Comparative Study of Equivalent Linear and Non-Linear Ground Response Analysis for Rapar District of Kutch, India
Earthquakes are considered to be the most destructive rapid-onset disasters human beings are exposed to. The amount of loss it brings in is sufficient to take careful considerations for designing of structures and facilities. Seismic Hazard Analysis is one such tool which can be used for earthquake resistant design. Ground Response Analysis is one of the most crucial and decisive steps for seismic hazard analysis. Rapar district of Kutch, Gujarat falls in Zone 5 of earthquake zone map of India and thus has high seismicity because of which it is selected for analysis. In total 8 bore-log data were studied at different locations in and around Rapar district. Different soil engineering properties were analyzed and relevant empirical correlations were used to calculate maximum shear modulus (Gmax) and shear wave velocity (Vs) for the soil layers. The soil was modeled using Pressure-Dependent Modified Kodner Zelasko (MKZ) model and the reference curve used for fitting was Seed and Idriss (1970) for sand and Darendeli (2001) for clay. Both Equivalent linear (EL), as well as Non-linear (NL) ground response analysis, has been carried out with Masing Hysteretic Re/Unloading formulation for comparison. Commercially available DEEPSOIL v. 7.0 software is used for this analysis. In this study an attempt is made to quantify ground response regarding generated acceleration time-history at top of the soil column, Response spectra calculation at 5 % damping and Fourier amplitude spectrum calculation. Moreover, the variation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Maximum Displacement, Maximum Strain (in %), Maximum Stress Ratio, Mobilized Shear Stress with depth is also calculated. From the study, PGA values estimated in rocky strata are nearly same as bedrock motion and marginal amplification is observed in sandy silt and silty clays by both analyses. The NL analysis gives conservative results of maximum displacement as compared to EL analysis. Maximum strain predicted by both studies is very close to each other. And overall NL analysis is more efficient and realistic because it follows the actual hyperbolic stress-strain relationship, considers stiffness degradation and mobilizes stresses generated due to pore water pressure.
Experimental and Numerical Study on the Effects of Oxygen Methane Flames with Water Dilution for Different Pressures
Among all possibilities to combat global warming, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is presented as a great alternative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Several strategies for CCS from industrial and power plants are being considered. The concept of combined oxy-fuel combustion has been the most alternative solution. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of pure O2 production, additional ways recently emerged. In this paper, an innovative combustion process for a gas turbine cycle was studied: it was composed of methane combustion with oxygen enhanced air (OEA), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and H2O issuing from STIG (Steam Injection Gas Turbine), and the CO2 capture was realized by membrane separator. The effect on this combustion process was emphasized, and it was shown that a study of the influence of H2O dilution on the combustion parameters by experimental and numerical approaches had to be carried out. As a consequence, the laminar burning velocities measurements were performed in a stainless steel spherical combustion from atmospheric pressure to high pressure (up to 0.5 MPa), at 473 K for an equivalence ratio at 1. These experimental results were satisfactorily compared with Chemical Workbench v.4.1 package in conjunction with GRIMech 3.0 reaction mechanism. The good correlations so obtained between experimental and calculated flame speed velocities showed the validity of the GRIMech 3.0 mechanism in this domain of combustion: high H2O dilution, low N2, medium pressure. Finally, good estimations of flame speed and pollutant emissions were determined in other conditions compatible with real gas turbine. In particular, mixtures (composed of CH4/O2/N2/H2O/ or CO2) leading to the same adiabatic temperature were investigated. Influences of oxygen enrichment and H2O dilution (compared to CO2) were disused.
