Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems
The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.
Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures
Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.
Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application
In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented
for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide.
A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to
the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the
problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization
to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic
diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results
are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz
methods is achieved.
Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array
Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.
Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides
This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.
Modeling and Simulations of Surface Plasmon Waveguide Structures
This paper presents an investigation of the fabrication of the optical devices in terms of their characteristics based on the use of the electromagnetic waves. Planar waveguides are used to examine the field modes (bound modes) and the parameters required for this structure. The modifications are conducted on surface plasmons based waveguides. Simple symmetric dielectric slab structure is used and analyzed in terms of transverse electric mode (TE-Mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM-Mode. The paper presents mathematical and numerical solutions for solving simple symmetric plasmons and provides simulations of surface plasmons for field confinement. Asymmetric TM-mode calculations for dielectric surface plasmons are also provided.
CRLH and SRR Based Microwave Filter Design Useful for Communication Applications
CRLH (composite right/left-handed) based and SRR (split-ring resonator) based filters have been designed at microwave frequency which can provide better performance compared to conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency, 2.45 GHz. Both CRLH and SRR are unit cells used in metamaterial design. The primary aim of designing filters with such structures is to realize size reduction and also to realize novel filter performance. The CRLH based filter has been designed in microstrip transmission line, while the SRR based filter is designed with SRR loading in waveguide. The CRLH based filter designed at 2.45 GHz provides an insertion loss of 1.6 dB with harmonic suppression up to 10 GHz with 67 % size reduction when compared with a conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency. One dimensional (1-D) SRR matrix loaded in a waveguide shows the possibility of realizing a stop-band with sharp skirts in the pass-band while a stop-band in the pass-band of normal rectangular waveguide with tailoring of the dimensions of SRR unit cells. Such filters are expected to be very useful for communication systems at microwave frequency.
Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory
The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.
A High-Crosstalk Silicon Photonic Arrayed Waveguide Grating
In this paper, we demonstrated a 1 × 4 silicon photonic cascaded arrayed waveguide grating, which is fabricated on a SOI wafer with a 220 nm top Si layer and a 2µm buried oxide layer. The measured on-chip transmission loss of this cascaded arrayed waveguide grating is ~ 5.6 dB, including the fiber-to-waveguide coupling loss. The adjacent crosstalk is 33.2 dB. Compared to the normal single silicon photonic arrayed waveguide grating with a crosstalk of ~ 12.5 dB, the crosstalk of this device has been dramatically increased.
An Electrically Modulatable Silicon Waveguide Grating Using an Implantation Technology
The first pn-type carrier-induced silicon Bragg-grating filter is demonstrated. The extinction-ratio modulations are 11.5 dB and 10 dB with reverse and forward biases, respectively. 8-Gpbs data rate is achieved with a reverse bias.
Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor
Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection
and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research,
pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out
the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore
the dispersion phenomenon in the micro channel of an optical
biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours
were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred
in different geometric shapes of micro channels. The simulation results
showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best
performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the
dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations
resulting in minimum dispersion.
Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency
This paper presents the electromagnetic interference
(EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes
(RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The
difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with
the rice husk. The rectangular waveguide technique was used to
measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites
materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both
the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The
conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs
mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using
Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio
simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and
pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is
obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10mm
Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption
We have studied a method to widen the spectrum
of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for
application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we
have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening
arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking
due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with
χ(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by
the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the
bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The
broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes
10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without
the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse
width of ∼ 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a
1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 (μm)2.
Improved Plasmonic Demultiplexer Based on Tapered and Rectangular Slot MIM Waveguide
In this paper, we have proposed two novel plasmonic demultiplexing structures based on metal-insulator-metal surfaces which, beside their compact size, have a very good transmission spectrum. The impact of the key internal parameters on the transmission spectrum is numerically analyzed by using the twodimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structures could be used to develop ultra-compact photonic wavelength demultiplexing devices for large-scale photonic integration.
