A Neural Network Control for Voltage Balancing in Three-Phase Electric Power System
The three-phase power system suffers from different challenging problems, e.g. voltage unbalance conditions at the load side. The voltage unbalance usually degrades the power quality of the electric power system. Several techniques can be considered for load balancing including load reconfiguration, static synchronous compensator and static reactive power compensator. In this work an efficient neural network is designed to control the unbalanced condition in the Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) electric power system. It is designed for highly enhanced response time of the reactive compensator for voltage balancing. The neural network is developed to determine the appropriate set of firing angles required for the thyristor-controlled reactor to balance the three load voltages accurately and quickly. The parameters of AQSA power system are considered in the laboratory model, and several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the proposed technique capabilities. The results have shown a high performance of the proposed Neural Network Control (NNC) technique for correcting the voltage unbalance conditions at three-phase load based on accuracy and response time.
A Linear Relation for Voltage Unbalance Factor Evaluation in Three-Phase Electrical Power System Using Space Vector
The Voltage Unbalance Factor (VUF) index is recommended to evaluate system performance under unbalanced operation. However, its calculation requires complex algebra which limits its use in the field. Furthermore, one system cycle is required at least to detect unbalance using the VUF. Ideally unbalance mitigation must be performed within 10 ms for 50 Hz systems. In this work, a linear relation for VUF evaluation in three-phase electrical power system using space vector (SV) is derived. It is proposed to determine the voltage unbalance quickly and accurately and to overcome the constraints associated with the traditional methods of VUF evaluation. Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) power system is considered to study the system performance under unbalanced conditions. The results show that both the complexity of calculations and the time required to evaluate VUF are reduced significantly.
Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior
In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.
Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location
In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.
An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.
The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines
This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.
Unbalanced Cylindrical Magnetron for Accelerating Cavities Coating
We report in this paper the design and qualification of a cylindrical unbalanced magnetron source. The dedicated magnetic assemblies were simulated using a finite element model. A hall-effect magnetic probe was then used to characterize those assemblies and compared to the theoretical magnetic profiles. These show a good agreement between the expected and actual values. The qualification of the different magnetic assemblies was then performed by measuring the ion flux density reaching the surface of the sample to be coated using a commercial retarding field energy analyzer. The strongest unbalanced configuration shows an increase from 0.016 A.cm-2 to 0.074 A.cm-2 of the ion flux density reaching the sample surface compared to the standard balanced configuration for a pressure 5.10-3 mbar and a plasma source power of 300 W.
Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips
This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.
Elman Neural Network for Diagnosis of Unbalance in a Rotor-Bearing System
The operational life of rotating machines has to be extended using a predictive condition maintenance tool. Among various condition monitoring techniques, vibration analysis is most widely used technique in industry. Signals are extracted for evaluating the condition of machine; further diagnostics is carried out with detected signals to extend the life of machine. With help of detected signals, further interpretations are done to predict the occurrence of defects. To study the problem of defects, a test rig with various possibilities of defects is constructed and experiments are performed considering the unbalanced condition. Further, this paper presents an approach for fault diagnosis of unbalance condition using Elman neural network and frequency-domain vibration analysis. Amplitudes with variation in acceleration are fed to Elman neural network to classify fault or no-fault condition. The Elman network is trained, validated and tested with experimental readings. Results illustrate the effectiveness of Elman network in rotor-bearing system.
Unreliable Production Lines with Simultaneously Unbalanced Operation Time Means, Breakdown, and Repair Rates
This paper investigates the benefits of deliberately
unbalancing both operation time means (MTs) and unreliability
(failure and repair rates) for non-automated production lines. The
lines were simulated with various line lengths, buffer capacities,
degrees of imbalance and patterns of MT and unreliability imbalance.
Data on two performance measures, namely throughput (TR) and
average buffer level (ABL) were gathered, analyzed and compared to
a balanced line counterpart. A number of conclusions were made
with respect to the ranking of configurations, as well as to the
relationships among the independent design parameters and the
dependent variables. It was found that the best configurations are a
balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing MT order,
coupled with either a decreasing or a bowl unreliability configuration,
with the first generally resulting in a reduced TR and the second
leading to a lower ABL than those of a balanced line.
Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior a Machine Tool Spindle System through Modal and Unbalance Response Analysis
The spindle system is one of the most important
components of machine tool. The dynamic properties of the spindle
affect the machining productivity and quality of the work pieces.
Thus, it is important and necessary to determine its dynamic
characteristics of spindles in the design and development in order to
avoid forced resonance. The finite element method (FEM) has been
adopted in order to obtain the dynamic behavior of spindle system.
For this reason, obtaining the Campbell diagrams and determining the
critical speeds are very useful to evaluate the spindle system
dynamics. The unbalance response of the system to the center of
mass unbalance at the cutting tool is also calculated to investigate the
dynamic behavior. In this paper, we used an ANSYS Parametric
Design Language (APDL) program which based on finite element
method has been implemented to make the full dynamic analysis and
evaluation of the results. Results show that the calculated critical
speeds are far from the operating speed range of the spindle, thus, the
spindle would not experience resonance, and the maximum
unbalance response at operating speed is still with acceptable limit.
ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) can be used by spindle
designer as tools in order to increase the product quality, reducing
cost, and time consuming in the design and development stages.
Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior of a Rotor-Bearing System in Operating Conditions
Most flexible rotors can be considered as beam-like
structures. In many cases, rotors are modeled as one-dimensional
bodies, made basically of beam-like shafts with rigid bodies attached
to them. This approach is typical of rotor dynamics, both analytical
and numerical, and several rotor dynamic codes, based on the finite
element method, follow this trend. In this paper, a finite element
model based on Timoshenko beam elements is utilized to analyze the
lateral dynamic behavior of a certain rotor-bearing system in
A Comparison of Shunt Active Power Filter Control Methods under Non-Sinusoidal and Unbalanced Voltage Conditions
There are a variety of reference current identification
methods, for the shunt active power filter (SAPF), such as the
instantaneous active and reactive power, the instantaneous active and
reactive current and the synchronous detection method are evaluated
and compared under ideal, non sinusoidal and unbalanced voltage
conditions. The SAPF performances, for the investigated
identification methods, are tested for a non linear load. The
simulation results, using Matlab Power System Blockset Toolbox
from a complete structure, are presented and discussed.
Hydraulic Unbalance in Oil Injected Twin Rotary Screw Compressor Vibration Analysis (A Case History Related to Iran Oil Industries)
Vibration analysis of screw compressors is one of the most challenging cases in preventive maintenance. This kind of equipment considered as vibration bad actor facilities in industrial plants. On line condition monitoring systems developed too much in recent years. The high frequency vibration of ball bearings, gears, male and female caused complex fast Fourier transform (FFT) and time wave form (TWF) in screw compressors. The male and female randomly are sent to balance shop for balancing operation. This kind of operation usually caused some bending in rotors during the process that could cause further machining in such equipment. This kind of machining operation increased the vibration analysis complexity beside some process characteristic abnormality like inlet and out let pressure and temperature. In this paper mechanical principal and different type of screw compressors explained. Besides, some new condition monitoring systems and techniques for screw compressors discussed. Finally, one of the common behavior of oil injected twin rotary screw compressors called hydraulic unbalance that usually occurred after machining operation of male or female and have some specific characteristics in FFT and TWF discussed in details through a case history related to Iran oil industries.
The Effect of Transformer’s Vector Group on Retained Voltage Magnitude and Sag Frequency at Industrial Sites Due to Faults
This paper deals with the effect of a power transformer’s vector group on the basic voltage sag characteristics during unbalanced faults at a meshed or radial power network. Specifically, the propagation of voltage sags through a power transformer is studied with advanced short-circuit analysis. A smart method to incorporate this effect on analytical mathematical expressions is proposed. Based on this methodology, the positive effect of transformers of certain vector groups on the mitigation of the expected number of voltage sags per year (sag frequency) at the terminals of critical industrial customers can be estimated.
A Simplified Model for Mechanical Loads under Angular Misalignment and Unbalance
This paper presents a dynamic model for mechanical
loads of an electric drive, including angular misalignment and
including load unbalance. The misalignment model represents the
effects of the universal joint between the motor and the mechanical
load. Simulation results are presented for an induction motor driving
a mechanical load with angular misalignment for both flexible and
rigid coupling. The models presented are very useful in the study of
mechanical fault detection in induction motors, using mechanical and
electrical signals already available in a drive system, such as speed,
torque and stator currents.
Magnetic Field Analysis for a Distribution Transformer with Unbalanced Load Conditions by using 3-D Finite Element Method
This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical
model of magnetic fields caused by high voltage conductors of
distribution transformer by using a set of second-order partial
differential equation. The modification for complex magnetic field
analysis and time-harmonic simulation are also utilized. In this
research, transformers were study in both balanced and unbalanced
loading conditions. Computer-based simulation utilizing the threedimensional
finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool
for visualizing magnetic fields distribution volume a distribution
transformer. Finite Element Method (FEM) is one among popular
numerical methods that is able to handle problem complexity in
various forms. At present, the FEM has been widely applied in most
engineering fields. Even for problems of magnetic field distribution,
the FEM is able to estimate solutions of Maxwell-s equations
governing the power transmission systems. The computer simulation
based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB
Simulation of Series Compensated Transmission Lines Protected with Mov
In this paper the behavior of fixed series compensated
extra high voltage transmission lines during faults is simulated. Many
over-voltage protection schemes for series capacitors are limited in
terms of size and performance, and are easily affected by
environmental conditions. While the need for more compact and
environmentally robust equipment is required. use of series
capacitors for compensating part of the inductive reactance of long
transmission lines increases the power transmission capacity.
Emphasis is given on the impact of modern capacitor protection
techniques (MOV protection). The simulation study is performed
using MATLAB/SIMULINK®and results are given for a three phase
and a single phase to ground fault.