Computational Study of Blood Flow Analysis for Coronary Artery Disease
The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of blood flow through the coronary artery in human heart so as to assess the coronary artery disease.Velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), strain rate and wall pressure distribution are some of the important hemodynamic parameters that are non-invasively assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These parameters are used to identify the mechanical factors responsible for the plaque progression and/or rupture in left coronary arteries (LCA) in coronary arteries.The initial step for CFD simulations was the construction of a geometrical model of the LCA. Patient specific artery model is constructed using computed tomography (CT) scan data with the help of MIMICS Research 19.0. For CFD analysis ANSYS FLUENT-14.5 is used.Hemodynamic parameters were quantified and flow patterns were visualized both in the absence and presence of coronary plaques. The wall pressure continuously decreased towards distal segments and showed pressure drops in stenotic segments. Areas of high WSS and high flow velocities were found adjacent to plaques deposition.
Critical Velocities for Particle Transport from Experiments and CFD Simulations
In the petroleum industry, solid particles are often present along with the produced fluids. It is imperative to keep particles from accumulating in flow lines. In this study, various experiments are conducted to study sand particle transport, where critical velocity is defined as the average fluid velocity to keep particles continuously moving. Many parameters related to the fluid, particles and pipe affect the transport process. Experimental results are presented varying the particle concentration. Additionally, CFD simulations using a discrete element modeling (DEM) approach are presented to compare with experimental result.
Comparison and Improvement of the Existing Cone Penetration Test Results: Shear Wave Velocity Correlations for Hungarian Soils
Due to the introduction of Eurocode 8, the structural design for seismic and dynamic effects has become more significant in Hungary. This has emphasized the need for more effort to describe the behavior of structures under these conditions. Soil conditions have a significant effect on the response of structures by modifying the stiffness and damping of the soil-structural system and by modifying the seismic action as it reaches the ground surface. Shear modulus (G) and shear wave velocity (vs), which are often measured in the field, are the fundamental dynamic soil properties for foundation vibration problems, liquefaction potential and earthquake site response analysis. There are several laboratory and in-situ measurement techniques to evaluate dynamic soil properties, but unfortunately, they are often too expensive for general design practice. However, a significant number of correlations have been proposed to determine shear wave velocity or shear modulus from Cone Penetration Tests (CPT), which are used more and more in geotechnical design practice in Hungary. This allows the designer to analyze and compare CPT and seismic test result in order to select the best correlation equations for Hungarian soils and to improve the recommendations for the Hungarian geologic conditions. Based on a literature review, as well as research experience in Hungary, the influence of various parameters on the accuracy of results will be shown. This study can serve as a basis for selecting and modifying correlation equations for Hungarian soils. Test data are taken from seven locations in Hungary with similar geologic conditions. The shear wave velocity values were measured by seismic CPT. Several factors are analyzed including soil type, behavior index, measurement depth, geologic age etc. for their effect on the accuracy of predictions. The final results show an improved prediction method for Hungarian soils
A Refined Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory for Assessing Scaling-Dependent Vibration Behavior of Microbeams
A size-dependent Euler–Bernoulli beam model, which
accounts for nonlocal stress field, strain gradient field and higher
order inertia force field, is derived based on the nonlocal strain
gradient theory considering velocity gradient effect. The governing
equations and boundary conditions are derived both in dimensional
and dimensionless form by employed the Hamilton principle. The
analytical solutions based on different continuum theories are
compared. The effect of higher order inertia terms is extremely
significant in high frequency range. It is found that there exists
an asymptotic frequency for the proposed beam model, while for
the nonlocal strain gradient theory the solutions diverge. The effect
of strain gradient field in thickness direction is significant in low
frequencies domain and it cannot be neglected when the material
strain length scale parameter is considerable with beam thickness.
The influence of each of three size effect parameters on the natural
frequencies are investigated. The natural frequencies increase with
the increasing material strain gradient length scale parameter or
decreasing velocity gradient length scale parameter and nonlocal
Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach
Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.