Light Confinement in Low Index Nanometer Areas
In this work we numerically examine structures which
could confine light in nanometer areas. A system consisting of two silicon disks with in plane separation of a few tens of nanometers has
been studied first. The normalized unitless effective mode volume, Veff, has been calculated for the two lowest whispering gallery mode resonances. The effective mode volume is reduced significantly as the gap between the disks decreases. In addition, the effect of the substrate is also studied. In that case, Veff of approximately the same
value as the non-substrate case for a similar two disk system can be
obtained by using disks almost twice as thick. We also numerically examine a structure consisting of a circular slot waveguide which is formed into a silicon disk resonator. We show that the proposed structure could have high Q resonances thus raising the belief that it
is a very promising candidate for optical interconnects applications.
The study includes several numerical calculations for all the geometric parameters of the structure. It also includes numerical simulations of the coupling between a waveguide and the proposed
disk resonator leading to a very promising conclusion about its applicability.
Silicon-Waveguide Based Silicide Schottky- Barrier Infrared Detector for on-Chip Applications
We prove detailed analysis of a waveguide-based Schottky barrier photodetector (SBPD) where a thin silicide film is put on the top of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) channel waveguide to absorb light propagating along the waveguide. Taking both the confinement factor of light absorption and the wall scanning induced gain of the photoexcited carriers into account, an optimized silicide thickness is extracted to maximize the effective gain, thereby the responsivity. For typical lengths of the thin silicide film (10-20 Ðçm), the optimized thickness is estimated to be in the range of 1-2 nm, and only about 50-80% light power is absorbed to reach the maximum responsivity. Resonant waveguide-based SBPDs are proposed, which consist of a microloop, microdisc, or microring waveguide structure to allow light multiply propagating along the circular Si waveguide beneath the thin silicide film. Simulation results suggest that such resonant waveguide-based SBPDs have much higher repsonsivity at the resonant wavelengths as compared to the straight waveguidebased detectors. Some experimental results about Si waveguide-based SBPD are also reported.
Linear-Operator Formalism in the Analysis of Omega Planar Layered Waveguides
A complete spectral representation for the
electromagnetic field of planar multilayered waveguides
inhomogeneously filled with omega media is presented. The problem
of guided electromagnetic propagation is reduced to an eigenvalue
equation related to a 2 ´ 2 matrix differential operator. Using the
concept of adjoint waveguide, general bi-orthogonality relations for
the hybrid modes (either from the discrete or from the continuous
spectrum) are derived. For the special case of homogeneous layers
the linear operator formalism is reduced to a simple 2 ´ 2 coupling
matrix eigenvalue problem. Finally, as an example of application, the
surface and the radiation modes of a grounded omega slab waveguide
Photon Localization inside a Waveguide Modeled by Uncertainty Principle
In the present work, an attempt is made to understand
electromagnetic field confinement in a subwavelength waveguide
structure using concepts of quantum mechanics. Evanescent field in
the waveguide is looked as inability of the photon to get confined in
the waveguide core and uncertainty of position is assigned to it. The
momentum uncertainty is calculated from position uncertainty.
Schrödinger wave equation for the photon is written by incorporating
position-momentum uncertainty. The equation is solved and field
distribution in the waveguide is obtained. The field distribution and
power confinement is compared with conventional waveguide theory.
They were found in good agreement with each other.
Monitoring and Fault-Recovery Capacity with Waveguide Grating-based Optical Switch over WDM/OCDMA-PON
In order to implement flexibility as well as survivable
capacities over passive optical network (PON), a new automatic
random fault-recovery mechanism with array-waveguide-grating
based (AWG-based) optical switch (OSW) is presented. Firstly,
wavelength-division-multiplexing and optical code-division
multiple-access (WDM/OCDMA) scheme are configured to meet the
various geographical locations requirement between optical network
unit (ONU) and optical line terminal (OLT). The AWG-base optical
switch is designed and viewed as central star-mesh topology to
prohibit/decrease the duplicated redundant elements such as fiber and
transceiver as well. Hence, by simple monitoring and routing switch
algorithm, random fault-recovery capacity is achieved over
bi-directional (up/downstream) WDM/OCDMA scheme. When error
of distribution fiber (DF) takes place or bit-error-rate (BER) is higher
than 10-9 requirement, the primary/slave AWG-based OSW are
adjusted and controlled dynamically to restore the affected ONU
groups via the other working DFs immediately.
