efficient than Kε and
Kω standard in under study problem.
Study of Heat Transfer in the Poly Ethylene Fluidized Bed Reactor Numerically and Experimentally
In this research, heat transfer of a poly Ethylene
fluidized bed reactor without reaction were studied experimentally
and computationally at different superficial gas velocities. A multifluid
Eulerian computational model incorporating the kinetic theory
for solid particles was developed and used to simulate the heat
conducting gas–solid flows in a fluidized bed configuration.
Momentum exchange coefficients were evaluated using the Syamlal–
O-Brien drag functions. Temperature distributions of different phases
in the reactor were also computed. Good agreement was found
between the model predictions and the experimentally obtained data
for the bed expansion ratio as well as the qualitative gas–solid flow
patterns. The simulation and experimental results showed that the gas
temperature decreases as it moves upward in the reactor, while the
solid particle temperature increases. Pressure drop and temperature
distribution predicted by the simulations were in good agreement
with the experimental measurements at superficial gas velocities
higher than the minimum fluidization velocity. Also, the predicted
time-average local voidage profiles were in reasonable agreement
with the experimental results. The study showed that the
computational model was capable of predicting the heat transfer and
the hydrodynamic behavior of gas-solid fluidized bed flows with
Comparison of Three Turbulence Models in Wear Prediction of Multi-Size Particulate Flow through Rotating Channel
The present work compares the performance of three
turbulence modeling approach (based on the two-equation k -ε
model) in predicting erosive wear in multi-size dense slurry flow
through rotating channel. All three turbulence models include
rotation modification to the production term in the turbulent kineticenergy
equation. The two-phase flow field obtained numerically
using Galerkin finite element methodology relates the local flow
velocity and concentration to the wear rate via a suitable wear model.
The wear models for both sliding wear and impact wear mechanisms
account for the particle size dependence. Results of predicted wear
rates using the three turbulence models are compared for a large
number of cases spanning such operating parameters as rotation rate,
solids concentration, flow rate, particle size distribution and so forth.
The root-mean-square error between FE-generated data and the
correlation between maximum wear rate and the operating
parameters is found less than 2.5% for all the three models.
Comparison of Detached Eddy Simulations with Turbulence Modeling
Flow field around hypersonic vehicles is very
complex and difficult to simulate. The boundary layers are squeezed
between shock layer and body surface. Resolution of boundary layer,
shock wave and turbulent regions where the flow field has high
values is difficult of capture. Detached eddy simulation (DES) is a
modification of a RANS model in which the model switches to a
subgrid scale formulation in regions fine enough for LES
calculations. Regions near solid body boundaries and where the
turbulent length scale is less than the maximum grid dimension are
assigned the RANS mode of solution. As the turbulent length scale
exceeds the grid dimension, the regions are solved using the LES
mode. Therefore the grid resolution is not as demanding as pure LES,
thereby considerably cutting down the cost of the computation. In
this research study hypersonic flow is simulated at Mach 8 and
different angle of attacks to resolve the proper boundary layers and
discontinuities. The flow is also simulated in the long wake regions.
Mesh is little different than RANS simulations and it is made dense
near the boundary layers and in the wake regions to resolve it
properly. Hypersonic blunt cone cylinder body with frustrum at angle
5o and 10 o are simulated and there aerodynamics study is performed
to calculate aerodynamics characteristics of different geometries. The
results and then compared with experimental as well as with some
turbulence model (SA Model). The results achieved with DES
simulation have very good resolution as well as have excellent
agreement with experimental and available data. Unsteady
simulations are performed for DES calculations by using duel time
stepping method or implicit time stepping. The simulations are
performed at Mach number 8 and angle of attack from 0o to 10o for
all these cases. The results and resolutions for DES model found
much better than SA turbulence model.
Assessment of the Accuracy of Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model for Application in Turbulent Wall Jets
The Spalart and Allmaras turbulence model has been
implemented in a numerical code to study the compressible turbulent
flows, which the system of governing equations is solved with a
finite volume approach using a structured grid. The AUSM+ scheme
is used to calculate the inviscid fluxes. Different benchmark
problems have been computed to validate the implementation and
numerical results are shown. A special Attention is paid to wall jet
applications. In this study, the jet is submitted to various wall
boundary conditions (adiabatic or uniform heat flux) in forced
convection regime and both two-dimensional and axisymmetric wall
jets are considered. The comparison between the numerical results
and experimental data has given the validity of this turbulence model
to study the turbulent wall jets especially in engineering applications.
Research on the Correlation of the Fluctuating Density Gradient of the Compressible Flows
This work is to study a roll of the fluctuating density
gradient in the compressible flows for the computational fluid dynamics
(CFD). A new anisotropy tensor with the fluctuating density
gradient is introduced, and is used for an invariant modeling technique
to model the turbulent density gradient correlation equation derived
from the continuity equation. The modeling equation is decomposed
into three groups: group proportional to the mean velocity, and that
proportional to the mean strain rate, and that proportional to the mean
density. The characteristics of the correlation in a wake are extracted
from the results by the two dimensional direct simulation, and shows
the strong correlation with the vorticity in the wake near the body.
Thus, it can be concluded that the correlation of the density gradient
is a significant parameter to describe the quick generation of the
turbulent property in the compressible flows.