Prediction of Coast Down Time for Mechanical Faults in Rotating Machinery Using Artificial Neural Networks
Misalignment and unbalance are the major concerns
in rotating machinery. When the power supply to any rotating system
is cutoff, the system begins to lose the momentum gained during
sustained operation and finally comes to rest. The exact time period
from when the power is cutoff until the rotor comes to rest is called
Coast Down Time. The CDTs for different shaft cutoff speeds were
recorded at various misalignment and unbalance conditions. The
CDT reduction percentages were calculated for each fault and there
is a specific correlation between the CDT reduction percentage and
the severity of the fault. In this paper, radial basis network, a new
generation of artificial neural networks, has been successfully
incorporated for the prediction of CDT for misalignment and
unbalance conditions. Radial basis network has been found to be
successful in the prediction of CDT for mechanical faults in rotating
Nonlinearity and Spectrum Analysis of Drill Strings with Component Mass Unbalance
This paper analyses the non linear properties
exhibited by a drill string system under various un balanced mass
conditions. The drill string is affected by continuous friction in the
form of drill bit and well bore hole interactions. This paper proves
the origin of limit cycling and increase of non linearity with increase
in speed of the drilling in the presence of friction. The spectrum of
the frequency response is also studied to detect the presence of
vibration abnormalities arising during the drilling process.
Depressing Turbine-Generator Supersynchronous Torsional Torques by Using Virtual Inertia
Single-pole switching scheme is widely used in the
Extra High Voltage system. However, the substantial negativesequence
current injected to the turbine-generators imposes the
electromagnetic (E/M) torque of double system- frequency
components during the dead time (between single-pole clearing and
line reclosing). This would induce supersynchronous resonance
(SPSR) torque amplifications on low pressure turbine generator
blades and even lead to fatigue damage. This paper proposes the
design of a mechanical filter (MF) with natural frequency close to
double-system frequency. From the simulation results, it is found that
such a filter not only successfully damps the resonant effect, but also
has the characteristics of feasibility and compact.
A Simple Approach of Three phase Distribution System Modeling for Power Flow Calculations
This paper presents a simple three phase power flow
method for solution of three-phase unbalanced radial distribution
system (RDN) with voltage dependent loads. It solves a simple
algebraic recursive expression of voltage magnitude, and all the data
are stored in vector form. The algorithm uses basic principles of
circuit theory and can be easily understood. Mutual coupling between
the phases has been included in the mathematical model. The
proposed algorithm has been tested with several unbalanced radial
distribution networks and the results are presented in the article. 8-
bus and IEEE 13 bus unbalanced radial distribution system results
are in agreements with the literature and show that the proposed
model is valid and reliable.
Distributed Generator Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Radial Distribution System
To minimize power losses, it is important to
determine the location and size of local generators to be placed in
unbalanced power distribution systems. On account of some inherent
features of unbalanced distribution systems, such as radial structure,
large number of nodes, a wide range of X/R ratios, the conventional
techniques developed for the transmission systems generally fail on
the determination of optimum size and location of distributed
generators (DGs). This paper presents a simple method for
investigating the problem of contemporaneously choosing best
location and size of DG in three-phase unbalanced radial distribution
system (URDS) for power loss minimization and to improve the
voltage profile of the system. Best location of the DG is determined
by using voltage index analysis and size of DG is computed by
variational technique algorithm according to available standard size
of DGs. This paper presents the results of simulations for 25-bus and
IEEE 37- bus Unbalanced Radial Distribution system.
An Effective Approach for Distribution System Power Flow Solution
An effective approach for unbalanced three-phase
distribution power flow solutions is proposed in this paper. The
special topological characteristics of distribution networks have been
fully utilized to make the direct solution possible. Two matrices–the
bus-injection to branch-current matrix and the branch-current to busvoltage
matrix– and a simple matrix multiplication are used to
obtain power flow solutions. Due to the distinctive solution
techniques of the proposed method, the time-consuming LU
decomposition and forward/backward substitution of the Jacobian
matrix or admittance matrix required in the traditional power flow
methods are no longer necessary. Therefore, the proposed method is
robust and time-efficient. Test results demonstrate the validity of the
proposed method. The proposed method shows great potential to be
used in distribution automation applications.
Using the Schunt Active Power Filter for Compensation of the Distorted and Umbalanced Power System Voltage
In this paper, we apply the PQ theory with shunt active power filter in an unbalanced and distorted power system voltage to compensate the perturbations generated by non linear load. The power factor is also improved in the current source. The PLL system is used to extract the fundamental component of the even sequence under conditions mentioned of the power system voltage.
Shunt Power Active Filter Control under NonIdeal Voltages Conditions
In this paper, we propose the Modified Synchronous Detection (MSD) Method for determining the reference compensating currents of the shunt active power filter under non sinusoidal voltages conditions. For controlling the inverter switching we used the PI regulator. The numerical simulation results, using Power System Blockset Toolbox PSB of Matlab, from a complete structure, are presented and discussed.