Increasing Directional Intensity of Output Light Beam from Photonic Crystal Slab Outlet Including Micro Cavity Resonators
in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional
photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube
in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output
Photonic Crystals for Novel Applications in Integrated-Optic Communication Systems and Devices
Photonic Crystal (PhC) based devices are being
increasingly used in multifunctional, compact devices in integrated
optical communication systems. They provide excellent
controllability of light, yet maintaining the small size required for
miniaturization. In this paper, the band gap properties of PhCs and
their typical applications in optical waveguiding are considered.
Novel PhC based applications such as nonlinear switching and
tapers are considered and simulation results are shown using the
accurate time-domain numerical method based on Finite Difference
Time Domain (FDTD) scheme. The suitability of these devices for
novel applications is discussed and evaluated.
Design of Ultra Fast Polymer Electro-Optic waveguide Switch for Intelligent Optical Networks
Traditional optical networks are gradually evolving towards intelligent optical networks due to the need for faster bandwidth provisioning, protection and restoration of the network that can be accomplished with devices like optical switch, add drop multiplexer and cross connects. Since dense wavelength multiplexing forms the physical layer for intelligent optical networking, the roll of high speed all optical switch is important. This paper analyzes such an ultra-high speed polymer electro-optic switch. The performances of the 2x2 optical waveguide switch with rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal grating profiles on various device parameters are analyzed. The simulation result shows that trapezoidal grating is the optimized structure which has the coupling length of 81μm and switching voltage of 11V for the operating wavelength of 1550nm. The switching time for this proposed switch is 0.47 picosecond. This makes the proposed switch to be an important element in the intelligent optical network.
Computation of the Filtering Properties of Photonic Crystal Waveguide Discontinuities Using the Mode Matching Method
In this paper, the application of the Mode Matching
(MM) method in the case of photonic crystal waveguide
discontinuities is presented. The structure under consideration is
divided into a number of cells, which supports a number of guided
and evanescent modes. These modes can be calculated numerically
by an alternative formulation of the plane wave expansion method
for each frequency. A matrix equation is then formed relating the
modal amplitudes at the beginning and at the end of the structure.
The theory is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to
study the transmission sensitivity of photonic crystal devices due to
fabrication tolerances. The accuracy of the MM method is compared
to the Finite Difference Frequency Domain (FDFD) and the Adjoint
Variable Method (AVM) and good agreement is observed.
The Concentration Effects for the Adsorption Behavior of Heptyl Viologen Cation Radicals on Indium-Tin-Oxide Electrode Surfaces
In situ observation of absorption spectral change of
heptil viologen cation radical (HV+.) was performed by slab optical
waveguide (SOWG) spectroscopy utilizing indium-tin-oxide (ITO)
electrodes. Synchronizing with electrochemical techniques, we
observed the adsorption process of HV+.on the ITO electrode. In this
study, we carried out the ITO-SOWG observations using KBr aqueous
solution containing different concentration of HV to investigate the
concentration dependent spectral change. A few specific absorption
bands, which indicated HV+.existed as both monomer and dimer on
ITO electrode surface with a monolayer or a few layers deposition,
were observed in UV-visible region. The change in the peak position
of the absorption spectra from adsorption species of HV+. were
correlated with the concentration of HV as well as the electrode
In situ Observation of the State and Stability of Hemoglobin Adsorbed onto Glass Surface by Slab Optical Waveguide (SOWG) Spectroscopy
The state and stability of hemoglobin adsorbed on the
glass surface was investigated using slab optical waveguide (SOWG)
spectroscopy. The peak position of the absorption band of hemoglobin
adsorbed on the glass surface was same as that of the hemoglobin in
solution. This result suggests that no significant denaturation occurred
by adsorption. The adsorption of hemoglobin is relatively strong that
the hemoglobin molecules even remained adsorbed after rinsing the
cell with buffer solution. The peak shift caused by the reduction of
adsorbed hemoglobin was also observed.