Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control
Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.
Optimal Voltage and Frequency Control of a Microgrid Using the Harmony Search Algorithm
The stability is an important topic to plan and manage the energy in the microgrids as the same as the conventional power systems. The voltage and frequency stability is one of the most important issues recently studied in microgrids. The objectives of this paper are the modelling and designing of the components and optimal controllers for the voltage and frequency control of the AC/DC hybrid microgrid under the different disturbances. Since the PI controllers have the advantages of simple structure and easy implementation, so they are designed and modeled in this paper. The harmony search (HS) algorithm is used to optimize the controllers’ parameters. According to the achieved results, the PI controllers have a good performance in voltage and frequency control of the microgrid.
Technique for Voltage Control in Distribution System
This paper presents the techniques for voltage control in distribution system. It is integrated in the distribution management system. Voltage is an important parameter for the control of electrical power systems. The distribution network operators have the responsibility to regulate the voltage supplied to consumer within statutory limits. Traditionally, the On-Load Tap Changer (OLTC) transformer equipped with automatic voltage control (AVC) relays is the most popular and effective voltage control device. A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) may be equipped with several controllers to perform multiple control functions. Static Var Compensation (SVC) is regulation slopes and available margins for var dispatch. The voltage control in distribution networks is established as a centralized analytical function in this paper.
Fuzzy Logic Based Coordinated Voltage Control for Distribution Network with Distributed Generations
This paper discusses the implementation of a fuzzy logic based coordinated voltage control for a distribution system connected with distributed generations (DGs). The connection of DGs has created a challenge for the distribution network operators to keep the voltage in the system within its acceptable limits. Intelligent centralized or coordinated voltage control schemes have proven to be more reliable due to its ability to provide more control and coordination with the communication with other network devices. In this work, voltage control using fuzzy logic by coordinating three methods of control, power factor control, on load tap changer and generation curtailment is implemented on a distribution network test system. The results show that the fuzzy logic based coordination is able to keep the voltage within its allowable limits.
Advanced ILQ Control for Buck-Converter viaTwo-Degrees of Freedom Servo-System
In this paper, we propose an advanced ILQ control for the buck-converter via two-degrees of freedom servo-system. Our presented strategy is based on Inverse Linear Quadratic (ILQ) servo-system controller without solving Riccati-s equation directly. The optimal controller of the current and voltage control system is designed. The stability and robust control are analyzed. A conscious and persistent effort has been made to improve ILQ control via two-degrees of freedom guarantees the optimal gains on the basis of polynomial pole assignment, which our results of the proposed strategy shows that the advanced ILQ control can be controlled independently the step response and the disturbance response by appending a feed-forward compensator.
A Novel Adaptive Voltage Control Strategy for Boost Converter via Inverse LQ Servo-Control
In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive voltage control strategy for boost converter via Inverse LQ Servo-Control. Our presented strategy is based on an analytical formula of Inverse Linear Quadratic (ILQ) design method, which is not necessary to solve Riccati’s equation directly. The optimal and adaptive controller of the voltage control system is designed. The stability and the robust control are analyzed. Whereas, we can get the analytical solution for the optimal and robust voltage control is achieved through the natural angular velocity within a single parameter and we can change the responses easily via the ILQ control theory. Our method provides effective results as the stable responses and the response times are not drifted even if the condition is changed widely.
Design of DC Voltage Control for D-STATCOM
This paper presents the DC voltage control design of D-STATCOM when the D-STATCOM is used for load voltage regulation. Although, the DC voltage can be controlled by active current of the D-STATCOM, reactive current still affects the DC voltage. To eliminate this effect, the control strategy with elimination effect of the reactive current is proposed and the results of the control with and without the elimination the effect of the reactive current are compared. For obtaining the proportional and integral gains of the PI controllers, the symmetrical optimum and genetic algorithms methods are applied. The stability margin of these methods are obtained and discussed in detail. In addition, the performance of the DC voltage control based on symmetrical optimum and genetic algorithms methods are compared. Effectiveness of the controllers designed was verified through computer simulation performed by using Power System Tool Block (PSB) in SIMULINK/MATLAB. The simulation results demonstrated that the DC voltage control proposed is effective in regulating DC voltage when the DSTATCOM is used for load voltage regulation.
Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm for Voltage Stability in Large Power Systems
The steady-state operation of maintaining voltage
stability is done by switching various controllers scattered all over
the power network. When a contingency occurs, whether forced or
unforced, the dispatcher is to alleviate the problem in a minimum
time, cost, and effort. Persistent problem may lead to blackout. The
dispatcher is to have the appropriate switching of controllers in terms
of type, location, and size to remove the contingency and maintain
voltage stability. Wrong switching may worsen the problem and that
may lead to blackout. This work proposed and used a Fuzzy CMeans
Clustering (FCMC) to assist the dispatcher in the decision
making. The FCMC is used in the static voltage stability to map
instantaneously a contingency to a set of controllers where the types,
locations, and amount of switching are induced.
Coordinated Q–V Controller for Multi-machine Steam Power Plant: Design and Validation
This paper discusses coordinated reactive power -
voltage (Q-V) control in a multi machine steam power plant. The
drawbacks of manual Q-V control are briefly listed, and the design
requirements for coordinated Q-V controller are specified.
Theoretical background and mathematical model of the new
controller are presented next followed by validation of developed
Matlab/Simulink model through comparison with recorded
responses in real steam power plant and description of practical
realisation of the controller. Finally, the performance of
commissioned controller is illustrated on several examples of
coordinated Q-V control in real steam power plant and compared
with manual control.