Investigation of Buoyant Parameters of k-ε Turbulence Model in Gravity Stratified Flows
Different variants for buoyancy-affected terms in k-ε turbulence model have been utilized to predict the flow parameters more accurately, and investigate applicability of alternative k-ε turbulence buoyant closures in numerical simulation of a horizontal gravity current. The additional non-isotropic turbulent stress due to buoyancy has been considered in production term, based on Algebraic Stress Model (ASM). In order to account for turbulent scalar fluxes, general gradient diffusion hypothesis has been used along with Boussinesq gradient diffusion hypothesis with a variable turbulent Schmidt number and additional empirical constant c3ε.To simulate buoyant flow domain a 2D vertical numerical model (WISE, Width Integrated Stratified Environments), based on Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, has been deployed and the model has been further developed for different k-ε turbulence closures. Results are compared against measured laboratory values of a saline gravity current to explore the efficient turbulence model.
A Comparative Study of Turbulence Models Performance for Turbulent Flow in a Planar Asymmetric Diffuser
This paper presents a computational study of the separated flow in a planer asymmetric diffuser. The steady RANS equations for turbulent incompressible fluid flow and six turbulence closures are used in the present study. The commercial software code, FLUENT 6.3.26, was used for solving the set of governing equations using various turbulence models. Five of the used turbulence models are available directly in the code while the v2-f turbulence model was implemented via User Defined Scalars (UDS) and User Defined Functions (UDF). A series of computational analysis is performed to assess the performance of turbulence models at different grid density. The results show that the standard k-ω, SST k-ω and v2-f models clearly performed better than other models when an adverse pressure gradient was present. The RSM model shows an acceptable agreement with the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles but it failed to predict the location of separation and attachment points. The standard k-ε and the low-Re k- ε delivered very poor results.
An Optimized Multi-block Method for Turbulent Flows
A major part of the flow field involves no complicated
turbulent behavior in many turbulent flows. In this research work, in
order to reduce required memory and CPU time, the flow field was
decomposed into several blocks, each block including its special
turbulence. A two dimensional backward facing step was considered
here. Four combinations of the Prandtl mixing length and standard k-
E models were implemented as well. Computer memory and CPU
time consumption in addition to numerical convergence and accuracy
of the obtained results were mainly investigated. Observations
showed that, a suitable combination of turbulence models in different
blocks led to the results with the same accuracy as the high order
turbulence model for all of the blocks, in addition to the reductions in
memory and CPU time consumption.
Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Fire in a Scaled Underground Station
The objective of this study is to investigate fire
behaviors, experimentally and numerically, in a scaled version of an
underground station. The effect of ventilation velocity on the fire is
examined. Fire experiments are simulated by burning 10 ml
isopropyl alcohol fuel in a fire pool with dimensions 5cm x 10cm x 4
mm at the center of 1/100 scaled underground station model. A
commercial CFD program FLUENT was used in numerical
simulations. For air flow simulations, k-ω SST turbulence model and
for combustion simulation, non-premixed combustion model are
used. This study showed that, the ventilation velocity is increased
from 1 m/s to 3 m/s the maximum temperature in the station is found
to be less for ventilation velocity of 1 m/s. The reason for these
experimental result lies on the relative dominance of oxygen supply
effect on cooling effect. Without piston effect, maximum temperature
occurs above the fuel pool. However, when the ventilation velocity
increased the flame was tilted in the direction of ventilation and the
location of maximum temperature moves along the flow direction.
The velocities measured experimentally in the station at different
locations are well matched by the CFD simulation results. The
prediction of general flow pattern is satisfactory with the smoke
visualization tests. The backlayering in velocity is well predicted by
CFD simulation. However, all over the station, the CFD simulations
predicted higher temperatures compared to experimental
Numerical Simulation of Flow and Combustionin an Axisymmetric Internal Combustion Engine
Improving the performance of internal combustion
engines is one of the major concerns of researchers. Experimental
studies are more expensive than computational studies. Also using
computational techniques allows one to obtain all the required data
for the cylinder, some of which could not be measured. In this study,
an axisymmetric homogeneous charged spark ignition engine was
modeled. Fluid motion and combustion process were investigated
numerically. Turbulent flow conditions were considered. Standard k-
ε turbulence model for fluid flow and eddy break-up model for
turbulent combustion were utilized. The effects of valve angle on the
fluid flow and combustion are analyzed for constant air/fuel and
compression ratios. It is found that, velocities and strength of tumble
increases in-cylinder flow and due to increase in turbulence strength,
the flame propagation is faster for small valve angles.
Modeling of Surface Roughness for Flow over a Complex Vegetated Surface
Turbulence modeling of large-scale flow over a vegetated surface is complex. Such problems involve large scale computational domains, while the characteristics of flow near the surface are also involved. In modeling large scale flow, surface roughness including vegetation is generally taken into account by mean of roughness parameters in the modified law of the wall. However, the turbulence structure within the canopy region cannot be captured with this method, another method which applies source/sink terms to model plant drag can be used. These models have been developed and tested intensively but with a simple surface geometry. This paper aims to compare the use of roughness parameter, and additional source/sink terms in modeling the effect of plant drag on wind flow over a complex vegetated surface. The RNG k-ε turbulence model with the non-equilibrium wall function was tested with both cases. In addition, the k-ω turbulence model, which is claimed to be computationally stable, was also investigated with the source/sink terms. All numerical results were compared to the experimental results obtained at the study site Mason Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand. In the near-surface region, it is found that the results obtained by using the source/sink term are more accurate than those using roughness parameters. The k-ω turbulence model with source/sink term is more appropriate as it is more accurate and more computationally stable than the RNG k-ε turbulence model. At higher region, there is no significant difference amongst the results obtained from all simulations.