NaCl Erosion-Corrosion of Mild Steel under Submerged Impingement Jet
The presence of sand in production lines in the oil and gas industries causes material degradation due to erosion-corrosion. The material degradation caused by erosion-corrosion in pipelines can result in a high cost of monitoring and maintenance and in major accidents. The process of erosion-corrosion consists of erosion, corrosion, and their interactions. Investigating and understanding how the erosion-corrosion process affects the degradation process in certain materials will allow for a reduction in economic loss and help prevent accidents. In this study, material loss due to erosion-corrosion of mild steel under impingement of sand-laden water at 90˚ impingement angle is investigated using a submerged impingement jet (SIJ) test. In particular, effects of jet velocity and sand loading on TWL due to erosion-corrosion, weight loss due to pure erosion and erosion-corrosion interactions, at a temperature of 29-33 °C in sea water environment (3.5% NaCl), are analyzed. The results show that the velocity and sand loading have a great influence on the removal of materials, and erosion is more dominant under all conditions studied. Changes in the surface characteristics of the specimen after impingement test are also discussed.
Experimental Study on Using the Aluminum Sacrificial Anode as a Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures
The corrosion is natural chemical phenomenon that is applied in many engineering structures. Hence, it is one of the important topics to study in the engineering research. Ship and offshore structures are most exposed to corrosion due to the presence of corrosive medium of air and the seawater. Consequently, investigation of the corrosion behavior and properties over ship and offshore hulls is one of the important topics to study in the marine engineering research. Using sacrificial anode is the most popular solution for protecting marine structures from corrosion. Hence, this research investigates the extent of corrosion between the composite ship model and relative velocity of water, along with the sacrificial aluminum anode consumption and its degree of protection in seawater. In this study, the consumption rate of sacrificial aluminum anode with respect to relative velocity at different Reynold’s numbers was studied experimentally, and it was found that, the degree of cathodic protection represented by the cathode potential at a given distance from the aluminum anode was decreased slightly with increment of the relative velocity.
Soil Moisture Regulation in Irrigated Agriculture
Seepage capillary anomalies in the active layer of soil, related to the soil water movement, often cause variation of soil hydrophysical properties and become one of the main objectives of the hydroecology. It is necessary to mention that all existing equations for computing the seepage flow particularly from soil channels, through dams, bulkheads, and foundations of hydraulic engineering structures are preferable based on the linear seepage law. Regarding the existing beliefs, anomalous seepage is based on postulates according to which the fluid in free volume is characterized by resistance against shear deformation and is presented in the form of initial gradient. According to the above-mentioned information, we have determined: Equation to calculate seepage coefficient when the velocity of transition flow is equal to seepage flow velocity; by means of power function, equations for the calculation of average and maximum velocities of seepage flow have been derived; taking into consideration the fluid continuity condition, average velocity for calculation of average velocity in capillary tube has been received.
An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes
Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.
Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model
In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.
Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model
In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.
Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance
Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.
Spectral Investigation for Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable Wall in the Presence of Transverse Magnetic Field
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Falkner-Skan
equations appear in study of laminar boundary layers flow over
a wedge in presence of a transverse magnetic field. The partial
differential equations of boundary layer problems in presence of
a transverse magnetic field are reduced to MHD Falkner-Skan
equation by similarity solution methods. This is a nonlinear ordinary
differential equation. In this paper, we solve this equation via
spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first
kind. In this approach, we reduce the solution of the nonlinear
MHD Falkner-Skan equation to a solution of a nonlinear algebraic
equations system. Then, the resulting system is solved by Newton
method. We discuss obtained solution by studying the behavior
of boundary layer flow in terms of skin friction, velocity, various
amounts of magnetic field and angle of wedge. Finally, the results
are compared with other methods mentioned in literature. We can
conclude that the presented method has better accuracy than others.
Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream
The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.
Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow
The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.
Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study
In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.