Power System Voltage Control using LP and Artificial Neural Network
Optimization and control of reactive power
distribution in the power systems leads to the better operation of the
reactive power resources. Reactive power control reduces
considerably the power losses and effective loads and improves the
power factor of the power systems. Another important reason of the
reactive power control is improving the voltage profile of the power
system. In this paper, voltage and reactive power control using
Neural Network techniques have been applied to the 33 shines-
Tehran Electric Company. In this suggested ANN, the voltages of PQ
shines have been considered as the input of the ANN. Also, the
generators voltages, tap transformers and shunt compensators have
been considered as the output of ANN. Results of this techniques
have been compared with the Linear Programming. Minimization of
the transmission line power losses has been considered as the
objective function of the linear programming technique. The
comparison of the results of the ANN technique with the LP shows
that the ANN technique improves the precision and reduces the
computation time. ANN technique also has a simple structure and
this causes to use the operator experience.
Quasi Multi-Pulse Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator Employing Line Frequency Switching 2-Level GTO Inverters
Back-to-back static synchronous compensator (BtBSTATCOM) consists of two back-to-back voltage-source converters (VSC) with a common DC link in a substation. This configuration extends the capabilities of conventional STATCOM that bidirectional active power transfer from one bus to another is possible. In this paper, VSCs are designed in quasi multi-pulse form in which GTOs are triggered only once per cycle in PSCAD/EMTDC. The design details of VSCs as well as gate switching circuits and controllers are fully represented. Regulation modes of BtBSTATCOM are verified and tested on a multi-machine power system through different simulation cases. The results presented in the form of typical time responses show that practical PI controllers are almost robust and stable in case of start-up, set-point change, and line faults.
Clustering based Voltage Control Areas for Localized Reactive Power Management in Deregulated Power System
In this paper, a new K-means clustering based
approach for identification of voltage control areas is developed.
Voltage control areas are important for efficient reactive power
management in power systems operating under deregulated
environment. Although, voltage control areas are formed using
conventional hierarchical clustering based method, but the present
paper investigate the capability of K-means clustering for the
purpose of forming voltage control areas. The proposed method is
tested and compared for IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus systems. The
results show that this K-means based method is competing with
conventional hierarchical approach
Coordinated Voltage Control using Multiple Regulators in Distribution System with Distributed Generators
The continued interest in the use of distributed generation in recent years is leading to the growth in number of distributed generators connected to distribution networks. Steady state voltage rise resulting from the connection of these generators can be a major obstacle to their connection at lower voltage levels. The present electric distribution network is designed to keep the customer voltage within tolerance limit. This may require a reduction in connectable generation capacity, under utilization of appropriate generation sites. Thus distribution network operators need a proper voltage regulation method to allow the significant integration of distributed generation systems to existing network. In this work a voltage rise problem in a typical distribution system has been studied. A method for voltage regulation of distribution system with multiple DG system by coordinated operation distributed generator, capacitor and OLTC has been developed. A sensitivity based analysis has been carried out to determine the priority for individual generators in multiple DG environment. The effectiveness of the developed method has been evaluated under various cases through simulation results.
Design of High Gain, High Bandwidth Op-Amp for Reduction of Mismatch Currents in Charge Pump PLL in 180 nm CMOS Technology
The designing of charge pump with high gain Op-
Amp is a challenging task for getting faithful response .Design of
high performance phase locked loop require ,a design of high
performance charge pump .We have designed a operational amplifier
for reducing the error caused by high speed glitch in a transistor and
mismatch currents . A separate Op-Amp has designed in 180 nm
CMOS technology by CADENCE VIRTUOSO tool. This paper
describes the design of high performance charge pump for GHz
CMOS PLL targeting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM) application. A high speed low power consumption Op-Amp
with more than 500 MHz bandwidth has designed for increasing the
speed of charge pump in Phase locked loop.
A Novel Digital Implementation of AC Voltage Controller for Speed Control of Induction Motor
In this paper a novel, simple and reliable digital firing
scheme has been implemented for speed control of three-phase
induction motor using ac voltage controller. The system consists of
three-phase supply connected to the three-phase induction motor via
three triacs and its control circuit. The ac voltage controller has three
modes of operation depending on the shape of supply current. The
performance of the induction motor differs in each mode where the
speed is directly proportional with firing angle in two modes and
inversely in the third one. So, the control system has to detect the
current mode of operation to choose the correct firing angle of triacs.
Three sensors are used to feed the line currents to control system to
detect the mode of operation. The control strategy is implemented
using a low cost Xilinx Spartan-3E field programmable gate array
(FPGA) device. Three PI-controllers are designed on FPGA to
control the system in the three-modes. Simulation of the system is
carried out using PSIM computer program. The simulation results
show stable operation for different loading conditions especially in
mode 2/3. The simulation results have been compared with the
experimental results from laboratory prototype.
Low Jitter ADPLL based Clock Generator for High Speed SoC Applications
An efficient architecture for low jitter All Digital
Phase Locked Loop (ADPLL) suitable for high speed SoC
applications is presented in this paper. The ADPLL is designed using
standard cells and described by Hardware Description Language
(HDL). The ADPLL implemented in a 90 nm CMOS process can
operate from 10 to 200 MHz and achieve worst case frequency
acquisition in 14 reference clock cycles. The simulation result shows
that PLL has cycle to cycle jitter of 164 ps and period jitter of 100 ps
at 100MHz. Since the digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) can
achieve both high resolution and wide frequency range, it can meet
the demands of system-level integration. The proposed ADPLL can
easily be ported to different processes in a short time. Thus, it can
reduce the design time and design complexity of the ADPLL, making
it very suitable for System-on-Chip (SoC) applications.