Localized and Time-Resolved Velocity Measurements of Pulsatile Flow in a Rectangular Channel
The exploitation of flow pulsation in micro- and
mini-channels is a potentially useful technique for enhancing cooling
of high-end photonics and electronics systems. It is thought that
pulsation alters the thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal
boundary layers, and hence affects the overall thermal resistance
of the heat sink. Although the fluid mechanics and heat transfer
are inextricably linked, it can be useful to decouple the parameters
to better understand the mechanisms underlying any heat transfer
enhancement. Using two-dimensional, two-component particle image
velocimetry, the current work intends to characterize the heat transfer
mechanisms in pulsating flow with a mean Reynolds number of
48 by experimentally quantifying the hydrodynamics of a generic
liquid-cooled channel geometry. Flows circulated through the test
section by a gear pump are modulated using a controller to achieve
sinusoidal flow pulsations with Womersley numbers of 7.45 and
2.36 and an amplitude ratio of 0.75. It is found that the transient
characteristics of the measured velocity profiles are dependent on the
speed of oscillation, in accordance with the analytical solution for
flow in a rectangular channel. A large velocity overshoot is observed
close to the wall at high frequencies, resulting from the interaction
of near-wall viscous stresses and inertial effects of the main fluid
body. The steep velocity gradients at the wall are indicative of
augmented heat transfer, although the local flow reversal may reduce
the upstream temperature difference in heat transfer applications.
While unsteady effects remain evident at the lower frequency, the
annular effect subsides and retreats from the wall. The shear rate at
the wall is increased during the accelerating half-cycle and decreased
during deceleration compared to steady flow, suggesting that the flow
may experience both enhanced and diminished heat transfer during
a single period. Hence, the thickness of the hydrodynamic boundary
layer is reduced for positively moving flow during one half of the
pulsation cycle at the investigated frequencies. It is expected that the
size of the thermal boundary layer is similarly reduced during the
cycle, leading to intervals of heat transfer enhancement.
Experimental Measurements of Mean and Turbulence Quantities behind the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires
For a bluff body, roughness elements in simulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake, and lower form drag. In the present work, flow past a circular cylinder with using tripping wires is studied experimentally. The wind tunnel used for modeling free stream is open blow circuit (maximum speed = 30m/s and maximum turbulence of free stream = 0.1%). The selected Reynolds number for all tests was constant (Re = 25000). The circular cylinder selected for this experiment is 20 and 400mm in diameter and length, respectively. The aim of this research is to find the optimal operation mode. In this study installed some tripping wires 1mm in diameter, with a different number of wires on the circular cylinder and the wake characteristics of the circular cylinder is studied. Results showed that by increasing number of tripping wires attached to the circular cylinder (6, 8, and 10, respectively), The optimal angle for the tripping wires with 1mm in diameter to be installed on the cylinder is 60̊ (or 6 wires required at angle difference of 60̊). Strouhal number for the cylinder with tripping wires 1mm in diameter at angular position 60̊ showed the maximum value.
Effect of Adverse Pressure Gradient on a Fluctuating Velocity over the Co-Flow Jet Airfoil
The boundary layer separation and new active flow control of a NACA 0025 airfoil were studied experimentally. This new flow control is sometimes known as a co-flow jet (cfj) airfoil. This paper presents the fluctuating velocity in a wall jet over the co-flow jet airfoil subjected to an adverse pressure gradient and a curved surface. In these results, the fluctuating velocity at the inner part increasing by increased the angle of attack up to 12o and this has due to the jet energized, while the angle of attack 20o has different. The airfoil cord based Reynolds number has 105.
Structural Investigation of Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 Glasses Doped with NdF3
Sodium borosilicate glasses doped with different
content of NdF3 mol % have been prepared by rapid quenching
method. Ultrasonic velocities (both longitudinal and shear)
measurements have been carried out at room temperature and at
ultrasonic frequency of 4 MHz. Elastic moduli, Debye temperature,
softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have been obtained as a
function of NdF3 modifier content. Results showed that the elastic
moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio
have very slight change with the change of NdF3 mol % content.
Based on FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical (Bond compression)
model, quantitative analysis has been carried out in order to obtain
more information about the structure of these glasses. The study
indicated that the structure of these glasses is mainly composed of
SiO4 units with four bridging oxygens (Q4), and with three bridging
and one nonbridging oxygens (Q3).
Study on Seismic Performance of Reinforced Soil Walls to Modify the Pseudo Static Method
This study, tries to suggest a design method based on
displacement using finite difference numerical modeling in
reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. In this case, dynamic
loading characteristics such as duration, frequency, peak ground
acceleration, geometrical characteristics of reinforced soil structure
and type of the site are considered to correct the pseudo static method
and finally introduce the pseudo static coefficient as a function of
seismic performance level and peak ground acceleration. For this
purpose, the influence of dynamic loading characteristics,
reinforcement length, height of reinforced system and type of the site
are investigated on seismic behavior of reinforcing soil retaining wall
with steel strip. Numerical results illustrate that the seismic response
of this type of wall is highly dependent to cumulative absolute
velocity, maximum acceleration, and height and reinforcement length
so that the reinforcement length can be introduced as the main factor
in shape of failure. Considering the loading parameters, geometric parameters of the
wall and type of the site showed that the used method in this study
leads to efficient designs in comparison with other methods, which
are usually based on limit-equilibrium concept. The outputs show the
over-estimation of equilibrium design methods in comparison with
proposed displacement based methods here.
Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process
Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated
in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device
using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on
flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the
same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid
circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the
center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising,
descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle
average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher
than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall
region of riser.
Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV
High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process
use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow
behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial
velocity affects the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler
Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution
along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a
fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating
within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random
phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6
times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the
axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.
Effect of Operating Conditions on Forward Osmosis for Nutrient Rejection Using Magnesium Chloride as a Draw Solution
Advanced treatments such as forward osmosis (FO)
can be used to separate or reject nutrients from secondary treated
effluents. Forward osmosis uses the chemical potential across the
membrane, which is the osmotic pressure gradient, to induce water to
flow through the membrane from a feed solution (FS) into a draw
solution (DS). The performance of FO is affected by the membrane
characteristics, composition of the FS and DS, and operating
conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum
velocity and temperature for nutrient rejection and water flux
performance in FO treatments. MgCl2 was used as the DS in the FO
process. The results showed that higher cross flow velocities yielded
higher water fluxes. High rejection of nutrients was achieved by using
a moderate cross flow velocity at 0.25 m/s. Nutrient rejection was
insensitive to temperature variation, whereas water flux was
significantly impacted by it. A temperature of 25°C was found to be
good for nutrient rejection.
Investigation of Bubble Growth during Nucleate Boiling Using CFD
Boiling process is characterized by the rapid
formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate
boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In
the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine
the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of
fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by
solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume
fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the
simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a
cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After
the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and
rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance
between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces
exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The
bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble
are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The
detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained are compared
with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good
agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation
and the equations in comparison with the established results.
CFD Effect of the Tidal Grating in Opposite Directions
Flow blockages referring to the increase in flow are
being considered as a vital equipment for marine current energy
conversion. However, the shape of these devices will result in
extracted energy under the operation. The present work investigates
the effect of two configurations of a grating, convergent and
divergent that located upstream, to the water flow velocity. The flow
characteristics are studied by Computational Fluid Dynamic
simulation by using the ANSYS Fluent solver for these specified
arrangements of the grating. The results indicate that distinguished
characteristics of flow velocity between “convergent” and
“divergent” grating placements is up to 10% in confined conditions.
Furthermore, the velocity in case of convergent grating is higher
than that of divergent grating.
Mean Velocity Modeling of Open-Channel Flow with Submerged Rigid Vegetation
Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow
structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport.
Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed
shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by
vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models
have both been developed to model the effects of submerged
vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic
models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to
explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the
suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The
comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and
simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case
of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best
agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the
smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.